Cloud was born around 1822, and died on December 10, 1909. He was the
celebrated Chief of the Oglala
Sioux Indian Tribe. One of the fiercest
enemies the U.S. Army ever fought, he led the successful Indian Campaign
known as Red Cloud's War between 1866 and 1868. He fought the army for
control of parts of Montana and Wyoming.
born close to the present city of North Platte, Nebraska. He was the son
of an Oglala mother and Brule Father. Red Cloud's Uncle, Chief Smoke,
helped raise him. As a young man, he warred against both the
Pawnee and Sioux, and became a skilled warrior.
started Red Cloud's war in 1866, which was the most successful war an
Indian nation ever waged against the US Army. The military was building
forts along the Bozeman Trail straight through the Lakota Territory of
Wyoming and Montana. As miners and pioneers started encroaching on
Lakota Land, Red Cloud feared the demise of the Indian way of life
Cloud's military success forced the United States to make treaties.
The US abandoned its forts on the Bozeman Trail, and gave the Lakota
possession of much of South Dakota. In particular, the Lakotas
were given the Black Hills of Montana and Wyoming.
was short-lived. In 1874, General Custer attacked Red Cloud. Red Cloud
did not take part in the Lakota war of 1876–77 with Crazy Horse,
Bull, and other war leaders.
Cloud continued to fight for the freedom of his people. At Pine Ridge,
he fought corrupt Indian agents who stole from the natives.