Republic of Texas
Battles for Independence
Presidents of Texas
Republic of Texas Maps
Republic of Texas Flags
Civil War Battles
Search this Site
Civil War Art
Civil War Gifts
Robert E. Lee Portrait
are proud of their flag, and most of all, proud of their state. The
modern Texas flag is distinct, and is flown as a symbol of the unique
history of the state. I think it is more common in Texas for the state
flag to be given its own pole than in other states, where the state flag
is often just flown under the US flag, on the same pole.
Most people believe that six flags have
flown over Texas, primarily because of the popular theme park. The six
flags that are commonly counted are the sovereign national flags of
Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, Confederate States of America,
and the United States of America. However, it should be noted that there
were a number of different flags that flew over Texas in the
revolutionary period, and the formative years of the Republic. Some were
quasi-official, i.e. commissioned by some governing body or convention,
and some were thrown together by bands or groups of soldiers to serve as
a battle banner.
Sovereign Nation Flags Which have Flown Over Texas
Flag of Spain
Confederate National Flag
United States Flag
In Addition to these well known National
flags, Texans rallied around a variety of flags. As you consider these
flags, notice how each expresses a key "message" that Texas was trying
to deliver. These messages were being sent both to the People of Texas,
Santa Anna, and the rest of the world. Notice the defiant and combative
themes in many of these flags.
Captain Scott "Independence Flag"
By the mid-1830's, the
idea of independence from Mexico was gaining wide spread support in
Texas. This growing theme became a movement, and its followers were
known as independence radicals. Captain Scott was one of
the independence radicals. These men were against negotiation, dialog, and delay . . . they
supported an immediate declaration of Independence from Mexico. Scott had this flag made,
which prominently featured his answer to the issues in Texas at the
time; INDEPENDENCE. He realized that independence meant war, and he was ready for the fight. Captain Scott and his company of
30 men reported to San Felipe, the capital of
Austin's colony, and they were
deployed to Goliad. Colonel James Fannin and his men were also at Goliad
at the time.
Texas did Declare its Independence on March 2, 1836. Fannin, and all
his men perished at the
Massacre of Goliad, on March 27, 1836. Note that this is a
very early flag featuring a "Lone Star".
The Alamo Battle Flag
Representatives of the 13
settlements in Texas met at San Felipe de Austin, the headquarters of
Austin's colony, in November of 1835 to
form a provisional government. The council stopped short of
declaring independence from Mexico, but instead, they
declared allegiance to the 1824 Mexican Constitution. This was a
wise move intended to clearly express their desire for basic rights, but
at the same time, hopefully, avoid war, which many felt they were
unprepared for. They were
willing to remain part of Mexico as long as they enjoyed the rights of
the 1824 constitution. To make people aware of
Anna's disregard for the constitution, and their support for it, this variation of the Mexican
flag was made. The Mexican emblem in the center of the flag was replaced by the date "1824".
This flag sent a clear and strong message to Santa Anna. The
flag was a bold act of defiance against the Mexican dictator. This was the flag which flew over the Texans at the Battle of the Alamo.
While the flag sent a defiant message to Santa Anna, it was relatively
conciliatory to Mexico in general, in that it was expressing support of
the constitution, and it had no "Lone Star".
Texas Troutman Flag
The defiant spirit of the
Texans was capturing the imagination of many of the people in the United
States. Joanna Troutman, an 18
year old girl from Macon Georgia made this flag for a group of Georgians
who were going to Texas to support the Texas Independence movement.
While it was not made by a Texan, it clearly captured the spirit of the
Texans, and their willingness to die for the cause. This flag was raised when the Georgians arrived at Velasco.
It was an inspirational symbol in the desperate time between the
the Alamo and the victory at San Jacinto. Joanna
Troutman is remembered as a hero to this day. She died on
July 23, 1879, and her portrait hangs in the state capitol. This flag
captures a theme of the American Revolution . . . Victory or Death,
which had been made famous in a speech by
First Flag of the Republic
The first Constitutional
Convention Declared Texas' Independence from Mexico, wrote the first
Republic of Texas Constitution, and appointed its first leaders.
During the session, they also designed and approved a flag for the new republic.
This flag would be considered the first "official" flag of the Republic
of Texas. This flag, again, is a symbol of defiance. It shows a lone
star, labeled "Texas", just in case anyone wondered what the lone star
represented. A committee
of five delegates, all signers of the
Texas Declaration of Independence, was selected, and their choice
for a new flag was approved by the convention on May 11th, 1836. The design of the flag also served as the reverse side of the
Republic of Texas Currency.
Republic of Texas Gonzales Flag
Perhaps no flag was more
defiant than this one, showing a cannon, and the challenge, "Come and
Take It". In late September, 1835,
the Mexican garrison at San Antonio, sent a few men to Gonzales to
recover a cannon that had been loaned to the town. The citizens of
Gonzales denied the request. The Mexicans sent dragoons under Captain
Francisco Castaneda to demand the cannon be returned. As word of the
conflict spread, a group of 200 armed Texans was formed. Two women in
Gonzales, Cynthia Burns and Evaline DeWitt, painted this flag on cotton
cloth, depicting the cannon, the Texas Lone Star and a clear taunt to
the Mexicans. The Mexican troops moved north to Gonzales. The Texans
decided that they had to attack before the Mexican force grew larger and
stronger. They crossed the river that evening, formed their battle lines
and surprised the Mexicans at dawn on October 2nd, 1835. The battle that
day was short; when the Texans opened fire, the Mexicans withdrew.
This flag, perhaps better than anything else, captures
the defiant, independent spirit of Texans that exist to this day.
Texas Navy Flag
In November of 1835 the
General Council of Texas commissioned the Republic of Texas Navy.
The first ships in the Texas Navy was the Independence, Brutus,
Liberty and Invincible. The flag of the Texas Navy was created by
Charles Hawkins, who was later appointed as the first Commodore of the
Navy. The Navy participated in a failed expedition to capture Tampico.
The expedition was outfitted in New Orleans. Mexia, the leader, tricked
a number of men in the city to join the expedition, telling them that
they would be taken to Texas, and would become emigrants there. They
were not told the real objective was to engage in a battle to capture
Tampico. The expedition was successful in capturing a fort on the beach,
but the anticipated popular uprising among the Mexicans did not develop,
and the small force was quickly captured. While Mexia and Hawkins
managed to escape, the remainder of the men were captured and executed.
First Lone Star Texas Flag
The first Lone Star Flag
of Texas Texas created by Sarah Dodson for her
husband Archelaus, a member of the Texas Volunteers. Archelaus's
company marched under the Dodson Flag to San Antonio, and they fought
under this flag during the
of San Antonio and the Texan's
capture of the Alamo.
Second "National Flag" of the Republic of
In December of 1836 the new Texas Government approved the
recommendation of David Burnett (Texas President) for a new design
for the "National Flag" of Texas. The flag was inspired by the
1810 Bonnie Blue Flag of West Florida. Some flags were made with gold
stars, while other variants had white stars. Little consideration was given to the
previous National Flag design which had been adopted eight
months earlier. This flag did not carry the defiant messages of the
earlier flags, and represents the theme of Texas as a independent
nation, and getting on with the business of building the country. On March 3rd, 1837, the Republic of Texas, under this
flag, was recognized by the United States as an
Republic of Texas Flag
With Santa Anna's surrender, Texas gained its
independence, and became a sovereign nation. With this new found
independence, it was logical to create a better flag. In 1839 the flag
that we now associate with Texas was designed and approved. The flag
maintained its lone star, and serves as a banner and symbol for state to