The Secession of Texas


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Civil War Harper's Weekly, February 16, 1861

The February 16, 1861 edition of Harper's Weekly featured a vast array of news on Fort Sumter, and information related to the opening days of the Civil war.  Scroll down to see the entire page, or the newspaper thumbnails below will take you to the specific page of interest.


Civil War Valentine

Sally Port

Sally Port at Fort Sumter

Congressional Actions

Texas secedes

Texas Secession

New Orleans Custom House

New Orleans Custom House

New Orleans Customs House Story


Columbiad at Fort Sumter

Slavery Cartoon

Slavery Cartoon






FEBRUARY 16, 1861.]



(Continued from Previous Page)

then debated in Committee of the Whole, but no vote was taken upon it.

On Monday, 4th, the Senators from Louisiana withdrew from the Senate. Both Senators Slidell and Benjamin made speeches on the occasion. Senator Slidell took occasion to set forth the objects and aims of the new Confederacy, which he announced was to be constructed soon, and assured the Senate that all existing treaties of the United States would be faithfully regarded, including those relative to the African Slave-trade. A just proportion of the public debt would be assumed; the fortifications and other public property which had been seized would be accounted for, and the free navigation of the Mississippi would be guaranteed to all those residing in its valley. Senator Wilson, of Massachusetts, offered a resolution, which was laid over, making inquiries relative to the late alleged seizure of Federal property at New Orleans. The President's last Message was debated, and speeches were made by Senators Clingman of North Carolina, and Hale of New Hampshire. The bill to provide for a government for the Territory of Idaho, was taken up and passed, after the name had been changed from Idaho to Colorado. The House Loan Bill was made the special order for Tuesday. --In the House, Mr. McClernand, of Illinois, offered a resolution similar to that offered by Senator Wilson in the Senate, asking for information regarding late proceedings at New Orleans. The Deficiency Bill was considered in Committee of the Whole, and the Senate's Chiriqui amendment was voted down, while the amendment to purchase the Wendell printing establishment was concurred in. The House resolved to hold evening sessions for general debate during the remainder of the week.

On Tuesday, 5th, in the Senate, after the presentation of a great number of petitions and memorials on the subject of the national troubles, a resolution, providing in the usual manner for the counting of the Electoral vote for President and Vice-President, was adopted. The Loan bill was taken up and passed, it meeting with no further opposition. The President's Special Message was then considered, and Senator Johnson, of Tennessee, gave his views of the crisis at length. His speech was a very powerful argument for the preservation of the Union, and a scathing rebuke to secession. A message was received from the President, accompanying a series of resolutions adopted by the Legislature of Kentucky, asking Congress to do something to arrest the dissolution of the Union.   In the House, Mr. Taylor, of Louisiana, announced the secession of his State, and made a farewell speech. Mr. Boligny, of Louisiana, asked leave to make an explanation, and leave being granted, he proceeded to announce that until he received instructions from his immediate constituents to withdraw, he should continue to occupy a seat in the House, and when he did withdraw he should also resign his seat. The action of the Committee of the Whole on the amendments of the Deficiency Bill were concurred in. Mr. Colfax then called up his bill authorizing the Postmaster-General to suspend postal facilities in the seceding States, and speeches were made on it by Messrs. Branch of North Carolina, and Sickles of New York—the former in opposition to, and the latter in favor of it. The report of the Committee of Thirty-three was then considered until the recess. An evening session was held.

On Wednesday, 6th, in the Senate, a bill was reported from the Military Committee, by Senator Wilson, of Massachusetts, and laid over, providing for the better organization of the militia of the District of Columbia. The President's Message being under consideration, Senator Johnson, of Tennessee, then proceeded to finish his speech, commenced on Tuesday.—In the House, a Message from the President similar to that sent to the Senate on Tuesday, accompanying the resolutions of the Kentucky Legislature, asking for the calling of a National Convention, was presented. The Senate's amendments to the Loan bill were considered and disagreed to, and a Committee of Conference was asked for. Mr. Colfax called up his bill relative to the postal service in the seceding States, and to prevent the impression that it was intended to recognize in the remotest degree the right of secession, as had been intimated by Mr. Hindman, of Arkansas, he presented a more carefully-worded substitute, which was passed—131 against 26. Mr. Florence, of Pennsylvania, presented a memorial from the Philadelphia Board of Trade, asking for an extension of the limits of entry and delivery at that port, accompanying it with the draft of a bill to effect the required object. It was referred to the Committee on Commerce. The report of the Committee of Thirty-three was then considered, and speeches were made by Messrs. Humphrey of New York, Harris of Virginia, Maynard of Tennessee, and Wells of New York. Mr. Harris made a Union speech, as did also Mr. Maynard—both advocating the adoption of the Crittenden Compromise.

On Thursday, 7th, in the Senate, Senator Thompson presented petitions in favor of the Crittenden Compromise. Petitions were also presented by Senator Collamer of Vermont, and Senator Cameron of Pennsylvania, in favor of compromise. The President's Message was then taken up for consideration, and Senator Wigfall, of Texas, proceeded to reply to the speech of Senator Johnson, of Tennessee. —In the House, the bill reorganizing the Patent-Office and amending the Patent Laws, which originated in the Senate during the last session, was amended and passed. The report of the Committee of Thirty-three was taken up, and Mr. Corwin, the Chairman of the Committee, Mr. Davis, of Maryland, and Mr. Sedgwick spoke against secession. Mr. Vallandigham, of Ohio, brought forward a project to amend the Constitution so as to provide for four distinct Confederacies, to be known as the North, the West, the Pacific, and the Southern Confederacies. It does not seem to have commanded any attention. A joint resolution allowing Lieutenant Craven, of the Navy, to accept a medal from the Spanish Government for rescuing the crew of a Spanish vessel, was passed. Mr. Sickles, of New York, asked leave to introduce a resolution calling for information as to whether the duties on imports are still collected at the ports of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Florida. Mr. Craige, of North Carolina, objected, and Mr. Sickles announced his intention to call up the resolution on Monday. An evening session for debate was held.


This body assembled, at the invitation of Virginia, at Washington, District of Columbia, on 4th, and organized. Ex-President Tyler was chosen President, and Mr. Wright, of Ohio, Secretary. The proceedings are private; reporter's are excluded. A Committee of one from each State was appointed to draft a scheme of adjustment. The following compose the Committee : Guthrie, Kentucky, Chairman ; Fowler, New Hampshire; Hall, Vermont ; Ames, Rhode Island ; Baldwin, Connecticut ; Vroom, New Jersey; White, Pennsylvania; Bates, Delaware; Johnson, Maryland ; Seldon, Virginia ; Ruffin, North Carolina ; Guthrie, Kentucky ; Ewing, Ohio; Smith, Indiana; Logan, Illinois; Harlan, Iowa.


The Convention of the Southern Confederacy met at Montgomery, Alabama, on 4th instant, R. W. Barnwell temporary Chairman. An impressive prayer was offered by Rev. Basil Manley. On motion of R. B. Rhitt, Howell Cobb was selected for permanent President by acclamation, and Johnson F. Hooper was selected as permanent Secretary. All the Delegates were present except Mr. F. Morton, of Florida. In the course of Mr. Cobb's address, after taking the Chair, he said, the occasion which assembled us together was one of no ordinary character. We meet as the representatives of sovereign and independent States, who by a solemn judgment have dissolved all the political association which connected them with the Government of the United States. It is now a fixed irrevocable fact. The separation is perfect, complete, and perpetual. The great duty now imposed is to provide a Government for our future security and protection. We can and should extend to our sister States, and our late sister States, who are identified in interest and feeling and institutions, a cordial invitation to unite in a common destiny, and should be desirous at the same time of maintaining with our confederates friendly relations, political and commercial.

During the discussion on 5th, on the adoption of the rules for the Set them Congress, Hon. Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, said that the rules were made on the principle that we were a Congress of sovereign and independent States, and must vote as States.


The Informal State Convention of Texas on the 1st inst. passed an Ordinance of Secession, by a vote of 166 to 7.

The action of the Convention is to be submitted to the people on the 23d, and if indorsed by them, the Ordinance is to go into effect on the 2d of March. Governor Houston, it is understood, has recognized the Convention's action. Meantime rumor reaches us from Fort Smith, Arkansas, that the Texans intend still further to prove that secession must necessarily be accompanied with outrage. Forts Washita, Cobb, and Arbuckle, in the Indian Territory, are threatened by them.


The Illinois Legislature, on Saturday, 2d, out of respect for Virginia, requested the Governor to appoint five Commissioners to the Washington Convention, but resolved, at the same time, that it should not be regarded as an expression of opinion on the part of that State that any amendment of the Federal Constitution is requisite to afford to the people of the slaveholding States adequate guaranties for the security of their rights, nor an approval of the basis of settlement of our difficulties proposed by the State of Virginia."


This body has passed the following joint resolution on the state of the Union:

'. Whereas, Certain citizens of the United States are, at this time, in open rebellion against the Government, and by overt acts threaten its peace and harmony, and compass its final overthrow; therefore,

"Resolved, That the Government of the United States is supreme, with full inherent powers of self-protection and defense.

"Resolved, That Michigan adheres to the Government, as ordained by the Constitution, and for sustaining it in-tact, hereby pledges and tenders to the General Government all its military power and military resources.

" Resolved, That concession and compromise are not to be entertained or offered to traitors, while the rights and interests of Union-loving citizens shall be regarded and respected in every place, and under all circumstances.

"Resolved, That his Excellency, the Governor, be re-quested to forward a copy of these resolutions to our Sena-tors and Representatives in Congress, and to the Govern-ors of our sister States."


The New Orleans Delta, of January 30, publishes the following dispatch, which explains itself:

MONTGOMERY, January 29, 1861. To the Governor of Louisiana or Mayor of New Orleans: The following dispatch was received here today, and has been held for a few hours:

WASHINGTON, January 29. Wm. Hemphill Jones, New Orleans:

Tell Lieutenant Caldwell to arrest Captain Brushwood, assume command of the cutter (the McClelland), and obey the order I gave through you. If Captain Brushwood, after arrest, undertakes to interfere with the command of the cutter. Lieutenant Caldwell to consider him as a mutineer, and treat him accordingly. If any one attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot.   JOHN A. Dix, Secretary of the Treasury.

A. B. MOORE, Governor of Alabama.

THE MARINE HOSPITAL AT NEW ORLEANS. The New Orleans papers of January 30 deny, with great indignation, the story that the Marine Hospital at that city had been seized and patients turned out. The establishment is still under the charge of United States officers.


The correspondence between South Carolina and the United States, relative to the demand of Fort Sumter, has been published. The following is the first letter:


HEAD-QUARTERS, CHARLESTON, Jan. 11, 1861. "SIR,—At the time of the separation of the State of South Carolina from the United States, Fort Sumter was, and still is, in the possession of troops of the United States, under the command of Major Anderson. I regard that possession as not consistent with the dignity or safety of the State of South Carolina ; and I have this day addressed to Major Anderson a communication to obtain from him the possession of that Fort by the authorities of this State. The reply of Major Anderson informs me that he has no authority to do what I required, but he desires a reference of the demand to the President of the United States. " Under the circumstances now existing, and which need no comment by me, I have determined to send to you Hon. I. W. Hayne, the Attorney-General of the State of South Carolina, and have instructed him to demand the delivery of Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, to the constituted authorities of the State of South Carolina.

"The demand I have made of Major Anderson, and which I now make of you, is suggested because of my earnest desire to avoid the bloodshed which a persistence in your attempt to retain the possession of that fort will cause; and which will be unavailing to secure you that possession, but induce a calamity most deeply to be deplored.

" If consequences so unhappy shall ensue, I will secure for this State, in the demand which I now make, the satisfaction of having exhausted every attempt to avoid it. "In relation to the public property of the United States within Fort Sumter, Hon. I. W. Hayne, who will hand you this communication, is authorized to give you the pledge of the State, upon the adjustment of its relations with the United States, of which it was a part.

"F. W. PICKENS. " To the President of the United States."

ANOTHER LETTER FROM MAJOR ANDERSON. The following letter from Major Anderson has been received by the Secretary of the New York State Military Association :

"FORT SUMTER, S. C., January 29, 1861. "H. Roosa, Corresponding Secretary of the New York State Military Association:

" SIR,—There are so many things which require my attention that I have only time to acknowledge, very briefly, the receipt of your letter of the 18th inst., forwarding a copy of the resolutions of the New York State Military Association, approving the steps taken by me, in this harbor, to assert the proper authority of the Federal Government and maintain the honor of our country's flag.

" I thank the Association for the complimentary and pleasing terms in which they allude to what I have, by the blessing of God, done in the hope of preserving peace, and also for the honor conferred upon me by my election as an honorary member.

"Accept, if you please, my thanks for the expression of your own approbation of my course, and believe me to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

" ROBERT ANDERSON, "Major U.S.A., Commanding."


The last document in the series is a long dispatch from Hon. A. G. Magrath, reviewing the whole subject, for the purpose of showing that the President is entirely wrong in the position he has assumed—and closing thus:

"The safety of the State requires that the position of the President should be distinctly understood. The safety of all the seceding States requires it as much as the safety of South Carolina. If it be so that Fort Sumter is held but as property, then, as property, the rights, whatever they may be, of the United States can be ascertained, and for the satisfaction of those rights, the pledge of the State of South Carolina you are authorized to give. If Fort Sumter is not held as property, it is held as a military post, and such a post within the limits of this State will not be tolerated.

The letter of the President may be received as the reply to the question you were instructed to ask, as to his assertion of the right to send reinforcements to Fort Sumter. You were instructed to say to him, if he asserted that right, that the State of South Carolina regarded such a right, when asserted, or with an attempt at its exercise, as a declaration of war. If the President intends it shall not be so understood, it is proper, to avoid any misconception hereafter, that he should be informed of the manner in which the Governor will feel bound to regard it.

"If the President, when you have stated the reasons which prompt the Governor in making the demand for the delivery of Fort Sumter, shall refuse to deliver the fort,

upon the pledges you have been authorized to make, you will communicate the refusal, without delay, to the Governor. If the President shall not be prepared to give you an immediate answer, you will communicate to him that his answer may be transmitted, within a reasonable time, to the Governor, at this place. The Governor does not consider it necessary that you should remain in Washington longer than is necessary to execute this, the closing duty of your mission, in the manner now indicated to you. As soon as the Governor shall receive from you information that you have closed your mission, and the reply, whatever it may be, of the President, he will consider the conduct which will be necessary on his part."


A communication in the Charleston Mercury states that a lady who visited Fort Sumter, a few days ago, carried under her hoops a box of candles and some other articles which she supposed might be useful to the garrison.


The following letter we find in the Frankfort Common-wealth of Saturday:

" SENATE, January 28, 1861.

"MY DEAR COMBS,—I feel under many obligations to you for your many letters, and I beg that you will continue the correspondence, notwithstanding my omissions. What with business, consultations, and unavoidable company, I have in truth hardly time to write a line to the best friend, or even to draw a free breath. Your letters have a freshness about them that makes me feel and see the things you tell use. All things here are in chaos and darkness, yet I have every confidence that though my resolutions may not pass, they will be the root out of which a settlement will grow.

'' The news from Frankfort is that you will not call a Convention. I am glad of it. There is no cause why we should hasten out of the Union at this time, and unless it is intended I do not know what we want with a Convention. Preparations made often induce us to do things from which more consideration would have restrained us. Old Kentucky has too much dignity and history to be drifted about by every changing tide in politics. Her movements in the present crisis ought to be well measured, well considered, and marked with steadfast manliness. We ought to see clearly what we are to gain by disunion before we abandon a Union in which we have enjoyed so much liberty, so much prosperity, and so many blessings. I write in haste and must conclude.

" Your friend,   J. J. CRITTENDEN. " General L. Combs."


Accounts from Charleston to the 4th inst. state that Major Anderson had been permitted by the State authorities to obtain supplies of fresh provisions from that city.
It would appear that the chief reason why Major Anderson has not heretofore obtained supplies from Charleston is,
that the dealers there would not make a contract, fearing, as is alleged, personal violence from their fellow-citizens.


The gentlemen who have undertaken to get up a grand Union Inauguration Ball on the 4th of March, have progressed finely thus far in their work, and it promises to be a complete success. A plan has been prepared for the temporary building to be erected for the purpose on the occasion, on Judiciary Square, and the design is an admirable one, as it will afford ample accommodation for a large number of people. The site chosen is one just in front of the barracks, recently erected near the City Hall for use by one of the artillery companies recently stationed here by order of General Scott. The expense of the ball is estimated at from twenty to twenty-five thousand dollars. Books for subscription will soon be opened in the principal cities, North, South, East, and West.


Mr. Lincoln's first public letter since his election as President is addressed to the Indiana Legislature, and reads as follows :

"SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS, Jan. 28, 1861. " Messrs. R. A. Cameron, Walter Marsh, and D. C. Branham, Committee:

" GENTLEMEN,—I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by your hands, of a copy of a joint resolution adopted by the Legislature of the State of Indiana, on the 15th instant, inviting me to visit that honorable body on my way to the Federal capital. Expressing my profound gratitude for this flattering testimonial of their regard and esteem, be pleased to bear to them my acceptance of their kind invitation, and inform them that I will endeavor to visit them, in accordance with their expressed desire, on the 12th day of February next. With feelings of high consideration, I remain your obedient servant,



The United States storeship Supply, Commander Walker, arrived last week from Pensacola, having on board the wives and families of the Commander, officers, and others at Fort Pickens, Pensacola. She has had twenty days' passage, a portion of which was rough. The passengers and command arrived in good health.

The wives and children of the soldiers at Fort Sumter arrived on Wednesday in the Marion.


The caucus of the Republican members of the Legislature, held at Albany on Saturday 2d, nominated the Hon. Ira Harris of that city to succeed Governor Seward in the Senate of the United States. Judge Harris was nominated on the tenth ballot. His chief competitors were Mr. William M. Evarts, and Mr. Horace Greeley. Mr. Harris was formally elected on the following Monday, the Democrats voting for Governor Seymour.

The Tribune says: "It is cautiously whispered among the familiar friends of both parties in Albany that Mr. and Mrs. Burch, whose controversy recently created so much excitement about the country, are about to come together again. It was with a view of accomplishing this end that the further prosecution of the controversy was taken out of the Court after Mrs. Burch had obtained the custody of her youngest child, and mutual friends are now engaged in effecting a reconciliation upon the basis indicated.

The wife of Lieutenant Slemmer, the Commandant at Fort Pickens, arrived at this port last week with about 70 prisoners of war whom the rebels had captured at Pensacola and dismissed on parole.

The President has sent in to the Senate the nomination of Mr. Black, now Secretary of State, for Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Judge Daniels.

The Hon. Sherrard Clemens, and C. D. Hubbard of Virginia, Anti-Secession under any circumstances, were elected triumphantly on 4th to the State Convention, over their opponents, who refused to pledge themselves that they would not sign a secession ordinance.

It is understood that the New York bankers have met and come to an understanding that they will not take an-other dollar of the forthcoming United States loans, unless a compromise is effected which shall be satisfactory to the border Slave States.




AN influential meeting has been held at Manchester to devise measures to relieve the cotton-trade from the anxiety resulting from the dependence on the Southern States of America. Resolutions were passed recommending efforts commensurate with the danger to prevent calamities; approving the steps taken for the formation of a Cotton Company; and expressing the desire that the Company recently launched should commence operations without delay.

Several American vessels have been registered at Liver-pool under the British flag, in order to enable them to carry sail to South Carolina and return with cotton with-

out fear of capture. Vessels are on the way to Liverpool with South Carolina clearances.


Lord John Russell, in a letter to the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, refers to the possible effects on the cot-ton supplies under the political crisis in the United States, and tenders to the cotton manufacturers the services of British Consuls in all cotton-producing districts, for the dissemination of the wants of the cotton trade, and the acquisition of information relative to possible supplies. Lord John says that Government is not prepared to incur any expenditure or any liability in the matter, but he thinks the Consuls may be useful in ascertaining what amount of cotton may be forthcoming from their respective districts to meet any sudden demand, or what amount might be brought into the local market, if the native dealers had a reasonable assurance of finding customers for it at a given time.



The Paris correspondent of the Daily News says there is no doubt whatever that extraordinary naval and military preparations are being made by France. The excuse is the menacing attitude of Germany toward Denmark, and the speeches of the King of Prussia.


The Moniteur directs attention to the case about to be brought before the tribunals, in which M. Jerome Bonaparte and Mrs. Patterson, the divorced wife of the late Prince Jerome, demand a partition of the Prince's property. The Mottiteur recommends that the pleadings be waited for before opinions are formed.


A Paris letter says : " " The French Emperor and Em-press, the Count and Countess de Morny, and, in fact, all the Court people young enough to indulge in this kind of exercise, arc on the ice every afternoon. The Emperor, who is a good skater, even at fifty-two years of age—a man is ' young' in this country, you know, till sixty—flies about through the crowd of skaters as unmolested as any other private gentleman. The Empress, who is not a skater, and who commenced her ice exercises in a hand-some hand-sled with golden runners, has at last been induced to try skates, and yesterday made her debut in a short Russian costume, which exposed her handsome feet and legs, and set off her person to great advantage. Her Majesty got along very well for a first attempt. She was led by the hand by several gentlemen in her first movements—among the rest Mr. Stevens, the well-known Belgian artist, and one of the ' crack' skaters, had the honor of conducting her Majesty. Several American ladies have appeared on skates ; but ice is so rare at Paris that skating is not regarded as an amusement for the feminines. The initiative of the Empress will perhaps give it vogue for any future occasions that may present.



At an interview with all the Generals in Berlin, the King of Prussia delivered the following warlike speech : "I have been called to the throne at an epoch full of dangers, and with the prospect of combats in which I shall perhaps have need, gentlemen, of all your devotedness. If I and the Princes, who, like me, desire the maintenance of peace, do not succeed in turning aside the storm which is rising, we shall have need of all our forces to resist and defend ourselves. Let us not indulge in any illusions. If I do not succeed in turning aside the conflict, we shall be engaged in a combat in which we must vanquish if we are not willing to perish."

Addressing the Minister of War, the King said:

"You must courageously labor to make the army what it ought to be for the future protection of Prussia."



Official dispatches announce that at eight o'clock on the morning of the 22d the batteries of Gaeta unexpectedly opened a heavy fire against the Sardinians. The latter promptly replied, and compelled the place to remain silent, and the besiegers continued their fire. Fourteen vessels were stationed before Gaeta, and at noon on the 22d the fleet was got into line. The Sardinians were actively engaged on new batteries.

A Naples telegram of the 23d says: " The batteries of Gaeta have slackened fire."

The official Gazette of Naples publishes a declaration of the blockade of Gaeta.


Garibaldi, in a letter to a Vigilance Committee in Italy, dated 13th of January, calls for fresh donations to procure the necessary means for facilitating to Victor Emanuel the enfranchisement of the rest of Italy. The Committee is urged to penetrate every Italian with the idea that in the spring of this year Italy must have a million of patriots under arms. He also says a journal should be established to inculcate upon the electors the choice of deputies, who, having as their first thought the enfranchisement and integrity of Italy, shall obtain from the Government the armory of the nation.


OUR lady readers will find on the two following pages illustrations of the latest Winter Fashions. In mantles there is a great variety. No. 1, at the extreme left of our illustration, is of dark gray drap veloute, trimmed with narrow strips of black velvet, which are in turn edged with brown plush. The next is of black velvet, trimmed with black lace. No. 3 is also of rich black velvet, richly embroidered in black silk. No. 4, the centre figure, shows a mantle, fitting closely to the figure, and made of brown cloth, trimmed with black plush. Next on the right of this are two views, front and side, of a Burnous, sortie de bal, of white Cashmere, with orange stripes, and the lower border also having two stripes of orange Cashmere. No. 7 is of black velvet, trimmed with a gray plush, which much resembles fur. The buttons are in gray and black. No. 8 is of black cloth, trimmed with a brown fur.

In the upper right-hand corner is a hood, made of a square of fine red flannel, trimmed with black velvet and black lace. It is folded to form a triangular piece, in which the under edges project so as to show two rows of trimming. The short Zouave jacket, of which we give front and back views, is made of blue Cashmere, lined with white silk. It is trimmed in black.

The woolen hood is knit, and requires, as material, two ounces of white and two ounces of gray zephyr worsted, and two ounces of white Angola wool.

The Italian collar consists of four puffs, made of Brussels cloth, each four centimetres broad, and the four sewed together. Each is marked with a border of small black or blue velvet ribbon. To the lower puff is joined a smooth, broad garniture, cut in twelve folds, each fold ornamented with a rosette of narrow velvet ribbon, and the whole edged with a quite narrow gathered edging of the same material ; it rosette of narrow black velvet ribbon, with long ends, also covers the junction of the fichu in front.



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