The 1860 Census


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Civil War Harper's Weekly, April 6, 1861

The April 6, 1861 edition of Harper's Weekly featured a portrait and biography of William H. Seward, secretary of state for President Lincoln.  it also featured interesting pictures and articles about Ft. Pickens, and other Civil War news of the day. Newspaper thumbnails will take you to a large readable versions of the page.


Secretary Seward

Secretary William H. Seward

1860 Census With Slaves

The Wyandotte

The Wyandotte

Ft. Pickens

Union Flag Flying over Ft. Pickens

April War News

Virginia Sketches


Scenes in Virginia

State Seals






[APRIL 6, 1861.



The following Table, for which we are indebted to the courtesy of the New York Times, shows the progress of population in each State from 1790 to 1860:




THE Census Tables have at length been completed at Washington. The preceding analysis shows the population of the United States according to the Census of 1850 and that of 1860, together with the Representatives in the 38th Congress, and the losses and gains in each State. The great increase of the past ten years has been in the Western States. The population of Illinois and Wisconsin has doubled ; that of Iowa has nearly trebled; that of Michigan has nearly doubled. The exact increase has been 90 per cent. in Michigan, 101 per cent. in Illinois, 154 per cent. in Wisconsin, 251 per cent. in Iowa. The older Western States have not gained as much ; Ohio shows an increase of 18 per cent. only; Indiana 37 per cent. The Middle States—New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania—have increased 26 per cent. The New England States have only increased 15 per cent., less than the natural increase ; Vermont and New Hampshire have stood still. The border Slave States have increased 28 per cent. in white, and 14 per cent in slave population. The seceded States 33 per cent. in white, and 31 per cent. in slave population. These figures illustrate the gradual migration of our people, North and South, from the old to the new lands.

The second table published above shows how New York has steadily risen to be the first State

of the Union, and is followed closely by the other great Central States, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Virginia, which was the first State for the first quarter of a century of our national existence, has now fallen to the fifth place. Massachusetts was second in line at the time the first census was taken, but soon fell, and now occupies the seventh rank. Pennsylvania has held her own better ; she was third in 1790, and is now second. The fourth State, when the first census was taken, was North Carolina, and the seventh South Carolina ; they are now respectively twelfth and eighteenth. Maryland has fallen from the sixth to the seventeenth place ; New Jersey from the ninth to the twentieth ; New Hampshire from the tenth to the twenty-seventh ; Vermont from the eleventh to the twenty-eighth ; Rhode Island from the fourteenth to the twenty-ninth. So the older States are thrust out of their original rank by their younger, more fertile, and more thriving sisters.


(Abraham Lincoln's Patent)

AMONG the registered patents in the Patent Office at Washington is one for buoying vessels through shallow waters, taken out some years ago by Abraham Lincoln, of Springfield, Illinois. The method is by the employment of air-chambers constructed on the principle of a bellows, and distended or contracted by ropes, as the depth of water may require. It was by a somewhat similar scheme, on a larger scale, that it was once proposed to bring the Great Eastern through the East River to a dock. The inventor, Mr. Lincoln, has not had the

satisfaction of seeing his patent in use on the Mississippi or its tributaries.

But it has fallen to his lot to be in command of a ship of uncommon burden on a voyage of uncommon danger. It devolves upon him to navigate the ship of state through shallows of unprecedented peril, and over flats of unparalleled extent. The difficulty is how to prevent her grounding and becoming a wreck.

We trust that the President will set the fashion of using his own patent.

He must throw some of his cargo overboard, and buoy up his craft on all sides. He need not change his voyage, or sail for a strange port. But unless he can set his air-chambers at work so as to diminish the draught of his vessel—in a word, unless he can increase her buoyancy, and bring more of her hull into God's daylight, he will run no small risk of losing her altogether.


THE new line of transatlantic steamers, between Galway, in Ireland, and Boston and New York, in this country, commenced their weekly service, under their contract with the British Government, on 26th March. The line consists of our famous Collins steamer the Adriatic, which the Company bought at one-third her cost, and of three new steamers—the Hibernia, Anglia, and Columbia—each of about 2800 tons register, and 4400 burden. The three last-named vessels were known last year by the names of the Leinster, Munster, and Ulster; the names were changed at the instance of the Irish board of direction, in order to avoid their being confounded with the Channel boats bearing those names. The board of direction, by-the-way, has been changed as well as the ships' names ; and from all that we have heard of the old and of the new boards, this change is undoubtedly for the better. The new board consists of practical steamboat men, of large means and high character : the well-known MALCOMSON—who would be called a Commodore if he lived in this country--is an influential member.

The new line will run to Boston and New York alternately, and, with ordinary good for-tune and reasonable good management, will probably do well. The Hibernia, we have heard, is a splendid vessel ; on her trial trip she made 21 knots. The Adriatic, every body knows, is the finest passenger vessel afloat.


THE Hon. WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, whose portrait we publish on the preceding page, is one of the foremost representative men of the age. Few of his fellow-citizens are unwilling to render the due tribute to his intellectual ability, while his party regard him as the champion of human freedom and of progress.

Mr. Seward was born in the village of Florida, Orange County, New York, on the 16th day of May, 1801. Of an active disposition, and possessing an inquiring mind, he mastered the rudiments of education at an early age, and in 1816 entered Union College, at Schenectady, where he greatly distinguished himself as a diligent student. Having graduated with high honors, he went to New York city in 1820, and commenced the study of the law in the office of Hon. John Anthon ; but the next year returned to his native county, where he completed his legal studies in the office of Hon. Ogden Hoffman, at that time District Attorney.

In 1822 Mr. Seward was admitted to the bar, at Goshen, and soon afterward he removed to Auburn, where he entered into partnership with his future father-in-law, Judge Miller, and where he has since resided. Devoted to the interests of his numerous clients, the young practitioner soon gained a high reputation, and enjoyed a lucrative practice.

Mr. Seward became identified with the " Anti-Masonic" party in this State, and in 1828 was the President of a Young Men's State Convention, at Utica, in favor of the reelection of John Quincy Adams to the Presidential chair. In 1830 he was elected to the Senate of the State of New York, where he at once distinguished himself as a Reformer.

Having served four years as State Senator, Mr. Seward was persuaded, in 1834, to accept a nomination for Governor, in opposition to Hon. William L. Marcy, who then held the position. He was defeated ; but two years later he was more successful, defeating his veteran opponent by ten thousand majority. In 1840, after the memorable " Harrison campaign," in which he took an active part, he was triumphantly reelected.

In 1843 Governor Seward, having declined a re-nomination, settled down at Auburn to enjoy the comforts of domestic life, and to devote himself to his profession, in which he since occupied a leading position. His practice was varied and extensive, embracing many important patent cases and other civil suits; while at the same time he was regarded as one of the best criminal lawyers in the State of New York.

The nomination of General Taylor in 1848 as the Whig candidate for President was regarded by Governor Seward as one eminently "fit to be made," and he entered into the canvass with great zeal. The State of New York gave Taylor and Fillmore a large majority ; and when the Legislature assembled Governor Seward was elected to the United States Senate by a vote of 121 to 30. It was expected that he would have been the con-

trolling spirit of the Taylor Administration; but the untimely death of the President completely changed the aspect of political affairs at Washington.

Senator Seward was one of the most earnest opponents of the " Compromise Measures" passed by the Thirty-First Congress. " I feel assured," said he, in his famous speech of March 11, 1850, " that slavery must give way, and will give way, to the salutary instructions of economy and to the ripening influences of humanity; that emancipation is inevitable and is near ; that it may be hastened or hindered ; that all measures which fortify slavery or extend it tend to the consummation of violence —all that check its extension and abate its strength tend to its peaceful extirpation. But I will adopt none but lawful, constitutional, and peaceful means to secure even that end; and none such can I or will I forego."

In the Presidential campaign of 1852 Senator Seward advocated the election of General Scott, although he did not approve of the " platform." The disastrous result, which brought about a dissolution of the old "Whig party," did not appear to discourage the Senator from New York, who took bold and decided ground against the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, which he denounced in two able speeches.

In February, 1855, Senator Seward was re-elected by a combination of Whig, American, and Anti-Slavery Representatives, who then laid the foundation of the present Republican party, of which he' is the acknowledged leader. It was, however, deemed expedient, at the ensuing Presidential election, to place Colonel Fremont in nomination ; and Mr. Seward labored on his behalf with the same energetic zeal which had marked his exertions to promote the success of Clay, of Taylor, and of Scott.

After the adjournment of Congress in the summer of 1859 Senator Seward again visited Europe, extending his tour to " the Orient." He was every where received with marked distinction, and was the guest of the sovereigns of the principal governments.

When the Chicago Convention met in May, 1860, it was generally expected that he would be the candidate of the party. He was passed over, and Mr. Lincoln was selected in his stead. He did his share of the campaign ; he stumped the entire Northwest, and part of New England and New York, speaking every where to enormous audiences, and no doubt contributed largely to the success of the party. It was generally understood that he would not accept office, at least at home, under Mr. Lincoln ; but the unexpected troubles which followed the election compelled him to reverse this intention, and he accepted the post of Secretary of State as soon as it was offered him. His speeches in the Senate, which were delivered shortly afterward, have been justly regarded as expositions of the policy of the administration. In office, Mr. Seward is understood to be in favor of conciliation and delay, in the hope that time will mitigate the asperities of the pending civil contentions.

In personal appearance Senator Seward is remarkably unassuming, of middle size, with light hair toned down by age, prominent features, and heavy, overhanging eyebrows. His smile is cordial, and there is a luminous depth in the searching glance of his keen eyes that betrays a warm heart. Married, early in life, to a daughter of Judge Miller, of Auburn, he has two sons and two daughters, and a portion of his family have always accompanied him to Washington whenever his duties have called him there. No man has a larger circle of devoted friends, and no public personage of our time enjoys a higher reputation as a cultivated, high-toned gentleman. Politicians of every phase meet at his hospitable board, which is enlivened by his inexhaustible reminiscences and sparkling wit.




IT is a dismal beginning to say that the present exhibition of the National Academy is the poorest of late years, but we may as well begin by telling the truth. It is not fair, of course, to require that it plant shall put forth its finest blossoms every time it flowers, nor that every apple on the tree shall be the best apple it ever grew. It is Sao much to require that every annual exhibition shall be better than all the others, but it would be a very agreeable fact if it were so ; and certainly, for the last' few years, it has not been easy to deny that there was a steady advance in the quality of execution and the variety of subjects. This year there are a few capital pictures, and no more. 'like works are very good, or they are poor.

Some of the most familiar names are net upon the catalogue. Elliott has no portrait; for last year, you remember, he cut one of his works out of the frame because he did not like the place in which it was hung. Hicks has no portrait, and only two small contributions. Gignoux has nothing. Church shows one small picture. Kensett has but one small landscape, very lovely, and one portrait ! Eastman Johnson's works are less striking than in the last two years. Allan Gay, whose coast scenes of last year were among the best pictures, is not represented. Hamilton Wild has not chosen to make his rentrees. The eye goes about the rooms asking the walls for many a touch it re-members and anticipates, but does not find. On the other hand, Page and Leutze have each a considerable work ; Gray has the best portrait he has yet exhibited ; Rowse has an exquisite crayon head of an Italian girl ; Furness, of Philadelphia, and Hunt, of Newport, have masterly- portraits, and Gifford has a striking and admirable landscape. This morning let its take a rapid run through the rooms and note what arrests us. Nos. 25 and 26 are colored elevations of the new building for the National Academy. It is somewhat Saracenic

US Census 1860

US Population in the Civil War



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