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THE CENSUS OF 1860.
The following Table, for which we
are indebted to the courtesy of the New York Times, shows the progress of
population in each State from 1790 to 1860:
SATURDAY, APRIL 6, 1861.
THE CENSUS OF 1860.
THE Census Tables have at length
been completed at Washington. The preceding analysis shows the population of the
United States according to the Census of 1850 and that of 1860, together with
the Representatives in the 38th Congress, and the losses and gains in each
State. The great increase of the past ten years has been in the Western States.
The population of Illinois and Wisconsin has doubled ; that of Iowa has nearly
trebled; that of Michigan has nearly doubled. The exact increase has been 90 per
cent. in Michigan, 101 per cent. in Illinois, 154 per cent. in Wisconsin, 251
per cent. in Iowa. The older Western States have not gained as much ; Ohio shows
an increase of 18 per cent. only; Indiana 37 per cent. The Middle States—New
York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania—have increased 26 per cent. The New England
States have only increased 15 per cent., less than the natural increase ;
Vermont and New Hampshire have stood still. The border Slave States have
increased 28 per cent. in white, and 14 per cent in slave population. The
seceded States 33 per cent. in white, and 31 per cent. in slave population.
These figures illustrate the gradual migration of our people, North and South,
from the old to the new lands.
The second table published above
shows how New York has steadily risen to be the first State
of the Union, and is followed
closely by the other great Central States, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Virginia,
which was the first State for the first quarter of a century of our national
existence, has now fallen to the fifth place. Massachusetts was second in line
at the time the first census was taken, but soon fell, and now occupies the
seventh rank. Pennsylvania has held her own better ; she was third in 1790, and
is now second. The fourth State, when the first census was taken, was North
Carolina, and the seventh South Carolina ; they are now respectively twelfth and
eighteenth. Maryland has fallen from the sixth to the seventeenth place ; New
Jersey from the ninth to the twentieth ; New Hampshire from the tenth to the
twenty-seventh ; Vermont from the eleventh to the twenty-eighth ; Rhode Island
from the fourteenth to the twenty-ninth. So the older States are thrust out of
their original rank by their younger, more fertile, and more thriving sisters.
A PRESIDENTIAL PATENT.
AMONG the registered patents in
the Patent Office at Washington is one for buoying vessels through shallow
waters, taken out some years ago by Abraham Lincoln, of
Springfield, Illinois. The method is by the
employment of air-chambers constructed on the principle of a bellows, and
distended or contracted by ropes, as the depth of water may require. It was by a
somewhat similar scheme, on a larger scale, that it was once proposed to bring
the Great Eastern through the East River to a dock. The inventor, Mr. Lincoln,
has not had the
satisfaction of seeing his patent
in use on the Mississippi or its tributaries.
But it has fallen to his lot to
be in command of a ship of uncommon burden on a voyage of uncommon danger. It
devolves upon him to navigate the ship of state through shallows of
unprecedented peril, and over flats of unparalleled extent. The difficulty is
how to prevent her grounding and becoming a wreck.
We trust that the President will
set the fashion of using his own patent.
He must throw some of his cargo
overboard, and buoy up his craft on all sides. He need not change his voyage, or
sail for a strange port. But unless he can set his air-chambers at work so as to
diminish the draught of his vessel—in a word, unless he can increase her
buoyancy, and bring more of her hull into God's daylight, he will run no small
risk of losing her altogether.
THE GALWAY STEAMERS.
THE new line of transatlantic
steamers, between Galway, in Ireland, and Boston and New York, in this country,
commenced their weekly service, under their contract with the British
Government, on 26th March. The line consists of our famous Collins steamer the
Adriatic, which the Company bought at one-third her cost, and of three new
steamers—the Hibernia, Anglia, and Columbia—each of about 2800 tons register,
and 4400 burden. The three last-named vessels were known last year by the names
of the Leinster, Munster, and Ulster; the names were changed at the instance of
the Irish board of direction, in order to avoid their being confounded with the
Channel boats bearing those names. The board of direction, by-the-way, has been
changed as well as the ships' names ; and from all that we have heard of the old
and of the new boards, this change is undoubtedly for the better. The new board
consists of practical steamboat men, of large means and high character : the
well-known MALCOMSON—who would be called a Commodore if he lived in this
country--is an influential member.
The new line will run to Boston
and New York alternately, and, with ordinary good for-tune and reasonable good
management, will probably do well. The Hibernia, we have heard, is a splendid
vessel ; on her trial trip she made 21 knots. The Adriatic, every body knows, is
the finest passenger vessel afloat.
WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State, whose
portrait we publish on the preceding page, is
one of the foremost representative men of the age. Few of his fellow-citizens
are unwilling to render the due tribute to his intellectual ability, while his
party regard him as the champion of human freedom and of progress.
Mr. Seward was born in the
village of Florida, Orange County, New York, on the 16th day of May, 1801. Of an
active disposition, and possessing an inquiring mind, he mastered the rudiments
of education at an early age, and in 1816 entered Union College, at Schenectady,
where he greatly distinguished himself as a diligent student. Having graduated
with high honors, he went to New York city in 1820, and commenced the study of
the law in the office of Hon. John Anthon ; but the next year returned to his
native county, where he completed his legal studies in the office of Hon. Ogden
Hoffman, at that time District Attorney.
In 1822 Mr. Seward was admitted
to the bar, at Goshen, and soon afterward he removed to Auburn, where he entered
into partnership with his future father-in-law, Judge Miller, and where he has
since resided. Devoted to the interests of his numerous clients, the young
practitioner soon gained a high reputation, and enjoyed a lucrative practice.
Mr. Seward became identified with
the " Anti-Masonic" party in this State, and in 1828 was the President of a
Young Men's State Convention, at Utica, in favor of the reelection of John
Quincy Adams to the Presidential chair. In 1830 he was elected to the Senate of
the State of New York, where he at once distinguished himself as a Reformer.
Having served four years as State
Senator, Mr. Seward was persuaded, in 1834, to accept a nomination for Governor,
in opposition to Hon. William L. Marcy, who then held the position. He was
defeated ; but two years later he was more successful, defeating his veteran
opponent by ten thousand majority. In 1840, after the memorable " Harrison
campaign," in which he took an active part, he was triumphantly reelected.
In 1843 Governor Seward, having
declined a re-nomination, settled down at Auburn to enjoy the comforts of
domestic life, and to devote himself to his profession, in which he since
occupied a leading position. His practice was varied and extensive, embracing
many important patent cases and other civil suits; while at the same time he was
regarded as one of the best criminal lawyers in the State of New York.
The nomination of General Taylor
in 1848 as the Whig candidate for President was regarded by Governor Seward as
one eminently "fit to be made," and he entered into the canvass with great zeal.
The State of New York gave Taylor and Fillmore a large majority ; and when the
Legislature assembled Governor Seward was elected to the United States Senate by
a vote of 121 to 30. It was expected that he would have been the con-
trolling spirit of the Taylor
Administration; but the untimely death of the President completely changed the
aspect of political affairs at Washington.
Senator Seward was one of the
most earnest opponents of the " Compromise Measures" passed by the Thirty-First
Congress. " I feel assured," said he, in his famous speech of March 11, 1850, "
that slavery must give way, and will give way, to the salutary instructions of
economy and to the ripening influences of humanity; that emancipation is
inevitable and is near ; that it may be hastened or hindered ; that all measures
which fortify slavery or extend it tend to the consummation of violence —all
that check its extension and abate its strength tend to its peaceful
extirpation. But I will adopt none but lawful, constitutional, and peaceful
means to secure even that end; and none such can I or will I forego."
In the Presidential campaign of
1852 Senator Seward advocated the election of
General Scott, although he did not
approve of the " platform." The disastrous result, which brought about a
dissolution of the old "Whig party," did not appear to discourage the Senator
from New York, who took bold and decided ground against the Kansas-Nebraska
Bill, which he denounced in two able speeches.
In February, 1855, Senator Seward
was re-elected by a combination of Whig, American, and Anti-Slavery
Representatives, who then laid the foundation of the present Republican party,
of which he' is the acknowledged leader. It was, however, deemed expedient, at
the ensuing Presidential election, to place Colonel
Fremont in nomination ; and
Mr. Seward labored on his behalf with the same energetic zeal which had marked
his exertions to promote the success of Clay, of
Taylor, and of Scott.
After the adjournment of Congress
in the summer of 1859 Senator Seward again visited Europe, extending his tour to
" the Orient." He was every where received with marked distinction, and was the
guest of the sovereigns of the principal governments.
When the Chicago Convention met
in May, 1860, it was generally expected that he would be the candidate of the
party. He was passed over, and Mr. Lincoln was selected in his stead. He did his
share of the campaign ; he stumped the entire Northwest, and part of New England
and New York, speaking every where to enormous audiences, and no doubt
contributed largely to the success of the party. It was generally understood
that he would not accept office, at least at home, under Mr. Lincoln ; but the
unexpected troubles which followed the election compelled him to reverse this
intention, and he accepted the post of Secretary of State as soon as it was
offered him. His speeches in the Senate, which were delivered shortly afterward,
have been justly regarded as expositions of the policy of the administration. In
office, Mr. Seward is understood to be in favor of conciliation and delay, in
the hope that time will mitigate the asperities of the pending civil
In personal appearance Senator
Seward is remarkably unassuming, of middle size, with light hair toned down by
age, prominent features, and heavy, overhanging eyebrows. His smile is cordial,
and there is a luminous depth in the searching glance of his keen eyes that
betrays a warm heart. Married, early in life, to a daughter of Judge Miller, of
Auburn, he has two sons and two daughters, and a portion of his family have
always accompanied him to Washington whenever his duties have called him there.
No man has a larger circle of devoted friends, and no public personage of our
time enjoys a higher reputation as a cultivated, high-toned gentleman.
Politicians of every phase meet at his hospitable board, which is enlivened by
his inexhaustible reminiscences and sparkling wit.
THE ACADEMY EXHIBITION.
IT is a dismal beginning to say
that the present exhibition of the National Academy is the poorest of late
years, but we may as well begin by telling the truth. It is not fair, of course,
to require that it plant shall put forth its finest blossoms every time it
flowers, nor that every apple on the tree shall be the best apple it ever grew.
It is Sao much to require that every annual exhibition shall be better than all
the others, but it would be a very agreeable fact if it were so ; and certainly,
for the last' few years, it has not been easy to deny that there was a steady
advance in the quality of execution and the variety of subjects. This year there
are a few capital pictures, and no more. 'like works are very good, or they are
Some of the most familiar names
are net upon the catalogue. Elliott has no portrait; for last year, you
remember, he cut one of his works out of the frame because he did not like the
place in which it was hung. Hicks has no portrait, and only two small
contributions. Gignoux has nothing. Church shows one small picture. Kensett has
but one small landscape, very lovely, and one portrait ! Eastman Johnson's works
are less striking than in the last two years. Allan Gay, whose coast scenes of
last year were among the best pictures, is not represented. Hamilton Wild has
not chosen to make his rentrees. The eye goes about the rooms asking the walls
for many a touch it re-members and anticipates, but does not find. On the other
hand, Page and Leutze have each a considerable work ; Gray has the best portrait
he has yet exhibited ; Rowse has an exquisite crayon head of an Italian girl ;
Furness, of Philadelphia, and Hunt, of Newport, have masterly- portraits, and
Gifford has a striking and admirable landscape. This morning let its take a
rapid run through the rooms and note what arrests us. Nos. 25 and 26 are colored
elevations of the new building for the National Academy. It is somewhat