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Page) pass, rose and spoke of the
condition of the country, and of the evident determination of the Southern
leaders to go to extremity. This, he said, must be avoided. But it could be
prevented in one way only, and that was by accepting at once the Montgomery
Constitution, and acceding to every demand these leaders had made or might yet
make. He proposed a total, unqualified, abject surrender in advance of all
national and individual honor that the Government should be overthrown without
an effort to save it, and the country ruined by the deliberate, craven
cowardice, treachery, and meanness of leading citizens. So utterly contemptible
and dastardly a suggestion was never made to decent men as this B— gravely put
forth, and after haranguing sat down. After a little time — spoke, and
substantially supported B—'s proposition. Then — got on his feet. In the most
fervent manner he protested against the suggestion, which was so unqualifiedly
ignoble and unmanly that it was incredible it should be seriously meant. At
least, he said, Americans can do what every other people in history, however
wretched, have done—at least we can strike one blow for our own honor, our own
Government, and the rights and privileges of which it is the guarantee. At least
we can resolve that the system of popular government shall not be proved by our
consent as ridiculous and imbecile as its enemies declare it to be
impracticable. We can make one stand, however short, against simple anarchy.
When this Government falls we all fall with it. To connive at such abject
treachery is deliberately to relinquish our manhood. He spoke very vehemently
and eloquently. T— rose after him, and said that peace was the great thing. We
must have peace at all hazards. Fine sentiment was very well, but hard-headed
men understood their interest. Every body knew that the Southern leaders would
whip us and do just what they pleased, and we had better make a merit of
necessity. T— spoke from his pocket, for he had a large and profitable trade
with the South. Then— stood up. 'I have a million of dollars at stake in the
South. I go for peace, of course, as long as peace is honorable. I am for
finding a method of fair understanding, if it can be found. But it these men
take up arms; if they assail this Government and resist the laws, I will
willingly give the million they owe me, and every other dollar I own in the
world, to maintain the Government of the United States.' The other faithful but
more timid ones then spoke out. This meeting dissolved; and having discovered
that many of the most important and influential men present were not disposed to
lie in the mud to receive terms from a deadly foe whom they had not even tried
to resist, the formation of the Committee, which was afterward spawned at
Delmonico's, was postponed, My friend —; said X—, "is writing the history of the
war, and he will take good care that B—, and all such men, shall see their names
as plainly printed for our children as our fathers took care that the name of
Benedict Arnold was printed for us. The men who from the beginning of this war
have been, under whatever masks, the enemies of the Union, of the country, and
of orderly free government, are as perfectly well known privately now as history
will make them publicly known hereafter."
I dined yesterday at —'s, and
Tresslewell was one of the company. Now if Providence makes a man ignoble, and
grants him not only nothing of the spirit, but forbids him also the appearance
of a gentleman, it does seem an excess of unkindness not to make him in the
least aware of it. That Tresslewell is an insignificant, vulgar-looking man is
his misfortune. That he dresses like a bar-keeper or a flash stage-driver is
probably his misfortune also. That he is certainly what Miss I—t—b calls "a
won'erful or'nary-looking man" is the one point about him which is known to
every body. No; there is another well-known fact. He is rich. He is not clever;
he is not well-bred; he is not well-educated; he is vulgar; but he is also rich.
Now certainly it is pleasanter to be rich than poor. What other consideration
could have persuaded Mrs. Tresslewell to marry him? She, too, was at table. Her
head was something "won'erful" —upon the outside at least.
She began to talk to me about the
"gentlemen" from the South whom she so regretted to miss from society. I told
her that I had seen a great many people from that part of the country, but that
I had not yet seen the gentlemen. I have met plenty of persons who dressed well,
and spoke in a low voice, and knew French, and complimented women very prettily,
and talked horses, and dogs, and boats with other men, but I had not seen the
"Why, how funny!" said she, "we
used to meet so many every summer at Newport."
"I knew them," answered I.
"And yet you say you never met
any gentlemen from the South."
"What do you mean?"
"I mean that all those men knew
that women were inhumanly whipped in order that they might dance and flirt in
Newport and elsewhere; and they did not protest, but insisted that it was
necessary and right, Now, Mrs. Tresslewell, I do not think women-whippers,
either personally or by proxy, can possibly be gentlemen."
"Dear me," said Mrs. Tresslewell,
"what an awful Abolitionist you are!"
"I suppose I am, dear Madame, and
I suppose it's some dreadful thing; but seriously, I'd rather be an Abolitionist
than a gentleman who whips women."
At this point Tresslewell spoke
from the other side of the table:
"Are you talking of gentlemen?
Well, let me tell you a story. When I was in London I went to the opera,
forgetting that you had to wear a dress-coat, etc., but dressed as I am when I
go to the opera here. They stopped me at the door and sent me back, saying that,
to get in there, a man must be dressed like a gentleman. So I went home and
changed my clothes. But when I returned the impudent fellow at the door was just
going to turn me away again; but I shook my coat-skirts at him as he was in the
midst of saying again that to get in a man must be dressed like a gentleman—and
he let use pass. But isn't it remarkable that people, whose business it is to be
on the look out, don't know a gentleman when they see him?"
"Perhaps they do," ejaculated X—.
There was one moment's pause, and
then simultaneously every body turned and began to chatter with his neighbor.
THE LOCOMOTIVE AND THE COO.
THE men who made the Constitution
of the United States were fresh from the experience of war and its consequences.
The President of the Convention had been the commander-in-chief of the army. He
and his companions knew the dangers, the difficulties, the risks of all action
based upon what is called "public necessity" and "public safety." They knew that
the most summary action was often essential. Washington had himself recommended
its exercise upon various occasions during the war.
In making a Constitution of
Government for the new nation these men had to deal with the question of
supreme, irresponsible power. What did they do? They surrounded the fundamental
right of personal liberty with the most solemn security;
and with the same common-sense
and clear perception which led them to do that, with equal solemnity they
authorized, in case of supreme necessity, the most summary deprivation of
personal liberty. The protection which they gave to the personal liberty of
every citizen, as a rule and in time of tranquillity, they just as distinctly
and explicitly removed from him in time of public danger. The words they used
were these: "The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require
There stands the provision. It is
simple, clear, indisputable. It vests in the Government of the country authority
to deprive citizens of personal liberty, and refuse them the benefit of the
writ. It makes the Government the judge of the public necessity; and it declares
the public safety to be the ground of this grant of summary power. Not to have
done this would have deprived acts which, in times of war, are essential to the
public welfare of all constitutional authority. They would have been assumptions
of arbitrary power, to be justified only by the evident necessity of the case.
But doing this, the framers of the Constitution recognized a necessity with
which their experience of war and knowledge of human nature had already
acquainted them, and covered with the sanction of the fundamental law itself
whatever temporary and occasional departures from its general spirit might be
necessary to preserve the law itself from destruction.
And yet, to adopt a plain
provision of the Constitution, established by Washington, Madison, Hamilton,
Rufus King, Sherman;
Benjamin Franklin, the Morrises and their associates, is to
incur the disapproval of Mr. Horatio Seymour, who informs us in his speech on
the 4th of July that the doctrine of public necessity is "bloody, treasonable,
It is clear that we must make a
choice. On one side we have the Constitution and its framers. On the other Mr.
Horatio Seymour. When the late George Stephenson was asked by a Parliamentary
Committee, which had no faith in railroads: "Mr. Stephenson, it is all very well
to talk about iron rails and engines running on them at ten and fifteen miles an
hour, but suppose your engine meets a cow on the rails, how then, Mr.
Stephenson, how then?" The engineer, in his broad Yorkshire dialect, responded,
simply: "Wull, gentlemen, it wull be varra bad for the coo."
MRS. KEMBLE'S "JOURNAL IN
THE simplicity, directness, and
pathos of the remarkable book of Mrs. Kemble, now published by the Harpers, make
it one of the most timely and valuable aids of the good cause. There is nothing
strained or extravagant in it. It is the plain story of the most hideous state
of society that has existed any where in a nominal Christian land. The tragedy
of a life in which the mere human rights of a majority of the population were
utterly despised saddened the mind and sobered the tone of one who could easily
command all sensational effects. No man and no woman who wishes to understand
the character and necessity of this war can afford not to read Mrs. Kemble's
Journal. Those who, under an infamous cry of peace, are trying to deliver this
country bound into the hands of men who repudiate and loathe the fundamental
doctrine of our Government, will feebly sneer at this tranquil but terrible
picture of the workings of a society which such men control. Those, too, who
ludicrously call themselves "Democrats," and whose political hopes lie in
inflammatory appeals to excite the most ignorant of our population against the
most unfortunate, and whose "Democracy" consists in pandering to the only
oligarchy and aristocracy in the land, will try to answer the overpowering
testimony of this witness by shouting that niggers were made for slaves. But
every loyal, honorable American citizen, as he lays down the melancholy history,
remembering with pain his share of tacit assent to this iniquity hitherto, will
see, as he sees that God is just, that there is no peace for his country
hereafter except the peace of death which comes by the universal domination of
this system, or the peace of life which comes by its total extinction.
HUMORS OF THE DAY.
WHEN is a lady's neck not a
neck?—W hen it's a little bare.
"Will you have it rare or well
done?" said an Englishman to an Irishman, as he was cutting a slice of roast
beef. "I love it well done iver since I am in this country," replied Pat, for it
was rare enough we used to ate in Ireland."
An officer in the French army,
dying, left a widow, who had some difficulty in getting her claims to a pension
acknowledged. Her lawyer, annoyed by her pertinacity in applying for the
pension, one day said to her, "Why do you not apply to the King? He will grant
your pension; it is a mere song." The widow presented herself before the King
and showed her claims. While he was considering them she was humming to herself.
"Why do you make that noise?" he inquired. "Sire," said the widow, "they told me
the pension was a mere song; I was trying to learn the air." The King, pleased
with her wit, granted her request.
The second Duke of Buckingham,
talking to Sir Robert Viner, in a melancholy mood, about his own personal
extravagance: "I am afraid, Sir Robert," he said, "I shall die a beggar at
last—the most terrible thing in the world." "Upon my word, my lord," answered
the Mayor, "there is another thing more terrible, which you have reason to
apprehend, and that is that you will live a beggar, at the rate you go on."
An Irishman, who had blistered
his fingers by endeavoring to draw on a pair of new boots, exclaimed, "I believe
I shall never get thim on until I wear thim a day or two."
HOW HE KEPT HIS WORD.
"Too much drinking has caused me
I'll never look at a glass
He kept his word and never lied,
And yet by drinking wine he died.
"How could he do it?" Only think;
Why, he shut his eyes when he
took a drink.
A declamatory counsel, who
despised all technicalities, and tried to storm the court of the East India
Company by the force of eloquence, was once uttering these words, "In the book
of nature, my lords, it is written"—when he was stopped by this question from
the Chief Justice (Lord Ellenborough), "Will you have the goodness to mention
the page, Sir, if you please?"
A traveler, among other
narrations of wonders of foreign parts, declared he knew a cane a mile long. The
company looked incredulous, and it was evident they were not prepared to swallow
it, even should it have been a sugar cane. "Pray what kind of a cane was it?"
asked a gentleman, sneeringly. "It was a hurricane," replied the traveler.
Sir James Graham's father was
full of anecdotes of that sociable divine, Archdeacon Paley, and loved to tell
how some one, praising the conjugal peace enjoyed by a gentleman in the
neighborhood, who had not had even an argument with his wife for more than
thirty years, appealed to Paley whether it were not admirable as a domestic
example. "No doubt," said the doctor, "it was verra praiseworthy, but it must
have been verra dool."
Why is the rudder of a steamboat
like a public hangman?—Because it has a stern duty to perform.
An old gentleman, who was always
boasting how folks used to work in his young days, one day challenged his two
sons to pitch on a load of hay as fast as he could load it. The challenge was
accepted, the hay-wagon driven round, and the trial commenced. For some time the
old man held his own very creditably, calling out. "More hay! more hay!" At
length, struggling to keep on the top of the disordered and ill-arranged heap,
it began first to roll, then to slide, and at last off it went from the wagon,
and the old man with it. "What are you doing down here?" cried the boys. "I came
down after hay," answered the old man, stoutly.
At a public-house near Grantham,
where London porter is sold, the landlord has for his sign a figure of Britannia
in a reclining posture as if greatly fatigued. Underneath is the following
inscription—"Pray, stop and sup-porter."
"I hope to live to see the day,"
said Lord Brougham, "when every peasant in England can understand Newton."
"Wouldn't it be better that they had a little bacon first?" inquired Cobbett.
A runaway thief having applied to
a blacksmith for work, the latter showed him some handcuffs, and asked if he
understood such kind of work. "Why, yes, Sir," said the other, "I guess I've had
a hand in 'em afore."
Mrs. Partington, when she heard
the minister say there would be a nave in the new church, observed that "she
knew well who the party was."
If you wish to offer your hand to
a lady, choose your opportunity. The best time to do it is when she is getting
out of an omnibus.
A new member rose to make his
first speech, and, in his embarrassment, began to scratch his head. "Well,
really," exclaimed Sheridan, "he has got something in his head after all."
How many horses are required to
"draw a comparison?"
When "pride has a fall," is it
from the "height of stupidity?"
BOOK-KEEPING TAUGHT IN ONE
LESSON.—Don't lend them.
DO YOU GIVE IT UP?
Why is St. Paul's Cathedral like
a bird's nest?
Because it was built by a Wren.
Why are the poker, shovel, and
tongs, like the order of the Garter?
Because they are appendages to
the great (grate).
If the sun could speak, what
would it say to a budding rose?
You be blowed (blown).
Why did Lord Byron never wear a
Because he was celebrated for his
coarse hair (Corsair).
How many legs has a horse?
Ten, two fores (fours) and two
THE FALL OF VICKSBURG.
THE following dispatch has been
UNITED STATES MISSISSIPPI
"BLACK HAWK," July 4, 1863.
Hon. Gideon Welles, Secretary of
SIR,—I have the honor to inform
Vicksburg has surrendered to the United States forces on this 4th of
Very respectfully, your
D. D. PORTER,
ITS UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER.
A dispatch, dated
Illinois, Tuesday, July 7, says:
The dispatch boat has just
arrived here from Vicksburg. She left at 10 o'clock on Sunday morning.
The passengers announce that
General Pemberton sent a flag of truce on the morning of the 4th of July, and
offered to surrender if his men were allowed to march out.
General Grant is reported to have
replied that no man should leave except as prisoners of war.
General Pemberton then, after
consultation with his commanders, unconditionally surrendered.
The news is perfectly
THE BATTLES OF GETTYSBURG.
The following is General Meade's
HEAD-QUARTERS, ARMY OF THE
NEAR GETTYSBURG, July 3—8.30 P.M.
The enemy opened at one o'clock
P.M. from about one hundred and fifty guns, concentrated upon my left centre,
continuing without intermission for about three hours, at the expiration of
which time he assaulted my left centre twice, being upon both occasions
handsomely repulsed with severe loss to him, leaving in our hands nearly three
Among the prisoners are
Brigadier-General Armisted and many colonels and officers of lesser rank.
The enemy left many dead upon the
field and a large number of wounded in our hands.
The loss upon our side has been
considerable. Major-General Hancock and Brigadier-General Gibbon were wounded.
After the repelling of the
assault, indications leading to the belief that the enemy might be withdrawing,
an armed reconnoissance was pushed forward from the left, and the enemy found to
be in force.
At the present hour all is quiet.
My cavalry have been engaged all
day on both flanks of the enemy, harassing and vigorously attacking him with
great success, notwithstanding they encountered superior numbers, both of
cavalry and infantry.
The army is in fine spirits.
GEORGE G. MEADE, Major-General Commanding.
THANKS TO THE ARMY.
GENERAL ORDERS—No. 68.
HEADQUARTERS, ARMY OF THE
POTOMAC, NEAR GETTYSBURG, July 4, 1863.
The Commanding General, in behalf
of the country, thanks the Army of the Potomac for the glorious result of the
recent operations. Our enemy, superior in numbers, and flushed with the pride of
a successful invasion, attempted
to overcome or destroy this army.
Baffled and defeated, he has now withdrawn from the contest. The privations and
fatigues the army has endured, and the heroic courage and gallantry it has
displayed, will be matters of history to be ever remembered.
Our task is not yet accomplished,
and the Commanding General looks to the army for greater efforts to drive from
our soil every vestige of the presence of the invader.
It is right and proper that we
should, on suitable occasions, return our grateful thanks to the Almighty
Disposer of events, that, in the goodness of His providence, He has thought fit
to give victory to the cause of the just. By command of
S. WILLIAMs, A. A. G.
THE PRESIDENT TO THE COUNTRY.
WASHINGTON, D C , July 4,
The President announces to the
country that news from the Army of the Potomac up to ten P.M. of the 3d is such
as to cover that army with the highest honor, to promise a great success to the
cause of the Union, and to claim the condolence of all for the many gallant
fallen; and that for this he especially desires that, on this day, He, whose
will, not ours, should ever be done, be every where remembered and reverenced
with the profoundest gratitude.
SINCE THE BATTLE.
There was no fighting on 4th,
5th, or 6th. Lee appears to have employed those days in flying toward the
Potomac by way of Hagerstown; Meade in collecting his troops for pursuit. The
number of prisoners taken by our forces is estimated at over 15,000, and
stragglers from Lee's army swarm in
Maryland and Pennsylvania. Our cavalry
appear to have begun to harass the rebels on 5th, and on the same day General
Couch, with his militia, is reported to have come down from Carlisle and formed
a junction with Meade. Meanwhile General French and other commanders are engaged
in destroying the rebel bridges across the Potomac and throwing obstacles in the
way of his return home. Our latest rumors are that Meade in force attacked Lee
Williamsport on 7th, and that a great battle is (on 8th) in active progress.
GENERAL DIX AT WORK.
The reported approach of
Richmond has caused the most intense fright in the rebel capital. The
Secretary of War, the Governor of Virginia, and the Mayor of Richmond have all
issued proclamations calling upon the citizens to turn out and defend
themselves. They are reminded of the fate of New Orleans, and cautioned not to
allow their city to fall into the hands of "another Butler." The appearance of
General Dix's forces on the peninsula has thoroughly scared the Richmond people,
and a universal turn-out of the citizens was the consequence.
THE SIEGE OF PORT HUDSON.
New Orleans letter of the 30th ult. says that "matters at Port Hudson are pushed forward with steadiness and
energy. The grand point of the rebel stronghold, the 'Citadel,' has, through the
agency of seventeen large Parrott guns, placed by our troops so as to completely
command it, fallen into our hands. The Major who commanded the construction of
the work informed me that 'when he left Port Hudson the flag of the Republic was
flying over the Citadel.' This Citadel is the extreme right of the rebel work,
and from it our gun-boats received most annoyance. The most vigorous efforts are
being made all along our line from right to left. An attack is momentarily
expected. The final conflict is certain to come very soon. It will be made with
our works stronger and nearer those of the rebels than at any time previously. A
vigorous bombardment is kept up night and day, and this is now telling
wonderfully in our favor. Already a long breach has been made in the outer wall
of the enemy, besides the vast carnage created inside. The few old cattle which
the rebels have been accustomed to drive in front daily to let us know they had
meat are long since exhausted."
REPORTED ATTEMPT TO NEGOTIATE.
The Herald has the following:
News of a most important character reaches us from sources beyond all question
as to the truth of the statement. The Vice-President of the rebel government,
Alexander H. Stephens, and Mr. Commissioner Ould, came down the
James River on
board the rebel gun-boat Dragon on Saturday, under a flag of truce, and
requested permission from Admiral Lee to proceed to
Washington, in order to
present in person an important communication from
Jefferson Davis to Abraham
Lincoln. Admiral Lee at once dispatched to Washington for instructions. A
Cabinet meeting was accordingly held on 6th, and it was decided that permission
should not be granted to these gentlemen to fulfill their mission, whatever it
was, to Washington. Admiral Lee was instructed to inform them that the ordinary
channels of communication would suffice for the transmission of any message they
might have to send to Mr. Lincoln. Meantime the rebel gun-boat had steamed up
the James River, while awaiting the reply from Washington.
RUMORED DISAFFECTION IN NORTH
The probability of the return of
North Carolina to the Union is foreshadowed by the Portsmouth Virginian of the
2d, which says: "Reliable information has been received here that the return of
North Carolina to the Union is an event which may be daily expected. A
disaffection toward the Government of Jeff Davis, radical and widespread, exists
in the State, and overtures have been made to General Foster which will shortly
lead to important results."
THE AMERICAN QUESTION.
THE report that England had been
invited by France to unite with her for joint intervention was officially denied
by Earl Russell. On June 30 Mr. Roebuck was to make a motion for the recognition
of the Southern Confederacy. A report says that Lord Palmerston will propose the
King of the Belgians as arbitrator in the American war.
"THE PIRATE "ALEXANDRA."
The case of the
was tried in the Court of Queen's Bench, London, involving against the owners a
charge of breach of the Foreign Enlistment act. A great many witnesses were
examined for the prosecution. An ex-paymaster of the Alabama told the Court all
he knew about Captain Bullock and the persons who were concerned in equipping
the notorious ship commanded by
Captain Semmes. Sir Hugh Cairns, for the
defense, said that the laws of England should not be warped to "suit the temper
of a foreign Minister or the exigencies of a foreign State." The
Attorney-General denied that the Government was influenced by the United States.
The Court acquitted the ship, the jury and spectators being all sympathizers
with rebel piracy.
THE EMPEROR AND SLIDELL.
An interview has lately been
accorded by Napoleon to
Mr. Slidell, the rebel Commissioner in Paris, and has
induced the belief in some quarters that the Emperor was about to make some
fresh proposals to the British Cabinet with a view to mediation between the
American belligerents. This view of the case was strengthened by the fact that
Messrs. Roebuck and Lindsay, of the English Parliament, had also had an audience
of his Majesty in France, they being active sympathizers with the rebel cause.
THE POLISH QUESTION.
The notes of the Three Powers
were presented to Prince Gortchakoff on the 25th of June, and the Russian reply
was anxiously awaited. The French Government is increasing its artillery by
about 100 guns. In Austria, both Houses of the Reicharath have taken strong
ground in favor of Poland. The Poles have gained an important victory, capturing