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Page) is part of the Nemesis under which we suffer, at that are
defending against rebels a Government which the rebels themselves made odious.
We have not sufficiently
remembered this in our indignation with the conduct of what were called friendly
powers. We saw them sneering at us as we carried the flag against the foe, and
told them the flag meant liberty. We forgot that they had just seen the same
flag in the hands of those who swore that it meant slavery. Governments, like
men, act from mixed motives. If our flag had always stood for justice,
moderation, friendliness, it would have commanded more sympathy in its
extremity. The American principle would have been a thousand fold more dangerous
to Europe if the Government had not swaggered. A modest, friendly, but perfectly
firm tone, would have won the hearts of the people and conciliated the pride of
the aristocracy. But when the dominant party blustered every foreigner felt
The Canadians have forfeited
neither their self respect nor the regard of a powerful neighbor by showing that
they mean neutrality as well as say it.
LATEST ASPECT OF THE
IT is now known that a
commission, consisting of
ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS of Georgia, R. M. T.
HUNTER of Virginia, and A. J. CAMPBELL of Alabama (formerly of the United States
Supreme Court) applied, on the 29th of January, for permission to come to
General GRANT'S headquarters, which was
granted. They desired to approach our Government very much in the same way in
which BLAIR has approached the rebel authorities in Richmond. But the fact that
the most prominent member of the commission is the Vice-President of the rebel
Government makes an important difference between the two cases, notwithstanding
it is given out that the commission is intended only to represent the people of
the Southern States. Besides, we learn from the Richmond Sentinel that on the
previous day Davis and STEPHENS " had been engaged in a long consultation on
This commission, following so
closely upon Mr. BLAIR'S private mission to Richmond, has more significance than
it could otherwise have. For it indicates, either that the rebel authorities are
determined to exact from our Government some distinct statement in regard to the
only possible terms of peace, such as shall further their own ends by rallying
the people of the South in a last desperate effort to gain their independence,
or that the people of the South are themselves anxious to make peace on the
basis of reconstruction.
If the former be not indicated
the latter must be. For the rebels already know from Mr. BLAIR'S statements, if
from no other source, that no terms will be conceded by our Government involving
separation. Unless the object be to arouse the Southern people anew, the
appointment of such a commission is useless and absurd. So long as the rebels
claim the right of secession, there is no common ground on which to rest any
What the issue of this mater may
be is now uncertain. But this much is certain. If Union and Peace can not be
obtained by the immediate and voluntary submission of the rebels to the
Constitution and Government of the United States, then they must come as the
result of the combinations which Generals GRANT and SHERMAN are now forming for
just that end.
EARL RUSSELL ought to go to
school to the Foreign Minister of the Netherlands. That gentleman, like the
Earl, received the circular of the European emissaries of the rebellion, but
unlike the Earl, whose clumsy and foolish reply exasperated every body, the
Dutch premier, after simply acknowledging the receipt of the circular, merely
"In thanking you for this
communication, and with an earnest wish for the prompt re-establishment of peace
in America, I beg you, gentlemen, to accept the assurance of my high
consideration. E. CREWENS."
As ARTEMUS WARD said of
WASHINGTON E. CREWENS certainly does not slop over. His letter is a model.
COBBETT'S COURTSHIP. It is
recorded in Chambers's "Book of Days," that while in New Brunswick Cobbett met
the girl who became his wife. He first saw her in company for about an hour one
evening. Shortly afterward, in the dead of winter, when the snow lay several
feet thick on the ground he chanced, in his walk at break of day, to pass the
house of her parents. It was hardly light, but there was she out in the cold,
scrubbing a washing tub. That action made her mistress of Cobbett's heart
forever. No sooner was he out of hearing than he exclaimed," That's the girl for
me I" She was the daughter of a sergeant of artillery, and then only thirteen.
To his intense chagrin the artillery was ordered to England, and she had to go
with her father. Cobbett by this time had managed to save 150 guineas as a foot
soldier the produce of extra work. Considering that Woolwich, to which his
sweet-heart was bound, was a gay place, and that she there might find many
suitors, who, moved by her beauty, might tempt her by then wealth ; and
unwilling that she should hurt herself by hard work, he sent her all his
precious guineas, and prayed that she would use them freely for he could get
plenty more to buy good clothes, and live in pleasant lodgings, and be as happy
as she could until he was able to join her. Four long years elapsed before they
met Cobbett, when he reached En-
gland, found her a
maid-of-all-work, at £5 a year. On their meeting, without saying a word about
it, she placed in his hands his parcel of 150 guineas unbroken. He obtained his
discharge from the army, and married the brave and thrifty woman. She made him
an admirable wife never was he tired of speaking her praises; and whatever
comfort and success he afterward enjoyed, it was his delight to ascribe to her
care and to her inspiration.
PUNSTERS have grown wild about
Fort Fisher. The names of the Federal
commanders of the expedition and of the rebel garrison seem to have been
arranged with an especial reference to the facility of punning. Thus one punster
will have it that the garrison at Fort Fisher was Terry fled into submission.
Another suggests that there is work for Temperance Societies in
Wilmington, the society there being in such a
demoralized condition from the effects of Porter. Another inquires if. Porter
should be put "in a transport" because he was so successful. Another thinks it
reasonable to have expected submission from a fort in which a Lamb had so much
authority. Another asks if it can be expected that a half moon battery will show
any quarter. But the craziest of all is the following: If Admiral Porter makes
any more reports about the Fort Fisher business ought he not to be called
GOLDEN EGGS.—M. Hermann, a
conjuror, lately performed the following impromptu trick in the streets of
Constantinople. Returning in company with a friend from the bazars, he met a Jew
egg hawker near the Stambboul end of the bridge, and, stopping him, asked the
price of his eggs. " Thirty paras apiece," said the Jew," for they were all
fresh laid this morning." "Very good," said Hermann, "I will take a dozen at the
price." The nine piasters were accordingly paid, and the conjuror then proceeded
to crack one of the eggs. The result did not bear out the Jew's averment as to
their freshness; but Hermann, nothing daunted by the smell, slowly chipped off
the top of the shell and fished out a sovereign from the centre of the odorous
yolk. To the amazement of the Jew he did the same with a second and third which
both proved as rotten as the first and was taking up a fourth, when Moses flung
back the nine piasters, shouldering his creel, and scuttled rapidly off,
declaring that he would not sell at the price. Hermann and his companion slowly
followed, and, after a while, came up with the Hebrew in a quiet corner of the
neighboring mosque-yard, where they found him hard at work breaking his eggs.
Another offer was made for the whole, but, though more than a dozen had already
been sacrificed without the expected sovereigns turning up, the Youdi refused
business, and was left deliberately smashing the whole contents of his basket in
search of the golden deposit.
THE first volume of Napoleon's "
Life of Ceasar" will be published on the 10th of February. It will appear
simultaneously in French and German, into which latter language it has been
translated by M. Frohner, conservateur at the Library of the Louvre. Numbers of
foreign editors have arrived in Paris to obtain leave to reproduce the work. The
first volume is devoted to the geographic and archaeologic description of
Caesar's campaign in Gaul.
THE JEWS.—There are in the world
about 7,000,000 Jews : about half that number were in Europe. Russia alone
comprises 1,200,000. It is remarkable that in England, France, and Belgium,
where the Jewish race is completely emancipated, the number is diminishing,
while it is increasing elsewhere. At Frankfort-on-the-Maine there is one Jew to
every sixteen Christians. In France there are 80,000 Jews, in England 42,000.
A DAY IN THE MOON.—A lunar day
comprises a period of twenty-eight days like ours. We are familiar with the
sublime spectacle of the sunrise upon the earth: that wondrous transformation
with which the glories of the night dissolve into the glories of the day, when
the watchstars close their holy eyes as the timid blush of morning kindles the
eastern horizon, when the tide of light flows in to fill the celestial canopy,
and when, as a climax to the changing scene, the glorious sun bursts open the
gates of the morning and proclaims himself the lord of the day. How fearfully
different is the vision of a sunrise upon the moon! No gentle transition from
darkness to light, no imperceptible melting of night into day. From an horizon
dark as a moonless midnight the sun slowly ascends a lurid ball of brightness,
infinitely more dazzling than it can appear to an earthly eye, gilding the
summits of the lofty mountains, and causing these to start forth like islands of
light in a sea of darkness, while their bases and surrounding valleys are yet
shrouded in impenetrable gloom. Slowly the silvery flood of light pours down the
mountain flanks, and the shadow, still of pitchy blackness, slowly shortens as
the sun, after a lapse of 170 hours, attains its meridian height. If we look
aloft to the lunar heavens we behold the stars, although at noonday with a
steady lustre, unsullied even with the effect of twinkling or scintillation, for
these phenomena are due to the varying currents of an atmosphere. For fourteen
days the sun pours down his fiery rays upon an arid soil never sheltered by a
welcome cloud, never refreshed by a genial shower, till that soil becomes heated
to a temperature equal to that of boiling water. Gradually the shadows lengthen
and the sun declines, but no crimson curtain of evening closes around the lunar
landscape ; and when the last rays of the setting sun are lost beneath the
horizon, no twilight intervenes, but a pall of fearful darkness falls upon the
scene. And then succeeds a long and dreary night of 328 hours' duration, and a
severity of cold that reduces the lately parched surface to a temperature
probably 300 degrees below the freezing point of water
WARMING RAILWAY CARRIAGES.
Trials were made recently in Prussia of a new method of warming railway
carriages by steam. The boiler for the purpose is placed in the luggage van, and
the steam passes though tubes into wooden cylinders in the coupe of each
carriage. Safety valves are provided to carry off the excess of pressure, which
is limited to 1/4 of an atmosphere (about 3-3/4 lbs.), and a lever is placed in
the carriage, so that the temperature can be regulated according to the will of
the occupants. The experiments, it is said, succeeded perfectly.
AN ARTIST WITHOUT ARMS.-There
dwells in Antwerp an artist named Fillu, who, born without arms, educated his
feet effectively to do their work. His taste directed his choice of life. He
became a painter, and has succeeded in being a very accomplished one. He may be
seen in the museum copying with great fidelity some fine work or other. He
balances himself with ease and firmness on a stool, grasps his maulstick and
pallet with the left great toe, and with the right uses his brush with perfect
facility. The toes of his feet alone are exposed.
A WARNING.—A young lady suddenly
fainted at a ball near Konigsberg, in Germany, a short time since; and it was
afterward proved by the doctor who was called upon to render aid that her
indisposition arose from the presence of arsenic in some green ornaments in her
hair and in the trimmings of her dress, which were of the same color.
HOW MILTON SPENT THE DAY.-At his
meals he never took much wine or other fermented liquor. Although not fastidious
in his food, yet his taste seems to have been delicate and refined, like his
other senses, and he had a preference for such viands as were of an agreeable
flavor. In his early years he need to sit up late at his studies, but in his
later years he retired every night at nine o'clock, and lay till for in the
summer, and five in the winter. If not then disposed to rise, he had some one to
sit at his bedside and read to him. When he rose he had a chapter of the Hebrew
Bible read for him, and then after breakfast studied till twelve. He then dined,
took some exercise for an hour, generally in a chair in which he used to swing
himself, and afterward played on the organ or bass viol, and either sung
himself, or requested his wife to sing, who, as he said, had a good voice but no
ear. He then resumed his studies until six, from which hour until eight he
conversed with all who came to visit him. He finally took a light supper, smoked
a pipe of tobacco, and drank a glass of water, after which he retired to rest.
Like many other poets, Milton found the stillness, warmth, and recumbency of bed
favorable to composition, and his wife said, before rising of a morning, he
often dictated to her twenty or thirty verses. A favorite position of his when
dictating his verses, we are told, was that of sitting with one suits legs over
the arm of his chair. His wife related that he used to compose chiefly in the
WE have to record this week the
most important action ever taken by the United States Congress since the
formation of our Government on its present Constitutional basis. On the 8th of
April, 1864, the Senate passed a joint resolution proposing to the Legislatures
of the States an amendment to the Constitution abolishing Slavery. It was
adopted by a vote of 38 to 6, six members not voting. This joint resolution
passed the House January 31, 1865, by a vote of 119 to 56, being two votes more
than the required majority of two-thirds. We give below the yeas and nays in
both Homes, and the names of Members absent or not voting. The Members
supporting the Administration are printed in Roman, the Opposition in Italics.
In the Senate, April 8,1864, the
votes were as follow:
Anthony, R. I. Howe, Wis.
Brown, Mo. Johnson, Md.
Chandler, Mich. Lane, Ind.
Clark, N. H. Lane, Kansas.
Collamer, Vt. Morgan, N. Y.
Conness, Cal. Morrill, Me.
Cowan, Pa. Nesmith, Oregon.
Dixor, Conn. Pomeroy, Kansas.
Doolittle, Wis. Ramsay,
Fessenden, Me. Sherman, Ohio.
Foot, Vt. Sprague, R. I.
Foster, Conn. Sumner, Mass.
Grimes, Iowa. Ten Eyck, N. J.
Hale, N. H. Trumbull, Ill.
Harding, Oregon. Van Winkle,
Harlan, Iowa. Wade, Ohio.
Harris, N. Y. Wilkinson, Minn.
Henderson, Mo. Willey, W. Va.
Howard, Mich. Wilson, Mass.
Davis, Ky. Powell, Ky.
Hendricks, Ind. Riddle, Del.
M'Dougall, Cal. Saulsbury, Del.
Bowden, Va. Hicks, Md.
Buckalew, Pa. Richardson, Ill.
Carlisle, Va. Wright, N. J.
In the House, January 31,1865:
Alley, Mass. King, Mo.
Allison, Iowa. Knox, Mo.
Ames, Mass. Littlejohn, N. Y.
Anderson, Ky. Loan, Mo.
Arnold, Ill. Longyear, Mich.
Ashley, Ohio. Marvin, N. Y.
Bailey, Pa. M'Allister, Pa.
Baldwin, Mich. M'Bride, Oregon.
Baldwin, Mass. M'Clurg, Mo.
Baxter, Vt. M'Indoe, Wis.
Beaman, Mich. Miller, N. Y.
Blaine, Me. Morehead, Pa.
Blair, W. Va. Morrill, Vt.
Blow, Mo. Morris, N. Y.
Boutwell, Mass. Myers, A., Pa.
Boyd, Mo. Myers, L., Pa.
Brandegee, Conn. Nelson, N. Y
Broomall, Pa. Norton, N. Y.
Brown, W. Va. Odell, N. Y.
Clark, A. W., N. Y. O'Neill,
Clark, F., N. Y. Orth, Ind.
Cobb, Wis. Patterson, N. If.
Coffroth, Pa. Perham, Me.
Colfax, Ind. Pike, Me.
Cole, Cal. Pomeroy, N. Y.
Creswell, Md. Price, Iowa.
Davis, Md. Radford, N. Y.
Davis, N. Y. Randall, Ky.
Dawes, Mass. Rice, Mass.
Deming, Conn. Rice, Me.
Dixon, R. I. Rollins, N. H.
Donnelly, Minn. Rollins, Mo.
Driggs, Mich. Schenck, Ohio.
Dumont, Ind. Scofield, Pa.
Eckley, Ohio. Shannon, Cal.
Eliot, Mass. Sloan, Wis.
English, Conn. Smith, Ky.
Farnsworth, Ill. Smithers, Del.
Frank, N. Y. Spaulding, Ohio.
Galleon, N. Y. Starr, N. J.
Garfield, Ohio. Steele, N. Y.
Gooch, Mass. Stevens, Pa.
Grinnell, Iowa. Thayer, Pa.
Griswold, N. Y. Thomas, Md.
Bale, Pa. Tracy, Pa.
Herrick, N. Y. Upson, Mich.
Higby, Cal. Van Valkenburg, N.
Hooper, Mass. Washburne, Ill.
Hotchkiss, N. Y. Washburne,
Hubbard, Iowa. Webster, Md.
Hubbard, Conn. Whaley, W. Va.
Hulburd, N. Y. Wheeler, Wis.
Hutchins, Ohio. Williams, Pa.
Ingersoll, Ill. Wilder, Kansas.
Jenckes, R. I. Wilson, Iowa.
Julian, Ind. Windom, Minn.
Kassel], Iowa. Woodbridge, Vt.
Kelley, Pa. Worthington,
Kellogg, Mich. Yeaman, Ky.
Kellogg, N. Y.
Allen, J. C., Ill. Law, Ind.
Alien, W. G., Ill. Long, Ohio.
Ancona, Pa. Mallory, Ky.
Bliss, Ohio. Miller, Pa.
Brooks, N. Y. Morrie, Ohio.
Brown, Wis. Morrison, Ill.
Chanler, N. Y. Noble, Ohio.
Clay, Ky. O'Neill, Ohio.
Cox, Ohio. Pendleton, Ohio.
Cravens, Ind. Perry, N. J.
Dawson, Pa. Pruyn, N. Y.
Denison, Pa. Randall, Pa.
Eden, Ill. Robinson, Ill.
Edgerton, Ind. Ross, Ill
Eldridge, Wis. Scott, Mo.
Finck, Ohio. Steele, N. J.
Crider, Ky. Stiles, Pa.
Hall, Mo. Strouse, Pa.
Harding, Ky. Stuart, Ill.
Harrington, Ind. Sweat, Me.
Harris, Md. Townsend, N. Y.
Harris, Ill. Wadsworth, Ky.
Holman, Ind. Ward, N. Y.
Johnson, Pa. White, J. W. Ohio.
Johnson, Ohio. White, C. A.,
Kalbfleisch, N. Y. Winfield, N.
Keenan, N.Y. Wood, B., N. Y.
Knapp, Ill. Wood, F., N. Y. NOT
Lazear, Pa. M'Kenny, Ohio.
Le Blonde, Ohio. Middleton, N.
Marcy, N. H. Rogers, N. J.
M'Dowell, Ind. Voorhees, Ind.
The retaliatory resolution has
passed the Senate. The legislation in regard to this matter is unnecessarily
confused. If the Senate wishes to declare its sense that there should be a
general exchange, as it has done in an amendment to the above resolution, then
there is no need of the main resolution itself. The Senate has as much power in
directing an exchange as it has in determining on retaliation. If there is not
to be an exchange, there is a way in which there may be secured to prisoners on
either side such treatment as is consistent with humanity without retaliation.
What is there to prevent the appointment on each side of commissioners whose
business shall be to look after the comfort of the prisoners of their respective
governments? The rebels could not, without an exposure of their inhuman purpose,
refuse to admit such a commission into Southern prisons as a permanent
institution and the Federal Government can have no objection to a similar
commission, members of which shall reside in our prisons. This commission on
either side world command respect :
and if its suggestions and
remonstrances were not heeded.
it could accurately report all
cases of inhuman treatment. These reports would have all the value and effect
attaching to other official documents. It is true that such a commission is
proposed by the Senate, but it is in the form of an amendment to the retaliatory
resolution, and thus loses its proper effect. The commission should be tried, at
least, before we resort to retaliation.
The spring campaign is still in
its preliminary stages. The capture of Fort Fisher will doubtless be followed
soon by the occupation of Wilmington.
Sherman, meanwhile, is measuring the
elements of resistance and these are very formidable which he will have to
encounter. He is reinforcing his army. General Grover has arrived at Savannah
with several thousand men, thus relieving General Geary, who will accompany
Sherman. The only event which has disturbed the quiet upon the James has been
the raid of the rebel iron-clad fleet, of which we give an account on our first
In the Senate, the House Bankrupt
bill was reported from the Judiciary Committee with amendments. The question of
retaliation was resumed, but not concluded. The Deficiency bill was reported,
and it was determined not to pass it unless the House would strike out the
proposition to increase the salary of its employes,
In the House, a resolution of
inquiry into the facts connected with trade with the rebellious States was
passed. The question of providing that the Heads of Departments should occupy
seats on the floor of the House, to be interrogated under certain rules as to
their respective Departments, and to a limited extent to participate in debate,
In the Senate, the House
Amendatory Loan bill was passed. The Retaliation measure was still under
In the House, the bill for the
admission of Cabinet officers to the floor of the House was debated at some
length, but a final consideration was postponed till February 3. A new
Deficiency bill was reported, in which the clause objectionable to the Senate
was modified, though only in form, by being made to read: "Thirty-eight thousand
dollars is appropriated to enable the House to meet its obligations and fulfill
its pledges heretofore incurred.
In the Senate, the Deficiency
bill was passed without the objectionable amendment. The Retaliation measure was
still under debate.
In the House only private bills
were considered. January 28:
In the Senate, a resolution was
adopted providing for the publication of the correspondence of President
Madison. The rest of the session was taken up in the consideration of the
resolution appointing a committee on corruptions, and of the proposition for
In the House there was a debate
on the constitutional amendment.
In the Senate, the House bill
reducing the duty on printing paper was reported with an amendment, fixing the
duty at 15 instead of 3 per cent. The resolution to appoint the Committee on
Corruptions was debated by Mr. Hale, who indulged in a long speech on the frauds
done in the Navy Department.
In the House, the Senate's
resolution for a committee to count the votes in the late Presidential election
was concurred in, with an amendment excluding from representation in the
Electoral College Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama,
and Tennessee. January 31:
In the Senate, the retaliation
resolution was passed, 26 to 13, modified by several amendments restricting its
action so as to be conformable to the laws of nations and to the usages of war.
An amendment was adopted declaring the sense of the Senate to be in favor of a
general exchange of prisoners; aim one to appoint commissioners to look after
the condition of our prisoners in future.
In the House, the proposition was
passed to submit to the Legislatures of the several States the following
amendment to the Constitution :
"ARTICLE 13.—Section 1. Neither
slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the
party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist with in the United States, or
any place subject to their jurisdiction.
" Section 2. Congress shall have
power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."
In Governor-General Monck's
estimate for the expenses of the Canadian Government for the current year is in.
eluded some $50.000 in gold as indemnity for the gold seized in the raid on St.
Captain Raphael Semmes, the
notorious privateer, was in Richmond January 19.
The editor of the Richmond
Sentinel says it would be an animating and appropriate spectacle if a new out
burst of enthusiasm and of patriotic devotion should now be witnessed among his
countrymen. He adds that it would be touching and inspiring if they would even
furnish the means to pay off the Confederate soldiers.
Thirty-five dollars of the
Confederate currency are worth only one dollar in gold. This reduces the value
of a Confederate dollar to less than three cents. The Mobile papers say that the
people decline to bet the odds of one against forty on the success of the rebel
The United States monitor
Patapsco was destroyed, off
Charleston, at 2 A M. on 17th, while doing picket
duty, by a rebel torpedo. Sixty of the new went down with her.
Marshal-General Fry announces
that he has added 14,000 more men to the quota of New York, making the total
quota of the State over 60,000. This increases the quota of the city to 21,000.
The pirate Shenandoah has
destroyed several American merchantmen recently along the coast of Brazil.
General George B. McClellan and
wife sailed January 25 for Europe on the Cunard steamer China. They intend an
absence of six months, spending most of that time at Rome.
Early in the morning of the 25th
ult. a broker, Mr. Horace Cushing, while in a fit of insanity, jumped from the
second story back window of his house at No. 18 West Thirty-second Street, and
was instantly killed.
General Patterson has published
his history of his connection with the
battle of Bull Run. It is an elaborate
defense of his operations. He attempts to prove that the battle was not lost
through his fault.
Major-General Warren left
Washington January 25, to resume the command of his corps in the Army of the
Mr. H. W. It. Meade, of the firm
of Meade Brothers, Broadway, photographers, committed suicide by taking
laudanum, on the night of January 26, at Tammany Hotel.
Intelligence deemed reliable has
reached Washington that e new rebel privateer has left Nassau, heavily armed, to
prey upon our commerce. The vessel is known as the Colonel Lamb, and report says
she is both swift and of stanch build. Her crew is mostly foreign, and numbers
Colonel North, the New York State
agent; imprisoned on a charge of forging soldiers' votes, has been
unconditionally released by order of the Secretary of War.
The case of Burley, the Lake Erie
raider, was finally decided at Toronto, January 27, Chief Justice Draper and
three Associate Judges being unanimous in the opinion that the prisoner should
be given up to the United States.
Brigadier-General Ammen has
resigned, and Brigadier-General Tilson is now in command at Knoxville.
The total casualties in
Terry's army in the fight at Fort Fisher were six hundred and ninety-one. Of
these eleven officers and seventy-seven men were killed, thirty-nine officers
and four hundred and seventy-two men wounded, and ninety-two men missing.
The rebel Congressman,
Foote, has arrived within our lines.
Captain Corbett, late commander
of the rebel pirate Sea King, alias Shenandoah, has been committed for trial in
Liverpool, charged with violating the Foreign Enlistment Act.
The Liverpool Post states that
orders for twenty thousand artillery uniforms for the rebels have recently been
excuted in that city.