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interests among the States to comprise a new Union as
to produce harmony only and to prevent renewed secession. Plainly, the central
idea of secession is the essence of anarchy.
A majority held in restraint by constitutional
checks and limitations, and always changing easily with deliberate changes of
popular opinions and sentiments, is the only true sovereign of a free people.
Whoever rejects it does, of necessity, fly to anarchy or to despotism. Unanimity
is impossible. The rule of a minority, as a permanent arrangement, is wholly
inadmissible. So that, rejecting the majority principle, anarchy or despotism in
some form is all that is left.
THE DRED SCOTT CASE.
I do not forget the position assumed by some,
that Constitutional questions are to be decided by the Supreme Court, nor do I
deny that such decisions must be binding, in any case, upon the parties to a
suit, as to the object of that suit, while they are also entitled to very high
respect and consideration in all parallel cases by all other departments of the
Government ; and while it is obviously possible that such decision may be
erroneous in any given case, still the evil effect following it being limited to
that particular case, with the chance that it may be overruled and never become
a precedent for other cases, can better be borne than could the evils of a
different practice. At the same time the candid citizen must confess that if the
policy of the Government upon the vital questions affecting the whole people is
to be irrevocably fixed by the decisions of the Supreme Court, the instant they
are made in ordinary litigation between parties in personal actions the people
will have ceased to be their own, unless having to that extent practically
resigned their government into the hands of that eminent tribunal. Nor is there
in this view any assault upon the Court or the Judges.
It is a duty from which they may not shrink to
decide cases properly brought before them, and it is no fault of theirs if
others seek to turn their decisions to political purposes.
One section of our country believes slavery is
right, and ought to be extended, while the other believes it is wrong, and ought
not to be extended. This is the only substantial dispute and the fugitive slave
clause of the Constitution, and the law for the suppression of the foreign
slave-trade, are each as well enforced, perhaps, as any law can ever be in a
community where the moral sense of the people imperfectly supports the law
itself. The great body of the people abide by the dry, legal obligation in both
cases, and a few break over in each. This, I think, can not be perfectly cured,
and it would be worse in both cases after the separation of the sections than
before. The foreign slave-trade, now imperfectly suppressed, would be ultimately
revived, without restriction in one section, while fugitive slaves, now only
partially surrendered, would not be surrendered at all by the other.
Physically speaking, we can not separate—we can
not remove our respective sections from each other, nor build an impassable wall
between them. A husband and wife may be divorced, and go out of the presence and
beyond the reach of each other ; but the different parts of our country can not
do this. They can not but remain face to face, and intercourse, either amicable
or hostile, must continue between them. Is it possible, then, to make that
intercourse more advantageous or more satisfactory after separation than before?
Can aliens make treaties easier than friends can make laws ? Can treaties be
more faithfully enforced between aliens than laws can among friends? Suppose you
go to war ; you can not fight always, and when, after much loss on both sides,
and no gain on either, you cease fighting, the identical questions as to terms
of intercourse are again upon you.
EXCEPT ACCORDING TO THE CONSTITUTION.
country, with its institutions, belongs to the people who inhabit it. Whenever
they shall grow weary of the existing government they can exercise their
constitutional right of amending, or their revolutionary right to dismember or
overthrow it. I can not be ignorant of the fact that many worthy and patriotic
citizens are desirous of having the national Constitution amended. While I make
no recommendation of amendment, I freely recognize the full authority of the
people over the whole subject, to be exercised in either of the modes prescribed
in the instrument itself; and I should, under existing circumstances, favor
rather than oppose a fair opportunity being afforded the people to act upon it.
I will venture to add that to me the convention mode seems preferable, in that
it allows amendments to originate with the people themselves, instead of only
permitting them to take or reject propositions originated by others not
specially chosen for the purpose, and which might not be precisely such as they
would wish themselves to accept or refuse. I understand a proposed amendment to
the Constitution—which amendment, however, I have not seen—has passed Congress,
to the effect that the Federal Government shall never interfere with the
domestic institutions of States, including that of persons held to service. To
avoid misconstruction of most I have said, I depart from my purpose not to speak
of particular amendments, so far as to say that holding such a provision to now
be implied constitutional law, I have no objection to its being made express and
NOTHING GAINED BY HASTE.
The Chief Magistrate derives all his authority
from the people, and they have conferred none upon him to fix the terms for the
separation of the States. The people themselves also can do this if they
choose, but the Executive, as such, has nothing to do with it. His duty is to
administer the present government as it came to his hands, and to transmit it
unimpaired by him to his successor. Why should there not be a patient confidence
in the ultimate justice of the people ? Is there any better or equal hope in the
world ? In our present differences, is either party without faith of being in
the right ? If the Almighty ruler of nations, with His eternal truth and
justice, be on your side of the North, or on yours of the South, that truth and
that justice will surely prevail by the judgment of this great tribunal—the
American people. By the frame of the government under which we live, this same
people have wisely given their public servants but little power for mischief,
and have, with equal wisdom, provided for the return of that little to their own
hands at very short intervals. While the people retain their virtue and
vigilance, no administration, by any extreme wickedness or folly, can very
seriously injure the government in the short space of four years.
My countrymen, one and all, think calmly and well
upon this whole subject. Nothing valuable can be lost by taking time.
If there be an object to hurry any of you, in hot
haste, to a step which you would never take deliberately, that object will be
frustrated by taking time ; but no good object can be frustrated by it. Such of
you as are now dissatisfied still have the old Constitution unimpaired, and, on
the sensitive point, the laws of your own framing under it, while the new
administration will have no immediate power, if it would, to change either. If
it were admitted that you who are dissatisfied hold the right side in the
dispute, there still is no single reason for precipitate action. Intelligence,
patriotism, Christianity, and a firm reliance on Him who has never yet forsaken
this favored land, are still competent to adjust in the best way all our present
THE ISSUE OF CIVIL WAR IN THE HANDS OF
In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen,
and not in mine, Is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not
assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.
You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the government, while I shall
have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend" it. I am loth to
close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion
may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords
of memory, stretching from every battle-field and patriot grave to every living
heart and hearth-stone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of
the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of
EXTRA SESSION OF THE SENATE.
On Tuesday, 5th, at noon, the Senate met in
executive session, and confirmed
President Lincoln's cabinet,
On Wednesday, 6th, a resolution was offered by
Senator Dixon, of Connecticut, providing for the printing of the usual number
of copies of the
President's Inaugural Address. Senator Clingman, of North
Carolina, in giving his assent to the motion, took occasion to say that he did
not indorse the sentiments of the Address, which, if carried out, would lead to
war. Senator Douglas, on the contrary, had come to the conclusion that the
message was one of peace rather than war. This speech is a magnanimous indorsement of the peaceful intent of the Inaugural. The motion was not disposed
of when the Senate went into executive session.
On 7th, in the Senate, the debate of Wednesday
was continued on the motion to print extra copies of the
Senator Wigfall opened the debate, and spoke at considerable length. He did not
look upon the inaugural in the light in which Senator Douglas viewed it, as
meaning peace. He regarded it as somewhat vague; but if the course laid down in
it by the President should be pursued war was inevitable.
Forts Sumter and
and all the other places now held by the United States within the limits of the
Confederate States, must be given up, and that very soon, or the South would
proceed to take them. "The Union," he said, "is dead, and has to be buried."
Senator Douglas replied, saying that he had examined carefully the remarks of
the President, and could see no reason to change the opinion expressed by him on
the previous day, that
Mr. Lincoln meant peace.
Senator Mason also participated
in the debate, construing the inaugural as calculated to lead to war. The Senate
adjourned without coming to a vote or transacting any other 'business.
THE NEW CABINET.
The President on 5th sent to the Senate the names
of his Cabinet officers as follows:
Secretary of State WILLIAM H. SEWARD of N. Y.
Secretary of the Treasury.
SALMON P. CHASE of Ohio.
Secretary of War SIMON CAMERON of Penn.
Secretary of the Navy ....GIDEON WELLES of Conn. Post-master-General MONTGOMERY BLAIR of
Maryl'd. Attorney-General EDWARD BATES of Missouri.
Secretary of the Interior.. CALEB B. SMITH of Indiana.
They were unanimously confirmed, except Messrs.
Blair and Bates, against whom four or five Southern Senators voted because they
reside in slave States.
FAREWELL. OF MR. BRECKINRIDGE.
A few moments before 12 o'clock, on 4th, Mr.
Breckinridge came into the Senate with Mr Hamlin upon his arm, and together they
sat by the side of the President's desk until noon, when, assuming the Chair,
Mr. Breckinridge said:
"SENATORS,—In taking final leave of this
position, I shall ask a few moments in which to tender to you my grateful
acknowledgments for the resolution declaring your approval of the manner in
which I have discharged my duties, and to express my deep sense of the uniform
courtesy which, as the presiding officer, I have received from the members of
this body. If I have committed errors, your generous forbearance refused to
rebuke them; and during the whole period of my service I have never appealed in
vain to your justice or charity. The memory of these acts will ever be cherished
among the most grateful recollections of my life, and for my successor I can
ex-press no better wish than that he may enjoy the relations of mutual
confidence which so happily have marked our intercourse. Now, gentlemen of the
Senate and officers of the Senate, from whom I have received so many kind
offices, accept my gratitude and cordial wishes for your prosperity and
INAUGURAL OF THE VICE-PRESIDENT.
The oath was then administered to Vice-President
Hamlin, who announced his readiness to take it in a full, firm tone. Mr.
Breckinridge took him by the hand, and led him to the chair, after which,
crossing over to
Mr. Seward, he shook hands and extended greetings with him, and
took his seat as the newly-elected Senator. The Vice-President rapped to order,
and addressed the Senate as follows :
"SENATORS—The experience of several years in this
body has taught me something of the duties of the presiding officer, and with a
stern, inflexible purpose to discharge these duties faithfully, relying upon the
courtesy and cooperation of Senators, and invoking the aid of Divine
Providence, I am now ready to take the oath required by the Constitution, and to
enter upon the discharge of the official duties assigned me by the confidence of
a generous people."
THE INAUGURATION BALL.
The Inauguration Ball, for which such extensive
preparations had been made, was a great success. It was very fully attended, and
passed off in a manner satisfactory to all.
Mr. Lincoln, with his family,
accompanied by Vice-President Hamlin and family, Senator Douglas, and other
distinguished personages, entered the Ball about eleven o'clock, and after a
brief promenade, received the personal congratulations of such as chose to be
presented to him. Soon afterward the Presidential party proceeded to the
supper-room ; and subsequently some of the party, including Senator Douglas and
Mrs. Lincoln, who were partners, danced a quadrille.
THE NEW SENATE COMMITTEE.
The following is announced as the list of
Chairmen of the new Senate Committees :
Foreign Relations' Mr. SUMNER. Finance Mr. FESSENDEN. Commerce Mr. CHANDLER. Military Affairs Mr. WILSON. Naval Affairs Mr. HALE.
Judiciary Mr. TRUMBULL.
Post-Office Mr. COLLAMER.
Public Lands Mr. HARLAN.
Private Land Claims Mr. HARRIS.
Indian Affairs Mr. DOOLITTLE.
Pensions Mr. FOSTER.
Revolutionary Claims Mr. KING.
Claims Mr. CLARK.
District of Columbia Mr. GRIMES.
Patents Mr. SIMMONS.
Public Buildings Mr. FOOT.
Territories Mr. WADE.
Senate Expenses Mr. DIXON.
Printing Mr. ANTHONY.
Enrolled Bills Mr. BINGHAM.
Engrossed Bills Mr. BAKER.
THE STATE OF THE TREASURY.
The accounts laid before
Mr. Chase on his
assuming the charge of the
Treasury show that there are funds on hand applicable
to the current expenses of the Government to the amount of $6,000,000. Besides
this, the current receipts from the customs amount to $80,000 daily.
SECESSION OF TEXAS.
The State of Texas is out of the Union. From
Orleans it is stated that the people have ratified the ordinance of secession
by a majority of from 40,000 to 45,000.
General Houston has resigned the
THE CABINET OF THE SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY.
following is the Cabinet of the Southern Confederacy, as at present constituted:
Secretary of State Robert Toombs of Georgia.
Secretary of the Treasury ....C. L. Memminger of S. C.
Secretary of War —Leroy P. Walker of Ala.
Secretary of the Navy Stephen M. Mallory of
Postmaster- General —John H. Reagan of Texas.
THE ARKANSAS CONVENTION.
Advices from Arkansas, by way of
announce the assembling of the State Convention on the 4th instant, and the
election of Union officers by 6 majority. This indicates that the hopes of the
Secessionists in that State have been defeated.
THE NORTH CAROLINA CONVENTION.
Returns from sixty-two out of the eighty-four counties
of North Carolina have been received, which indicate the
election of sixty-five Unionists and only thirty-three Secessionists as
delegates to a State Convention, should it be
decided to hold sue, which will probably have to be determined by the official
count. The whole number of delegates
to the Convention will consist of about
130, and the returns still to come in front twenty-two counties can not possibly
overcome the Union majority.
PROBABLE FIGHT IN TEXAS.
News from Texas renders it probable that a
conflict has already taken place in that State between the United States forces
and those of the State of Texas.
Galveston dates of the 26th ult. state that
Captain Nichols, commander of the State troops, had demanded of Captain Hill, of
the United States Army, the surrender of Fort Brown. Captain Hill refused to
entertain the proposition, called Captain Nichols and his men traitors, and
expressed his determination to defend the fort to the last extremity. Captain
Hill refused to obey any order of
General Twiggs, and had sent to Fort Ringgold
for two hundred men. Troops were on the way from Galveston to reinforce the
FEDERAL DRAFTS GONE TO PROTEST IN
The late Treasurer of the Mint and
Assistant-Treasurer of the United States at New Orleans, has just refused to
honor the drafts of the Post-office Department for $300,000 for postal services,
on the ground that Louisiana has forbidden such payments.
THE FATE OF THE MONEY TAKEN BY LOUISIANA.
Louisiana State Convention on 7th, in secret session passed an ordinance
transferring to the government of the Confederate States the sum of five hundred
and thirty-six thousand dollars, the amount of customs received and moneys
seized by the State.
is part of a letter which has been published :
"The troops are leaving the opposite shore,
disgusted at playing soldier, I suppose. They say there are only about three
hundred remaining, and these are regulars, having enlisted for one year. My
messenger to the yard this morning said they were afraid we would attack them
now. We could do so, and get possession again of every thing in an hour, if we
were only permitted to take such a course. I have now mounted nearly all the
guns—that is, all that are really necessary to enable this work to be defended
by a force of 500 men. We have worked like horses to accomplish this, but great
things can be done by small means when one knows how. This small command has
done more than Chase or Lomax could have done with their 2000 men, and they know
it. Having seen our guns go up so rapidly, they swear we have had
reinforcements. In fact, the papers say nothing else could be expected—that we
have smuggled in men from the vessels. It is true we could have done so, and
they be none the wiser; but not a man has been added to this command from them.
In fact, so particular are we that not even an officer has come ashore with the
exception of Captain Vodges, and he only once, when the vessels first came.
"Colonel Chase was putting up a battery near the
light-house, and mounting eight-inch Columbiads on it. This battery would have
raked our front, so I wrote protesting against its continuance at present, and
also against the erection of all batteries bearing on the fort. Colonel Chase
told the secretary of War that if he would not land the troops in the
he, on his part, would not attack the fort, and would immediately discontinue
all preparations for so doing. Of course this battery building was violating the
agreement, and they have admitted it by not going on. They think I have no right
to mount any more guns either, but that is all they know about it. There was no
armistice on my side at all, except about the landing of the troops, and that
was the Secretary's. I am at perfect liberty to mount every gun in the fort if I
choose, and to make such other defenses as I can invent or copy.
A. J. SLEMMER,
"First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding
THE GUNS IN THE
The Montgomery Mail has carefully compiled, from
personal knowledge, the number of guns, etc., at present in the forts at
Pensacola, Florida, which is as follows:
Fort Pickens.—In bastion, twenty-six 24-pound
howitzers; casemate, two 42-pounders; sixty-four 32-pounders; fifty-nine
24-pounders. In barbette, twenty-four 8-inch howitzers; six 1S-pounders; twelve
10-inch Columbiad, mounted ; three 10-inch Columbiads, not
mounted ; four 10-inch mortars, in bad order.
Fort Barrancas.—Eleven 32-pounders ; three S-inch
Paixhans; two 8-inch Columbiads; eight 24-pounders; four 18-pounders; two
12-pounders ; eight 12-pound howitzers. Flank defenses—two 18-inch mortars.
Fort McRae.—Lower tier, twenty-two 42-pounders.
Second tier, twelve 8-inch Columbiads; eighteen 32-pounders. Barbette, sixty-two
24-pounders; three 10-inch Columbiads—none mounted.
In addition to the 500 barrels of powder recently
brought to this State, there still remains in the magazine at the Navy-yard 600
pounds of cannon powder, and 3500 pounds of musket powder. In sand battery A
there are two 8-inch Columbiads.
STATE OF AFFAIRS AT SUMTER.
received by the War Department, on 6th, from
Major Anderson, which contradict
rumors that he apprehended an attack; and relieved some other misgivings as to
his situation. All the recent correspondence between him and
has been far more friendly than heretofore, and no unusual preparations have
been made which indicate any present purpose of collision. The coast-guard
outside and in the
harbor of Charleston has been considerably increased by
gun-boats, which exercise constant surveillance, and are intended to prevent
reinforcements. In Major Anderson's judgment, this force is sufficient for that
THE PROSPECT OF AN ATTACK.
The Herald correspondent telegraphs : " I am
informed by an officer of the army that information has been received from Major
Anderson to the effect that it is useless to send less than twenty thousand
Charleston. Less than that number can not enter the harbor and
destroy the batteries on either side. This information, it is said, is also in
possession of the Government.
" The Charleston Courier, of the 5th inst.,
Brigadier-General Beauregard has expressed perfect confidence, after
viewing the fortifications in
Charleston harbor, that Fort Sumter can be
reduced. He says that it is only a question of time."
MR. BUCHANAN AT LANCASTER.
reached his home in Lancaster on 6th, and was received by a large concourse of
his fellow-citizens, with a fine display of military and civic societies. In
response to an address of welcome, Mr. Buchanan made a speech, in which he
congratulated himself on his retirement from public life, and announced his
intention to pass the remainder of his existence as a " good citizen, a faithful
friend, an adviser of those who need advice, and a benefactor of the widows and
the fatherless." His only allusion to public affairs was a hope that the
Constitution and the Union might be preserved.
EPISCOPAL CIRCULAR IN SOUTH CAROLINA.
following circular has been issued by the Bishop of the Diocese of South
"CHARLESTON, February 19, " To the Clergy of the
Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of South Carolina;
"BELOVED BRETHREN,—South Carolina having now
be-come one of the ' Confederate States of America,' a Provisional Government
having been established, and the President inaugurated, permit me to request
that hereafter, in the prayer for 'all in civil authority' now used, you
substitute for the words ' Governor of South Carolina,' the words ' President of
the Confederate States of America;' and that in the ' prayer for Congress,'
instead of the words ' United States,' the words Confederate States' be used.
and the words ' Senate and' omitted.
" I remain, very truly, your Brother in Christ,
"THOMAS F. DAVIS, "Bishop of the Diocese of South
Secretary of War has published an official order dismissing
General Twiggs from
the Army, "for treachery
to the flag of his country," in having
surrendered, on demand of the authorities of Texas, the military posts and other
property of the United States in his department, and under his charge.
WON A WIFE FOR A BET.
The story runs that a gentleman living at St.
Joseph's Island, out West, was engaged to be married to a pretty French girl,
and the bans were published in the Catholic Church on a certain Sunday. The next
day a Yankee made a bet of $100 with a friend that he would marry the girl
himself. The money was placed in the hand of a third party; the Yankee then
called upon the young lady and made a proposition of marriage. She told him that
her intended had already given her $40 to buy clothes but that she didn't like
him very well. At this her new suitor handed her a like amount, and then placing
$40 more with it, remarked: "There's his forty dollars, and I'll go forty
better." The young lady could resist no longer, and taking the money returned
the amount given her by her first lover, and married his competitor within an
hour, well satisfied with the bargain. The bet was won, and in the course of a
month the St. Joseph Islander married the sister of his first fiancee.
Messrs. Crawford, Forsyth, and Roman, the
Commissioners sent by the
Southern Confederacy to demand the surrender of the
United States forts, are in Washington, and will make their demand on the
President on Tuesday next.
General Beauregard, lately a Major in the United
States Army, now a leader of the Secessionist forces, has been appointed by
President Davis to the command of the troops assembled at Charleston for the
attack on Fort Sumter.
Mr. Frederick W. Seward, a son of the Secretary
of State, and lately one of the editors of the
Albany Evening Journal, has been
appointed by the President, and confirmed by the Senate, as Assistant Secretary
Illinois has drawn the first diplomatic prize in
the person of N. B. Judd, as Minister to Berlin ; Hernrann Kreisman, of Chicago,
goes as Secretary of legation.
Ex-Secretary of War Floyd arrived in Washington
on 7th, for the purpose of appearing before the Criminal Court to answer the
indictment found against him by the Grand Jury in connection with the stolen
Indian Trust Fund bonds.
SWITZERLAND SUGGESTED AS A MEDIATOR IN
THE London Star of the 16th has the following. 'It was
said that Mr. Cobden had proposed the Swiss Confederation as mediator in the
American conflict. The following
is the truth of the matter: Mr. Cobden, who is merely a
private gentleman, has no authority to propose a mediator
Having been consulted on the subject of the disruption of
the Union by some of his numerous friends on the other
side of the Atlantic, he suggested that they should choose
the Swiss Confederation as an arbitrator. This fact was
communicated to M. Fomrod, a member of the Federal Council. This is what took place, but nothing more was
nor could have been done. If the American Government
should claim the mediation of Switzerland, the Confederation would no doubt
give the proposal the consideration it
merits, but it is not probable that such will be the case."
THE, "GREAT EASTERN" TO GO TO NORFOLK.
steamship Great Eastern is advertised to sail the first week in March for
Norfolk, Virginia, where she has been guaranteed a cargo of cotton, the freight
on which amounts to $75,000.
JUDGMENT IN THE BONAPARTE-PATTERSON CASE.
Civil Tribunal of the Seine on the 15th ult. delivered judgment in the
Bonaparte-Patterson case in favor of
Prince Napoleon. The Court ground, its
judgment upon the fact that the question was conclusively settled by the
Emperor's family council in 1860. It abstains from pronouncing any opinion on
the merits of the case, which, it will be remembered, M. Merveilleux, the Crown
Advocate, admitted to be entirely in favor of the Pattersons. The latter will no
THE ANNEXATION OF MONACO.
The Journal of Monaco, of the 10th, says: " On
the 2d of February a treaty was signed at Paris by which the Prince of Monaco
cedes the communes of Mentone and Roquebrune to the Emperor of the French. The
exchange of ratifications will take place within ten days. This cession is made
by the Prince for an indemnity of 160,000, as also the restitution of the
private properties belonging to his Highness in the communes of Mentone and
Roquebrune, and of which the Prince was despoiled in 1848. The treaty stipulates
the establishment of a customs-union between France and the Principality, and
the engagement on the part of the Imperial government, to construct a
carriage-road between Nice and Monaca."
ARREST OF A MILLIONAIRE.
M. Mires, the great capitalist, has been arrested
at Paris and placed in the Conciergerie. It is not clear on what charge the
arrest was made, though it is supposed to be connected with the prosecution some
time since brought against him by M. de Pontalba, but which was then
FLIGHT OF THE KING OF NAPLES FROM GAETA.
The Monitettr publishes the following:
"The King and Queen of Naples arrived at Rome on
the 14th. Their Majesties alighted at the Quirinal, where his Highness Pope Pius
IX. paid them a visit on the 15th. It appears that the bombardment of the 11th
and 12th was of extreme violence, rendering the rifled cannon useless. From the
demand to surrender to the moment the capitulation was signed, the Piedmontese
threw 50,000 shells into the fortress. The King passed the Neapolitan troops in
review before leaving, who wept on presenting arms to him. An immense crowd was
assembled, and the population sited tears. Royal honors were paid to Francis II.
as he embarked. As the vessel left, a salute of 21 guns was fired, and the flags
were lowered, while the garrison shouted 'Long live the King!' though in
presence of the Piedmontese, already in possession."
SENSATION AT ROME.
In Rome the fall of Gaeta has caused immense
excitement. The people are greatly agitated, and the national movement increases
in strength. On Thursday last a strong popular demonstration took place, the
crowd shouted " Victor Emanuel and the unity of Italy forever!" and even some
priests joined in the cheering. The French general offered no opposition to
these proceedings, but the crowd finally dispersed at the request of some French
patrols. It is thought the Papal government will be unable to resist the
movement. The Giornale di Roma denies that there has been any arrangement
between the Holy See and Piedmont. The departure of Mgr. Sacconi, Papal Nuncio
to the Court of the Tuileries, is postponed. The position of his Holiness
becomes daily more isolated.
THE NEW REGIME.
The Liberal Government, recently triumphant in
Mexico, has begun the work of Church reform by suppressing thirteen out of
twenty-two nunneries in the capital, and ordering their estates to be put to
some practical use. These proceedings led to a slight fanatical outbreak on the
part of the lowest class of the population, instigated by the priests, but the
affair was easily suppressed, with little bloodshed. From the returns of the
votes at the recent Presidential election, it appears that Juarez has a
plurality over his competitors, Lerdo and Ortega, but as an absolute majority is
requisite, the choice of President will devolve on Congress.