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Page) Madison Court House was merely a feint to detain the army corps
of General Siegel at Sperryville, and that the main attack of the enemy would be
at Culpepper, to which place I had thrown forward part of
Generals Banks's and
McDowell's corps. Brigadier-General Bayard,
with part of the rear of M'Dowell's corps, who was in the advance, near the
Rapidan, fell slowly back, delaying and embarrassing the enemy's advance as far
as possible, and capturing some of his men.
The forces of Generals Banks and
Siegel, and one of the divisions of General McDowell's corps, were rapidly
concentrated at Culpepper during Friday and Friday night, Banks's corps being
pushed forward five miles south of Culpepper, with Ricketts's division of
McDowell's corps three miles in his rear.
The corps of General Siegel,
which had marched all night, was halted in Culpepper, to rest for a few hours.
On Saturday the enemy advanced
rapidly to Cedar Mountain, the sides of which they occupied in heavy force.
General Banks was instructed to
take up his position on the ground occupied by Crawford's brigade, of his
command, which had been thrown out the day previous to observe the enemy's
movements. He was directed not to advance beyond that point, and if attacked by
the enemy to defend his position and send back timely notice.
It was my desire to have time to
give the corps of General Siegel all the rest possible after their forced march,
and to bring forward all the forces at my disposal.
The artillery of the enemy was
opened early in the afternoon; but he made no advance until nearly five o'clock,
at which time a few skirmishers were thrown forward on each side under cover of
the heavy wood in which his force was concealed.
The enemy pushed forward a strong
force in the rear of his skirmishers, and General Banks advanced to the attack.
The engagement did not fairly
open until after six o'clock, but for an hour and a half was furious and
Throughout the cannonading, which
at first was desultory, and directed mainly against the cavalry, I had continued
to receive reports from General Banks that no attack was apprehended, and that
no considerable infantry force of the enemy had come forward.
Yet toward evening the increase
in the artillery firing having satisfied me an engagement might be at hand,
though the lateness of the hour rendered it unlikely, I ordered General McDowell
to advance Ricketts's division to support General Banks, and directed General
Siegel to bring his men upon the ground as soon as possible.
I arrived personally on the field
at seven P.M., and found the action raging furiously. The infantry firing was
incessant and severe.
I found General Banks holding the
position he took up early in the morning. His losses were heavy.
Ricketts's division was
immediately pushed forward, and occupied the right of General Banks, the
brigades of Crawford and Gordon being directed to change their position from the
right and mass themselves in the centre.
Before this change could be
effected it was quite dark, though the artillery fire continued at short range
The artillery fire at night, by
the Second and Fifth Maine batteries in Ricketts's division, of General
McDowell's corps, was most destructive, as was readily observable the next
morning in the dead men and horses and broken gun-carriages of the enemy's
battery which had been advanced against it.
Our troops rested on their arms
during the night in line of battle, the heavy shelling being kept up on both
sides until midnight.
At daylight the next morning the
enemy fell back two miles from our front, and still higher up the mountain.
Our pickets at once advanced and
occupied the ground. The fatigue of the troops, from long marches and excessive
heat, made it impossible for either side to resume the action on Sunday. The men
were, therefore, allowed to rest and recruit the whole day, our only active
operation being of cavalry on the enemy's flank and rear. Monday was spent in
burying the dead and in getting off the wounded.
The slaughter was severe on both
sides, most of the fighting being hand to hand.
The dead bodies of both armies
were found mingled together, in masses, over the whole ground of the conflict.
The burying of the dead was not completed until dark on Monday, the heat being
so terrible that severe work was not possible.
On Monday night the enemy fled
from the field, leaving many of his dead unburied and his wounded on the ground
and along the road to Orange Court House, as will be seen from General Buford's
A cavalry and artillery force,
under General Buford, was immediately thrown forward in pursuit, and followed
the enemy to the Rapidan, over which he passed with his rear-guard by ten
o'clock in the morning.
The behavior of General Banks's
corps during the action was very fine. No greater gallantry and daring could be
exhibited by any troops.
I can not spead too highly of the
coolness and intrepidity of General Banks himself during the whole of the
engagement. Ile was in front and exposed as much as any man in his command. His
example was of the greatest benefit to his troops, and he merits and should
receive the commendation of his Government.
Generale Williams, Augur, Gordon,
Crawford, Prince, Green, and Geary behaved with conspicuous gallantry. Augur and
Geary were severely wounded, and Prince, by losing his way in the dark, while
passing from one flank to another, fell into the hands of the enemy.
I desire publicly to express my
appreciation of the prompt and skillful manner in which Generals McDowell and
Siegel brought forward their respective commands and established them on the
field, and of their cheerful and hearty co-operation with me from beginning to
Brigadier - General Roberts,
Chief of Cavalry of this army, was with the advance of our forces on Friday and
Saturday, and was conspicuous for his gallantry and for the valuable aid he
rendered to Generals Banks and Crawford.
Our loss was about fifteen
hundred killed, wounded, and missing, of whom two hundred and ninety were taken
prisoners. As might he expected from the character of the engagement, a very
large proportion of these were killed.
The enemy's loss in killed,
wounded, and prisoners, we are now satisfied, is much in excess of our own.
A full list of casualties will be
transmitted as soon as possible, together with a detailed report, in which I
shall endeavor to do justice to all. JOHN
The following account from a
Herald correspondent, who was an eye-witness of the fight, will also be found
EARLY IN THE MORNING
General Pope had sent General
Banks's command to the front, and the divisions of Generals Augur and Williams
were placed in position about a mile and a half this side the ground which had
been the scene of the skirmish of the previous day.
SUBSEQUENTLY, IN THE AFTERNOON,
Crawford's brigade, of General
Williams's division, composed of the Forty-sixth Pennsylvania, Tenth Maine,
Fifth Connecticut, and Twenty-eighth New York regiments, with Best's battery of
Regulars, moved forward and occupied a piece of high ground lying between Cedar
Creek and Crooked River, some four miles north of the point where the Culpepper
and Gordonsville turnpike crosses the Rapidan River. About three fourths of a
mile south of this point rises the Cedar Mountain, a spur of the great
Thoroughfare Range. It was from the slope of this eminence that the enemy first
opened their fire upon the Union troops.
FIRST INTIMATION OF THE ENEMY.
The first intimation our advance
received of the presence of the enemy was at the moment when, after emerging
from the timber on time north, it began to cross Spring Creek. At once it
battery of heavy guns, posted in the thick timber half-way up the mountain side,
belched upon the troops both shot and shell, while another battery of smaller
guns at the foot of the mountain gave them a similar reception from the cover of
some timber about three-eighths of a mile to the westward.
Preparations were at once made to
reply to these civilities, and Best's battery of Parrott guns was immediately
planted on time crest of the rising ground we occupied, and began replying to
the two batteries of the enemy. In the mean time the infantry were posted in
line of battle on the right of the battery, and cheerfully awaited the order
which would bring them more actively into the deadly conflict.
PERSISTENT FIRING OF THE REBELS.
For half an hour at least the
enemy maintained a continuous fire from both their batteries, replied to in
rapid succession by Captain Best's, when there opened simultaneously three other
rebel batteries, posted in as many different localities, opposite our front and
REBEL INFANTRY APPEAR.
For some time this contest of
shot and shell was kept up; but at five o'clock the rebel infantry were
discovered in strong force upon our right and in front, supporting the rebel
batteries. The fact was at once communicated by rapid couriers to the main body
of our troops. Immediately the division of General Augur, with the remainder of
General Williams's division, were thrown forward with prompt dispatch, and
posted advantageously upon the right of General Crawford, and directly fronting
the dense timber where the rebel infantry, in strong force, were plainly
GENERAL BANKS NOW RODE ON TO THE FIELD
and directed the operations, the
best possible disposition being made for the continuation of the fight now
inevitable, and each moment developing in proportions. The manner in which he
handled his troops and provided for every emergency, together with the personal
gallantry he displayed, being constantly under fire, are subjects of general
commendation with officers and men.
GENERAL GEARY IN ADVANCE—BRAVERY OF THE COMMAND.
General Geary's brigade, of
General Augur's division, had the advance, which through the brunt of the first
part of the day's fight it maintained with skill and courage. This gallant
brigade consisted of the Fifth Ohio, Seventh Ohio, Twenty-ninth Ohio,
Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania, and Snapp's battery. No sooner had these troops
formed in order of battle than the rebels opened musketry fire upon them from
two sides and in front, while time rebel batteries also directed their
death-dealing missiles among the brave fellows, that on the mountain being very
destructive in its effects. Notwithstanding this terrible concentrated fire, the
troops, under their courageous General (Geary), never faltered or winced.
BATTLE BECOMES GENERAL.
It was not till half past five
that the battle became general. Then artillery replied to artillery, musketry to
musketry, while infantry met infantry in repeated shocks of deadly strife.
Reckless valor and desperation marked the progress of the fight, which continued
without pause or lull, with terrible cannonading, until darkness put a stop to
the carnage. I have witnessed many battles during this war, but I have seen none
where the tenacious obstinacy of the American character was as fully displayed.
DETERMINATION OF OUR TROOPS.
Our troops fought with the
coolness and valor of veterans, standing up to the fight unfalteringly and
unblenchingly in time teeth of a raking and destructive fire of cannon and
musketry. No sooner did a volley of musketry or a discharge of artillery mow
down the ranks of a regiment than the wide gaps were filled up and new fronts
ARTILLERY PLAY WITH EFFECT.
Once informed of the position of
the enemy in force, our artillery opened with terrible effect upon them,
compelling regiment after regiment to break and fall back out of range, within
the shelter of the dense timber.
DEATH OF THE REBEL GENERALS WINDER AND TRIMBLE.
As regiments thus fell back fresh
troops were in quick succession brought up to confront the deadly storm of iron
hail from the Union guns, and it was while leading up some of these fresh
regiments that Generals Winder and Trimble were killed.
REBEL ARTILLERY—CHARGES AND CAPTURE OF REBEL GUNS.
The rebel artillery was served
with deadly effect, and at one time it was determined to take one battery that
gave the greatest annoyance by the bayonet. A portion of the District of
Columbia troops charged most gallantly one of these batteries, and succeeded in
taking two of the rebel guns, with but little loss to our brave men. Portions of
Augur's and Williams's divisions, including Crawford's and Gordon's brigades,
made three dashing bayonet charges upon the rebel artillery. Each time the brave
fellows were repulsed with loss, the enemy's overpowering infantry support being
too much for our troops to cope with; but uncowed and undauntedly they returned
to the charge
with increased desperation and renewed vigor. The terrible and continuous
infantry fire from the woods with which they were met each time demonstrated
unmistakably that our forces were greatly outnumbered by the foe.
EIGHTH AND TWELFTH REGULARS,
attached to General Banks's
corps, commanded by Captain Pitcher, did excellent service. Captain Pitcher was
wounded severely, though not dangerously, in the knee, by a musket-shot; but he
nevertheless kept the field at the head of his men until the close of the
THE INFANTRY CEASE FIRING.
With the setting in of night the
musketry firing ceased, but the artillery on the mountain kept up an
intermittent firing until near midnight. At twilight our troops withdrew to a
small copse of wood, about half a mile to the rear of their first position,
where they were joined soon after by the corps of Generals McDowell and Siegel,
who formed on their rear. It was then that the hungry and wearied troops of
General Banks were relieved by portions of these fresh troops. The former fell
back half a mile, where, in a pleasant clover field, they rested on their arms
from the fatigues of the day.
The night was unusually lustrous,
a bright moon shedding its radiance all around, and causing all prominent
objects to be as plainly distinguishable as in the day. In the west loomed up
Thoroughfare Mountain, from whose peak flashed at intervals a rebel signal
light, indicative of the presence of the enemy, and to us, at the time, an
assurance that the conflict of the past day would be resumed on even a larger
scale, and with casualties and losses proportionate to the increased numbers to
WE publish on
page 556 a view
of BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA, the capital of the State, front a sketch by our
special artist, Mr. Theodore R. Davis. Baton Rouge is or was a town of some 4000
inhabitants, on the left bank of the Mississippi, some 140 miles from New
Orleans. It was called Baton Rouge (Red Stick) front the fact that a Spanish
family residing here were murdered by the Chickasaw Indians, and their heads
stuck on poles, where they were subsequently found by the French.
On 4th August the rebels, under
Breckinridge and Lovell, made an attack upon our forces at Baton Rouge. The
rebels lead 15,000 men; we about 4000, under General Williams, who was killed by
a cannon-shot at the commencement of the fight. The fight lasted three hours,
and the rebels were repulsed. A correspondent of the Herald says:
General Williams, in command of our forces, was
killed, a cannon-ball taking his head completely off. Our loss was about 250 in
killed and wounded, including several field-officers wounded.
The rebel loss is said to be
greater than ours. We captured a number of prisoners, among them Captain Blount,
an artillery officer, and a member of Breckinridge's staff. Blount has been
brought to this city. The prisoners state that Breckinridge lost his right arm.
Lovell was killed, and Captains Allen and Chain, of Baton Rouge, and a
lieutenant were killed. It is reported that we lost two guns and captured three.
The last report is that we have lost no guns. Our force is much smaller than the
CASEY'S INFANTRY TACTICS.
INFANTRY TACTICS, for the
INSTRUCTION, EXERCISE, and MANEUVERS of the SOLDIER, A COMPANY, LINE of
SKIRMISHERS, BATTALION, BRIGADE, or CORPS D'ARMEE. By Brig.-Gen. SILAS CASEY, U.
In Three Volumes. $2.50.
WASHINGTON, Aug. 11, 1862.
The system of Infantry Tactics
prepared by Brig.-Gen. Silas Casey, U.S.A., having been approved by the
President, is adopted for the Instruction of the Infantry of the United States,
whether Regulars, Volunteers, or Militia, with the following modifications,
First; That portion which
requires that two companies shall be permanently detached from the battalion as
skirmishers, will be suspended.
Second: In Title First, Article
First, the following will be substituted for paragraph six, viz.:
"A Regiment is composed of ten
companies, which will be habitually posted from right to left in the following
order: First, sixth, fourth, ninth, third, eighth, fifth, tenth, seventh,
second, according to the rank of captains."
EDWIN M. STANTON,
Secretary of War.
Sent free by mail on receipt of
D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher,
No. 192 Broadway, New York.
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and in Canadas. The proprietors have many certificates of their purity and
quality from those best qualified to judge.
Portable Printing Offices,
For the use of the Army and Navy,
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Printing Office, No. 2, press
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Ballard's Patent Breech-Loading Rifle.
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Prescott's Cartridge Revolvers
The 8in., or Navy Size, carries a
Ball weighing 38 to the lb., and the No. 32, or 4in. Revolver, a Ball 80 to the
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Also Agents for the Soldier's
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READER! — If you want employment,
or want the best (Two-threaded) Sewing Machine ever manufactured, send to ISAAC
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Rev. EDWARD IT. REICHEL,
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All Articles for Soldiers at
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BEAUTY.—Hunt's Bloom of Roses, a
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NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE
For September, 1862.
ILLUSTRATIONS. — Launch of the
Monitor. — Portrait of Ericsson.—The Atlantic Forge.—Forging a Bloom.—Forging
the Plate.—Drilling Plates.—Bending the Turret Plates.—Setting up the
Turret.—Bending the Plates.—Trucking Plates.—Line-of-Battle-Ship cut
down.—Screwing up the Bolts.—The Ram.
IN THE BUFFALO COUNTRY.
ILLUSTRATIONS.—The Lieutenant in
Costume.—The Prairie Ocean.—The first Buffalo.—Storm on the. Plains. —Fording
the Arkansas.—Kit Carson.—A Prairie Scene. —Painted Trees.—Dead
Buffaloes—Prairie Dog Village. —A Shot at the Comanches.—A Pleasant Night.—Fate
of Bill Williams.
A PARTIE CAREE.
THE CARTE DE VISITE.
MISTRESS AND MAID. A HOUSEHOLD
STORY. By Miss MULOCK.
THE LANGUAGE AND POETRY OF SMOKE.
ST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL.
ORLEY FARM. By ANTHONY TROLLOPE.
Illustrated By J. E. MILLAIS.
CHAPTER LXV. Felix Graham returns
to Noningsby. CHAPTER LXVI. Showing how Miss Furnival treated her Lovers.
CHAPTER LXVII. Mr. Moulder backs
CHAPTER LXVIII. The First Day of
the Trial. ILLUSTRATIONS.—The Drawing-Room at Noningsby.
—And how are they all at dear
CARLYLE'S FREDERICK THE GREAT.
THE ADVENTURES OF PHLIP. By W. M.
CHAPTER XLI. In which we reach
the last Stage but One of this Journey.
CHAPTER XLII. The Realms of
ILLUSTRATIONS.—The Last Stage but
One. —The Good Fairy.
ROMOLA. By the Author of "ADAM
CHAPTER VI. Dawning Hopes.
CHAPTER VII. A Learned Squabble.
CHAPTER VIII. A Face in the
ILLUSTRATIONS.—A Street in
MONTHLY RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS.
EDITOR'S EASY CHAIR.
Politics.—House-Cleaning. —How Mrs. Millefleurs Cleaned House.—A
FASHIONS FOR SEPTEMBER.
ILLUSTRATIONS. — Carriage or
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