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Robert E. Lee Portrait
Page) from the unrequited toil of these slaves, and its foundation
will be undermined.
2. It is the most humane method
of putting down the rebellion, the history of which has clearly proved that the
fears of slave insurrections and massacres are entirely unfounded. While the
slaves earnestly desire freedom, they have
shown no disposition to injure their masters; they will cease to work for them
without wages, but they will form throughout the Southern States the most
peaceful and docile peasantry on the face of the earth. The slaveowners once
compelled to work for their own support the war must cease, and its appalling
carnage come to an end.
emancipation once effected, the Northern States
would be forever relieved, as it is right that they should be, from the fears of
a great influx of African laborers, disturbing the relations of those Northern
industrial classes who have so freely given their lives to the support of the
This done, and the whole African
population will drift to the South, where it will find a congenial climate and
vast tracts of land never yet cultivated.
I forbear to enter into the
discussion of the great increase of trade to the Northern States and the whole
commercial world which would result from the wants of four millions of free and
paid laborers over the same number held as heretofore in slavery.
I forbear also to enter into the
question of the ultimate vast increase in the production of the great Southern
staples. This is not a time to consider questions of profit. It will long be
remembered, to the great honor of the merchants, bankers, and manufacturers of
the North, that giving the lie to the calumnies of slave-breeding aristocrats,
who charge them with being degraded and controlled by the petty profits of
traffic, they have met the numerous sacrifices of this great struggle with a
cheerfulness and promptness of which history furnishes no parallel.
Nor is the question now before us
one of philanthropy alone, sacred as are the principles therein involved; nor is
it a question of abstract ideas, involving an unprofitable discussion of the
equality of races. It is simply a question of war, of National life or death,
and of the mode in which we can most surely and effectually uphold our
Government and maintain its unity and supremacy.
Our foreign enemies, for it is
not to be disguised that we have such, reproach us with waging a territorial
war. So we do; but that territory is our country. For maintaining its greatness
and power among the nations of the earth, by holding it together, they hate us.
We can bear it; but if we were to yield to their suggestions, and submit to its
dismemberment, they would forever despise us.
This Great domain, from the lakes
to the gulf, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, one country; governed by one idea
—freedom—is yet destined to dictate terms, if need be, to the world in arms, and
I hold that man to be a traitor and a coward, who, under any defeats, any
pressure of adversity however great, any calamities however dire, would give up
one acre of it.
BUELL'S ARMY ON THE MARCH.
WE publish on
a picture which represents BUELL'S ARMY CROSSING
RIVER, KENTUCKY, from a sketch by Mr. Mosler. The bridge over the
river was destroyed some time since, but the water is so low that it was easily
forded, and as soon as Buell's skirmishers cleared the way the army crossed in
heavy column. The result of the expedition, or at least one of its results, will
be found recorded in another column.
THE debates in the Episcopal
House of Bishops on the subject of the rebel
BISHOP-GENERAL POLK, have induced us to present
our readers with a portrait of the personage in question on page 685.
Leonidas Polk was born in North
Carolina about the year 1805. He entered West Point in 1823, and graduated in
the artillery in 1827. Six months' service in the army quenched his military
aspirations, and resigning his commission he studied for the Church. In 1831 he
was ordained an Episcopal minister, and officiated regularly in the Southwest
for seven years. In 1838 he was appointed "Missionary Bishop" of Arkansas and
the Indian Territory, and discharged the functions of that office for three
years. In 1811, the Episcopal See of Louisiana falling vacant, he was elected to
fill it, and continued to do so until the rebellion broke out. He sympathized so
ardently with the rebel leaders that he was induced in an evil moment to resign
his bishopric, and accepted from Jeff Davis a commission in the rebel army as
Major-General. His service has chiefly been in the Southwest. He was in command
for some time at Columbus, Kentucky, and took part in the
Battle of Shiloh. His present station we hardly
Report says that since Bishop
Polk became a soldier he has doffed the decent manners of the episcopate for the
habits of a trooper—that he drinks, swears, etc., etc.
MY name is Karoly Varga. I worked
in the salt-mines, as my father and brother do, and as my grandfather did, and
his father before him. On the 17th August, 1723, I dressed myself as usual and
descended into the mine, taking with me a box of candles, which were to be used
for a purpose I shall mention presently. My orders were to make a careful
examination of the arches that had been erected, and the blocks that had been
placed round the pools of water to prevent the expected visitors from falling
in, for it was intended to give a concert and entertainment in honor of the
director of the mine and his wife, who would complete twenty-five years of
married life on the twenty-fifth day of the month mentioned. I had also to
select a place in which to establish the orchestra, of which I was myself one of
the members, the rest having deputed me to make this choice in consequence of my
experience in working the mine, care being always requisite in choosing the
position, from the danger of the vibration causing a fall. Having performed the
first part of my duty I climbed up into a gallery, which had been cut long
before the mine had reached its present depth, to select the position in which
the orchestra was to establish itself. The spot that seemed most suitable was a
recess, lofty at the entrance but of no great depth. Its shape was so good for
the purpose that I fetched the box of candles and put it in the recess ready for
use. It was not till I had done this that it occurred to me to sound my horn and
try the effect produced. I blew it first at the entrance, then drew back farther
and farther, sounding
it at intervals, knowing there
were others in the mine who would be able to tell me what the effect was in that
part where the company would be assembled. I was standing at the very bottom of
the cave, and was in the act of drawing a deep breath to sound a final blast,
when I was stopped by a pattering sound which paralyzed me, and before I was
myself again there was a fall of earth and salt, lumps of which rolled to my
feet. I had a lighted torch beside me, and with this I examined the fall to see
if there was any opening for escape, but there was none, the recess being
blocked up to the roof. I thought I might call the attention of my fellow-miners
to my position by blowing my horn, but the only result of my doing so was to
cause another fall. I laid it down to think over my position, and calculate my
chance of escape. I hoped that, as they would be certain to miss me within a few
hours, there might be something in the slip to attract their attention. Hour
after hour passed over without my hearing a sound, except that caused by the
earth crumbling down as it settled into a firmer mass. The torch I had
extinguished long since, to save myself from being suffocated by the smoke, and
instead of it I had lighted a candle, but this melted away in a few minutes
owing to the air being so hot. I was now in total darkness. The air was filled
with particles of salt, which stung my eyes and made the inside of my mouth, and
nose, and my throat smart painfully, besides exciting a sensation of intense
thirst. As for hunger, it was long before I felt it, and when I did I had a
ready means at hand for assuaging it, in the box of tallow, which, disgusting as
it would have been at any other time, was a treasure to me now. There was
another comforting circumstance, that air made its way to the little hollow in
which I was confined: where from I could not tell, but it was sufficient in
quantity to prevent me from being suffocated, though breathing was a matter of
great difficulty and pain. I soon began to feel sleepy, and stretched myself on
the ground, but whether I slept only a few minutes or several hours I have no
idea; and so the early part of my imprisonment passed away.
All this time nothing had
occurred to show that any body had discovered the place where I was buried,
though I was sure I must have been missed long since. Then, for the first time,
I was seized with a hopeless dread. I became intensely cold, my heart almost
ceased to beat, and my tongue and the roof of my mouth became dry and hard, as
if it had been burned with a red-hot iron. I curled myself in a heap on the
ground, and for a time was insensible. When I again grew conscious my sufferings
were much aggravated. A burning heat was gnawing at my body from head to foot.
The feeling is indescribable and can not be imagined. I knew that the salt was
getting into my blood, and that I must soon go raving mad if I could not keep it
out of my lungs. I ate as much of the tallow as I could, or rather I put it in
my mouth and let it run down my throat. This relieved me very much, and I then
tore a piece off my dress and fastened it across my mouth and nose, which added
to the difficulty of breathing, but kept the larger particles of salt from
entering my lungs. I also found that the air was better when I was standing than
when I was lying down, and front thenceforth I stood with my back resting
against the side of the cave, as much as my strength allowed me. Before this I
had tried to remove the earth nearest the roof, but I could find nothing to
encourage me to persevere, and the exertion was so painful, and the clouds of
salt dust raised were so thick, notwithstanding that I placed every handful I
took out carefully at the bottom of the heap, that I desisted, thinking it
better to bear my sufferings as patiently as I could till my situation was
discovered than to render it worse by vain efforts to escape from it. But as
they continued to increase I determined to make another attempt, whatever the
consequence might be. I grouped about till I found the hole I had made, and
began to rake out the earth with my hands, but with less precaution than before,
for I had now become desperate, and would gladly have died to have been released
from my misery. The salt forced itself through the cloth over my face,
penetrated to my lungs, and caused me such torture as no words can describe. I
dashed myself against the sides of my prison, I beat my head against the rock,
but I was unconscious of pain from so doing; life seemed raging within me with
greater strength and intensity than I had ever felt before, and it seemed to me
that I could move a mountain by my own strength alone. I thrust my head and
shoulders into the hole I had made, and tried to burrow my way through like a
mole, and when I could endure this no longer I threw myself on the ground and
rolled and writhed. In imagination I screamed and cried, but in truth I could
utter no sound. I prayed, oh! how fervently I prayed, for death, but it would
not come. Then I swallowed some of my provisions, and this gave me relief for a
time, but only for a time, for the same tortures began again very soon, followed
by a repetition of my frantic attempts at self-destruction. If I could have
abstained from the only thing that gave me relief my torments must soon have
been at an end; but the very intensity of my pain forced me, against my will, to
resort to it. Thus my sufferings went on ebbing and flowing, but, like the
rising tide, always mounting.
I was in this dreadful condition
when I heard the sound of music. At first I thought it must be my imagination,
that I was at last going mad. Then, as it continued, I remembered the concert in
honor of the director. I searched about for my horn, and when the music was
silent, I raised it to my lips and tried to sound it: I might as well have
attempted to rend the rock asunder which cut me off from the light; my dry and
cracked lips would not fit themselves to the instrument, and the little air my
lungs were still capable of expelling wasted itself soundlessly. In my madness I
beat it furiously against the ground, I bit and gnawed it, and, finally, I
dashed it down, and seizing handfuls of the dirt, I thrust it into my mouth in
to choke myself. Again and again
the music was renewed, but at last it ceased altogether, and I knew that I was
once more alone in the mine.
I afterward learned that, during
the concert, one of the miners in wandering through the old workings noticed a
mark on the rock where I had cleared the head of the torch. The freshness of
this mark drew his attention to the fall of earth, and though he was not able to
distinguish whether this fall was of recent or old date, he pointed it out to
others, and they determined to clear it away, that my body, if it were beneath
it, might receive Christian burial. The next day the director gave them a fete
in return for their entertainment, and the following day being Sunday, it was
not till the succeeding day they began digging for me, which was the twelfth day
of my imprisonment. On that evening I was released and carried out of the mine.
My appearance at this time was
frightful. Every hair had fallen from me, my eyes had disappeared, and my body,
from head to foot, was covered with crystals of salt. I was laid in warm water
and kept there: warm and cold water was given me to drink as often as I could
swallow it, and my sufferings soon began to diminish. In time they became
endurable, but they have never left me altogether, and I shall always be a poor,
blind, suffering creature such as I am now.
SODA ASH, of different tests,
for Soap and Glass makers, various brands, 200 Tons.
CAUSTIC SODA, in packages of 5
cwt., of the best English make. SAL SODA and Newcastle BI CARB. SODA, 250 Tons.
PALM OIL, an assortment, 100 Casks of prime. CREAM TARTAR and TARTARIC ACID
crystals; also powdered, perfectly pure. THOMAS ANDREWS & CO., Importers, 136
and 138 Cedar St., New York.
WANTED IMMEDIATELY, in
every town and village, an agent of either sex to engage in a light and
profitable business, by which from $8 to $12 per week can be made. Persons
having leisure evenings can make from 50 cents to $1 per evening.—A sample with
full particulars sent by mail to all who inclose THREE letter stamps (9 cents),
and address IRA RUSSELL & CO., Hooksett, N. H.
AGENTS WANTED. [No
Humbug.] Send 3c. circular.
Magnifies small objects 10,000
times. So simple that a child may use it. A most suitable present for any
person. Price by mail $2.25; with six mounted objects $3. Address HENRY CRAIG,
182 Centre Street, New York.
E. M. I. V. B.
To soldiers and others afflicted
with Rheumatism, Gout, Cold or Blistered Feet, &c., the Galvano Electro Magnetic
Insoles and Voltaic Belts, made under Mettam & Co.'s English and American
Patents, are warranted to effect immediate and lasting cures in all of the above
ailments. We insert the following in evidence of their successful application:
WASHINGTON, D. C., Sept. 9, 1862. Mettam & Co., Dear Sirs:—I have used your
Insoles for more than one year, and can say truly that they are a cure and
preventive of Rheumatism. I commend them to the Public. Respectfully
EDMUND J. PORTER, Paymaster U. S.
A. Office 429 Broadway. Call or send for a circular.
New Book of Sacred Quartets.
BAUMBACH'S SACRED QUARTETS. A
Collection of Pieces for the OPENING AND CLOSE OF SERVICE. By ADOLPH BAUMBACH.
Price—In cloth, $2.50; boards, $2.25. Copies mailed, post-paid, on receipt of
price. OLIVER DITSON & COMPANY, Publishers, Boston. MOURNING EAR-RINGS. PINS AND
BRACELETS. NEW PATTERNS. For sale by GEO. C. ALLEN, No. 415 Broadway, New York.
STEEL EAR-RINGS, PINS AND BELT
CLASPS. For sale by GEO. C. ALLEN, No.415 Broadway, New York. SOLID GOOD
THIMBLES. Some as low as $3 each. At G. C. ALLEN'S, No. 415 Broadway, New York.
TELESCOPIC WATCH KEYS AND CHARMS, Of
Scott, the Lord's Prayer, &c. For sale by GEO.
C. ALLEN, No. 415 Broadway, New York.
$30 a Month. — Wanted,
Book Canvassers, who will work for the above wages and expenses paid. Send for a
circular. Address S. E. FRENCH & CO., 121 Nassau Street, New York.
Attention Masons and Soldiers.
I will send (as sample), on the
receipt of $1, a handsome Gold Masonic Pin or Ring, or Plated Vest chain, or a
fine Gold Pen and Pencil, or engraved Locket, or Bracelet, or Neck Chain, or a
beautiful set of Jewelry, together with my wholesale Circular. W. A. HAYWARD,
Manufacturing Jeweler, 208 Broadway, New York.
These Celebrated Engraved Cards
sold only at J. EVERDELL'S Old Establishment, 302 Broadway, cor. Duane St., N.Y.
Established 1840. For Specimen by Mail, send two stamps.
FRIENDS OF SOLDIERS!
All Articles for Soldiers at
Baltimore, Washington, Hilton Head, Newbern, and all places occupied by Union
troops, should be sent, at half rates, by HARNDEN'S EXPRESS, No. 74 Broadway.
Sutlers charged low rates.
Every Man his own Printer.
Portable Printing-Offices for the
Army and Navy, Druggists, and Business Men generally. Send for a circular. ADAMS
PRESS COMPANY, 31 Park Row (under Lovejoy's Hotel), New York.
$60 A MONTH!—We want Agents at
Sixty Dollars a month and all expenses paid, to sell our new CLOTHES WRINGERS,
ORIENTAL BURNERS, and 12 other new articles. Address SHAW & CLARK, Biddeford,
DO YOU WANT LUXURIANT WHISKERS
OR MUSTACHES?—My Onguent will force them to grow heavily in six weeks (upon
the smoothest face) without stain or injury to the skin. Price $1—sent by mail,
post free, to any address, on receipt of an order. R. G. GRAHAM, No. 109 Nassau
Street, N. Y.
J. H. Winslow & Co.
Watches, Chains, Sets of Jewelry,
Pens, Bracelets, Lockets, Rings,
Pins, Sleeve Buttons, Studs, &c.,
To be sold for ONE DOLLAR each,
without regard to value, and not to be paid for until you know what you are to
get. Send for Circular containing full list and particulars. Send 25 cents for a
Certificate. Certificates of all the various articles, stating what each one can
have, are first put into envelopes, sealed up, and mixed; and when ordered, are
taken out without regard to choice, and sent by mail, thus giving all a fair
chance. On receipt of the Certificate you will see what you can have, and then
it is at your option to send one dollar and take the article or not. In all
transactions by mail, we shall charge for forwarding the Certificates, paying
postage, and doing the business, 25 cents each, which must be enclosed when the
certificate is sent for. Five Certificates will be sent for $1, eleven for $2,
thirty for $5, sixty-five for $10, and one hundred for $15.
AGENTS.—Those acting as
Agents will be allowed ten cents on every certificate ordered by them, provided
their remittance amounts to one dollar. Agents will collect 25 cents for every
Certificate and remit 15 cents to us, either in cash or postage stamps. Great
caution should be used by our correspondents in regard to giving their correct
address, Town, County, and State. Address J. H. WINSLOW & CO. 208
Broadway, New York. N.B. We wish it distinctly understood that all articles of
jewelry not giving perfect satisfaction can be returned and the money will be
SILVER HUNTING LEVERS for $12,
worth $18. AMERICAN HUNTING LEVERS for $20, worth $30. Send for circular. J. L.
FERGUSON, 208 Broadway, N. Y.
To all Wanting Farms.
Large and thriving settlement of
Vineland. Rich soil. Good crops of Wheat, Corn, Peaches, &c., to be seen—only 30
miles from Philadelphia. Delightful climate—20 acre tracts of from $15 to $20
per acre, payable within 4 years. Good schools and society. Hundreds are
settling. Apply to CHAS. K. LANDIS, P.M., Vineland, Cumberland Co., New Jersey.
Report of Solon Robinson and Vineland Rural sent free. From Report of Solon
Robinson, Ag. Ed. Tribune. "It is one of the most extensive fertile tracts, in
an almost level position, and suitable condition for pleasant farming that we
know of this side of the Western Prairies.
Ballard's Patent Breech-Loading Rifle.
This arm is entirely new, and is
universally acknowledged to be the nearest to perfection of any Breech-Loading
Rifle ever made. Length of barrel 24 inches, weight of Rifle 7 pounds. Size of
Calibre adapted to Nos. 32, 38, and 44 copper water-proof Cartridges. Also,
Prescott's Cartridge Revolvers
The 8in., or Navy Size, carries a
Ball weighing 38 to the lb., and the No. 32, or 4in. Revolver, a Ball 80 to the
lb. By recent experiments made in the Army, these Revolvers were pronounced the
best and most effective weapons in use. For particulars call or send for a
Circular to MERWIN & BRAY, Sole Agents, No. 262 Broadway, N. Y. Also Agents for
the SOLDIER'S BULLET-PROOF VEST.
Jewelry for Army, Navy, and Country Trade, the most salable kinds at the lowest
Eastern prices. Circular of prices, &c., free. HUBBARD BROS., New York.
BEAUTY.—Hunt's Bloom of
Roses, a charming and perfectly natural color for the cheeks, or lips. Will not
wash off, but remains durable for years. Can only be removed with vinegar, and
warranted not to injure the skin. Used by the celebrated Court Beauties of
Europe exclusively. Mailed free from observation for one dollar.
HUNT & CO., Perfumers, 133 S.
Seventh St., Philad.
HARPER & BROTHERS,
FRANKLIN SQUARE, NEW YORK,
Have Just Published:
HISTORY OF FRIEDRICH II., CALLED
FREDERICK THE GREAT. By THOMAS CARLYLE. Vol. III., with Portrait and Maps. 12mo,
Cloth, $1.25. THACKERAY'S PHILIP. The Adventures of Philip on his Way through
the World; showing who robbed Him, who helped Him, and who passed Him by. By W.
M. THACKERAY, Author of "Vanity Fair," "The Newcomes," "The Virginians," "Pendennis,"
"The English Humorists of tile Eighteenth Century," "The Four Georges," &c.,
&c., &c. With Illustrations. 8vo, Cloth, $1.50.
FIRST BOOK IN CHEMISTRY.
For the Use of Schools and Families. By WORTHINGTON HOOKER, M.D., Professor of
the Theory and Practice of Medicine in Yale College, Author of "The Child's Book
of Nature," "Natural History," &c. Illustrated by Engravings. Square 4to, Cloth,
50 cents. Sent by mail on receipt of Price.
Single Copies Six Cents.
WILKIE COLLINS'S New Story, entitled "NO NAME,"
was commenced in the Number for March 15 (No. 272) of
And will be continued from week
to week until completed.
One Copy for One Year
One Copy for Two Years
Ten Copies for One Year
An Extra Copy will be allowed for
every Club of TEN SUBSCRIBERS.
HARPER'S MAGAZINE and HARPER'S
WEEKLY, together, one year, $4.00.
HARPER'S WEEKLY is electrotyped,
and Back Numbers can be had at any time.
Vols. I., II., III., IV., and V.,
for the Years 1857, 1858, 1859, 1860, and 1861, of "HARPER'S WEEKLY," handsomely
bound in Cloth extra, Price $3.50 each, are now ready.
The Publishers employ no
TRAVELING AGENTS. Parties who desire to subscribe to Harper's Magazine or
Harper's Weekly had better remit direct to the Publishers, or pay their
subscription to some Postmaster or General Agent with whom they are acquainted,
and of whose responsibility they are assured. HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,
FRANKLIN SQUARE, NEW YORK.