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Robert E. Lee Portrait
GUERRILLA RAID IN THE
WE publish on pages
616 and 617 a
large illustration of a
GUERRILLA RAID IN THE WEST, in order that our readers
may understand the sort of war which the rebels are waging.
John Morgan, the highwayman of Kentucky, boasts
of his success in this style of warfare. By way of confirming the truthfulness
of our artist's picture, we subjoin a few extracts culled from recent papers:
Clouds and darkness are gathering
and thickening around the counties of Southern Kentucky. Terror and alarm
prevail among the people. Society is torn to pieces, while order and civil law
are dead letters. Guerrillas scout the country, and men are shot down in the
streets of the towns. Horses are taken from wagons, travelers are left on foot
in the road, houses are pillaged, and families driven to the woods for shelter.
George B. Blakey and Captain Morrow came in here from Russellville to-day. The
former came to beseech reinforcements for the protection of himself, his
friends, and neighbors; the latter for the safety of his life, which was
threatened, and of which he came near being deprived in a recent attack upon him
by the miscreant rebels of his town. Russellville is twenty-eight miles south of
this point, and immediately on the Memphis and Clarksville Railroad. Mr. Blakey
says the few Union citizens of the place suffer every conceivable indignity, and
they lie down at night, not to sleep, but to remain in defenseless terror until
the dawn. An attack is apprehended upon Russellville, and the greatest alarm
prevailed, as the small force stationed there is insufficient to hold out
against a combined attack of the guerrillas.
Every day new barbarities
perpetrated by the rebels come to light. This week two soldiers who had
straggled from the ranks on the march from — were found, it is reported on
credible authority, by the roadside with their throats cut from ear to ear.
Here the rebels were guilty of
barbarous atrocities. Many of the dead had their throats cut, and presented a
horrible spectacle. One man was brought in who had had his eyes picked out by
their bayonets. In short, they evinced the most unrelenting fury on finding this
way of retreat cut off to them.
Numbers of our men were found
with their throats cut, and some had their eyes picked out. One was found tied
to a tree. But enough of these horrors—I must conclude.
To what depths of inhuman
wickedness men, or fiends, can descend! Prisoners taken by the rebels were
afterward deliberately murdered, and the fingers of our dead cut off to secure
rings. We grow wiser every day.
The main bodies of the guerrillas
(in Missouri) are north and west of us. You hear through the papers of the
principal skirmishes taking place daily, but there are hundreds of cases of
individual assassination that never will be known outside their immediate
neighborhood. I can count six cases in this county during the last week, and
this is considered one of the most civil counties in the State.
Fifty of Morgan's men went to
Scottsville on Monday, made several arrests, and carried off a large quantity of
goods from several stores, leaving that afternoon, and promising to return that
night with the whole force. There is great excitement at Glasgow.
The rules of war are entirely
ignored by the guerrillas, and their men are made enthusiastic demons by the
promises of plunder, a chance to murder the hated Yankees with impunity, and of
larger liberty to gratify their fiendish hate whenever they enter the free
States, which they are confident of doing at a very early day. The guerrilla
system of warfare has always heretofore been ignored by every civilized
people—not alone for its barbarity, but because, as a military agency, it was
The barbarities in respect to our
dead are not exceeded by any thing in the history of the last four thousand
years, the details being savage practices.
One man says: They kept
bayoneting me until I received fourteen wounds. One then left me, the other
remaining over me, when a Union soldier coming up shot him in the breast, and he
fell dead. I lay on the ground until ten o'clock next day.
The fellow at first made no
reply, but, stooping down, seized the dead man by the hair and dragged him
partially out of his grave, in order to get at the buttons on his clothes for
Another saw the brains of the
wounded being beaten out by clubs, thus confirming the previous newspaper
About one o'clock Sunday morning,
the 7th inst., Quantrell, with two hundred and thirty men, dashed into and took
possession of Olathe, the county seat of Johnson County, Kansas. From that time
until he left, at an early hour in the morning, he and his men were engaged in
the work of murder, plunder, and devastation.
Mr. Skinner and Mr. Wiggins, both
recruits, were killed for making resistance. Mr. Blanchard, of Spring Hill, was
also killed. They took fifty horses and mules, attached them to the best wagons
they could find, and loaded them with goods seized from the stores. Private
houses were entered, furniture broken, blankets stolen, and doors and windows
beaten down. A Union flag suspended over the recruiting-office of Captain Hayes
was torn to shreds and trampled in the dust by these mad assailants.
Quantrell said when he left that
he was going to Paola, and that he should not rest until he had laid the border
INVASION OF MARYLAND.
page 613 we publish an illustration of THE
REBELS CROSSING ONE OF THE FORDS OF THE UPPER POTOMAC for the invasion of
Maryland; on page 620 a view of the
CITY OF FREDERICK, which they occupied at
once, but which we have since retaken; on
page 621 a view of
MARYLAND, which they occupied on 10th; and on
page 614 a large and elaborate Map of the SEAT
The rebels appear to have begun
their crossing on 4th, and to have thrown bodies of men steadily forward ever
since. The artillery crossed on a pontoon bridge, the cavalry and infantry
forded the stream, the water being knee and thigh deep. A person who watched
them cross said of them:
The rebels are wretchedly clad,
and generally destitute of shoes. The cavalry men are mostly barefooted, and the
feet of the infantry are bound up in rags and pieces of rawhide. Their uniforms
are in tatters, and many are without hats or caps. They are very sanguine of
success, and say that when they get to Baltimore they will get every thing they
need. They have very few tents, the men mostly, when encamped, sleeping on the
Frederick is a very handsome
little town of some 6000 inhabitants, built on a creek running into the Monocacy.
Market Street, which occupies the centre of our picture, is the principal
thoroughfare, and is usually a scene of great activity, as Frederick is a lively
place. The correspondent of the Baltimore
American thus described the
entrance of the rebels into Frederick:
They made their appearance in the
city about 10 o'clock in the morning, and marched in quietly, evidently having
full knowledge that there was no opposition to be made to them. The force was
halted on Market Street, and a proclamation issued to the people.
The foraging parties sent out in
various directions to secure cattle, returned during the evening with droves of
sheep, hogs, beeves, cows, and horses. They seized every thing they wanted, and
are said to have tendered payment in Federal "green backs," whether counterfeit
or good, is not known. These cattle were all driven toward the Potomac. The
purchases made in Frederick are said to have been paid for partly in Federal
money, but mostly in Virginia and South Carolina money.
A rebel Provost Marshal was
appointed, with a strong guard, to preserve order, and during the afternoon the
streets were thronged with rebel soldiers visiting the stores —which the Provost
Marshal ordered to be opened—and purchasing shoes and clothing, of which they
were in great want. So far as we could learn, strict order was preserved. One of
our informants states that a meeting of the citizens was called on Saturday
evening, at which an address was delivered by Bradley Johnson, who used the most
conciliatory language, and made great predictions as to the power of the rebel
army not only to hold Western Maryland, but to capture Baltimore and Washington,
and dictate terms of peace in Independence Square at Philadelphia. The rebel
sympathizers generally attended the meeting, but the few Union men who had
remained kept to their homes. At 10 o'clock at night the men were all ordered to
their camps on the outskirts of the city, and the first day of rebel rule in
Frederick passed off quietly and peacefully.
The Federal flag was lowered from
all the poles in Frederick, and the rebel "stars and bars" hoisted in their
place. Most of the officers were quartered at the hotels and at the houses of
prominent rebels, though a good many of the latter had also fled the city.
Hagerstown, which was entered by
the rebels under Jackson on 10th, is a city of about 4500 inhabitants, contains
seven churches and three banks, and is the depot for an extensive grain-growing
country. Its site is very beautiful, being in the heart of the Cumberland
Valley. On either side run the North and South Mountains, about twenty-five
miles apart, and along the eastern limits of the place courses a charming
rivulet, the Antietam. Washington County, of which Hagerstown is the chief mart,
was organized in 1776. Elizabethtown was the name given to the original
settlement; but this was changed to its present title by act of Legislature
about the year 1813, out of compliment to Christian Hager, a prominent citizen.
A corporation charter was also obtained at the same time, and a Moderator and
Commissioners formed the officers of the city government. A new charter in 1846
provided for the election of a Mayor and Common Council.
Many delightful drives are to be
found around the city, and many elegant residences. Among the more prominent
public buildings depicted in our sketch are the Lutheran and Dutch Reformed
churches, the Market, and the Washington House. The latter is a surprisingly
fine hotel for so small a place, being large, handsome, and well kept. An
unwonted prominence was last year given to Hagerstown by reason of its being
selected as the head-quarters of the "Military Department of Pennsylvania," over
which Major-General Patterson presided.
The Map will be better understood
by reference to the following topographical sketch:
Sugar-loaf Mountain—which our own
signal corps had held but a few days ago, and upon which a signal station had
been established during all the last year while General Banks was upon the Upper
Potomac—is now held by the rebels and devoted to the same very important use.
[It has again been seized by
General McClellan since this was written.—Ed.
H. W.] From the point at which I am now writing the mountain can be distinctly
seen across the valley which spreads out before us. By the aid of a glass we can
plainly distinguish the rebels upon its summit, and the very impudent
confederate flag, of a size not less than a barn door (somewhat indefinite),
which floats upon the breeze near by them.
This mountain is only twelve
miles distant in an air line; so it may be seen that we are attaining to a
position somewhat nearer to the rebels than we were.
From Darnestown as far northward
as Sugar-loaf Mountain the country is slightly rolling. Beyond the Sugar-loaf,
toward Frederick and northward, the country is more level and not so well
adapted to the sort of fighting and manoeuvring in which the rebels have been so
often successful. I only ask, if we are to have a fight in that vicinity, our
men may have a chance to show the stuff they are made of in a fair field fight.
In that case. I should feel safe in predicting that the rebels would regret that
they had not staid at home.
There is the old National road
which runs from
Washington to Frederick, passing through
Rockville. The distance from Rockville to Frederick over this road is 28 miles.
It is the old mail route, and a good one for an army. From Rockville there is
another road which passes through Darnestown and Poolesville, running nearly
parallel with the Potomac, and still another road, with the same general
direction, runs nearer the river than this.
From the road which passes
through Darnestown there are several others which lead to Frederick, and one of
them branches at this point. The distance to Frederick from Darnestown is the
same as it is from Rockville, viz., 28 miles; but the best road is that which
branches from this one at Poolesville, nine miles distant. Poolesville is only
eighteen miles from Frederick.
The rebel army evacuated
Frederick on 12th, passing through Boonsborough and Hagerstown toward
Eye-witnesses state that the
rebel column was from nine o'clock in the morning until dark passing a given
point. The force of the rebels, estimated by an officer who witnessed their
movements, was thirty thousand infantry, six thousand cavalry, and ninety pieces
FIRST VIRGINIA CAVALRY.
WE publish on
page 612 a
fine picture of the
FIRST VIRGINIA CAVALRY, one of the crack regiments of the rebel
service. Mr. Waud writes:
"Being detained within the
enemy's lines, an opportunity occurred to make a sketch of one of the two crack
regiments of the Confederate service. They seemed to be of considerable social
standing, that is, most of them—F. F. V.'s, so to speak, and not irreverently;
for they were not only as a body handsome, athletic men, but generally polite
and agreeable in manner. With the exception of the officers, there was little
else but homespun among them, light drab-gray or butternut color, the drab
predominating; although there were so many varieties of dress, half-citizen,
half-military, that they could scarcely be said to have a uniform. Light jackets
and trowsers with black facings, and slouched hats, appeared to be (in those
cases where the
wearer could obtain it) the court
costume of the regiment. Their horses were good; in many cases, they told me,
they provided their own. Their arms were the United States cavalry sabre,
Sharp's carbine, and pistols. Some few of them had old swords of the Revolution,
curved, and in broad, heavy scabbards.
"Their carbines, they said, were
mostly captured from our own cavalry, for whom they expressed utter contempt—a
feeling unfortunately shared by our own army. Finally, they bragged of having
their own horses, and, in many cases, of having drawn no pay from the
Government, not needing the paltry remuneration of a private. The flag
represented in the picture is the battle-flag. White border, red ground, blue
cross, and white stars."
"REMEMBER, Janet, where you
"And write just as soon as
"And oh, Jenny! my photograph.
I'm to have
the profile view, you know. Don't
"And I, too, Miss Jenny," said a
deeper voice in
a lower tone.
Then the last bell rang, the
girls repeated all in breath their parting words, young Carew swung the small
boy upon his shoulder in time to whisper a pretty phrase, Uncle John reiterated,
"Remember, Janet, where you change cars;" and the next moment they stood upon
the platform and Janet was speeding on her way.
She had congratulated herself
upon securing an entire seat; but at the frequent way stations one after another
dropped in, until the car was full, and Janet, with that fine courtesy of hers,
gave up her place by the window to an old lady. It was quite late in the evening
when they arrived at —.
"What, again? how I hate
accommodation trains!" growled one to his neighbor, waking up out of a doze,
then subsiding sleepily with, "Well, there is no room for any more in this car."
Just then the door opened and
"one more" entered. A soldier in worn and shabby uniform—worn and shabby
himself—"only a private," and evidently a very common sort of a person. He
limped in with drooping head, his arm in a sling, his face half-covered with a
neglected beard, showing signs of weakness and suffering. Janet looked up and
around her. Surely some of these strong men about her would rise up and offer
this poor fellow a seat. But they had all settled themselves for the night, and
Janet waited in vain for them to rise.
So the train fled on, and the
soldier leaned against the door, and, under the glare of the light beside him,
Janet, from her place two or three seats away, saw what a weary effort it was
for him. Surprise had given way to indignation on her face, and then there came
an expression of some sudden resolve staved only by timidity.
She hated to draw attention upon
herself, and shrank with nervous dread from making a scene of any kind; but the
minutes went by, and the weary face grew wearier, and all about her there was
heavy breathing or the turning of book-leaves, evincing the preoccupation of
those that were awake, and the utter hopelessness of any of these "strong men"
discovering the necessities of the situation.
A moment more and Janet had made
up her mind. There was a deeper flush than usual on her cheek as she rose very
quietly and went forward—only a few steps—for as I have said her seat was near
The head of the soldier was
drooping into his breast as she came up, and she touched his arm before he saw
A flush almost as deep as her own
rose to the sallow, wasted cheek as she spoke to him, and for a second he seemed
transformed as he drew himself up and with many thanks refused her proposal.
"But I am better able to stand
than you are," she urged; "and, indeed, it will please me much more if you will
take my place than if you refused it."
He was refusing again when a
sudden pallor came over his features. He staggered slightly, and the next
instant Janet had put her hand in his arm, and before he could oppose the
proceeding he was in her seat, and Janet asking him to keep it in a way that
would have convinced any person, however dull, that she would be exceedingly
annoyed if he didn't.
Then the young lady returned to
the door, and leaning in a light, untired manner against the casing, opened her
book. But she was not unaware of the observation she had excited. The slight
commotion had roused first one, then another; and it needed all Janet Wilmont's
self-possession to keep her eyes steadily fixed upon the page and her color
First one, and then another; and
there was a general fidget, and every body seemed to wake up. By-and-by a young
man near her stepped out of his seat and approached her. A handsome person, with
rather an elegant air.
"There has been a mistake," he
said, with a bend of his head, a grave face, and a slightly imperative tone.
Janet looked up questioningly.
"Probably no one observed that
the young man to whom you relinquished your seat was unable to stand when he
entered," explained the imperative tones, and quite as an imperative gesture,
though perfectly well-bred, waved her to the place he had vacated.
Janet Wilmont, though shy of
making a spectacle, and always shrinking from putting herself forward, had
plenty of spirit and a great deal of pride, and it rose up now at what she
considered altogether too lordly a manner, and a decided interference where
interference was unwarrantable.
A meaning glance of her eye at
the drooping figure, with its disabled arm, spoke as plainly as if she had said:
"It hardly needed that last reeling step to show you his condition;" but she
aloud, in rather a dry way, and a
slightly haughty accent,
"Thank you, I prefer standing. I
am quite able;" and turned immediately to her book—a proceeding that completely
put an end to any more words, and sent the young gentleman back to his seat
Glancing at the cause of all
this, Janet became conscious of a pair of hollow, brilliant eyes fixed upon her
with a curious intent expression; but the moment he felt himself observed they
went down beneath the visor of his cap, and the brown beard drooped lower
against the shabby uniform.
At the next station she
remembered that she was to change cars. She looked at her watch—not more than
half an hour longer to remain in her present not over-agreeable position; and
then she thought,
"I do hope my soldier-boy won't
in the mean time have another foolish fit of politeness, and annoy me by
staggering up and insisting upon my resuming my seat. Was there ever a person so
pestered in a simple act of courtesy as I have been?" And a laugh fluttered up
to her lips and died out in a smile of amusement. But the "soldier-boy," to her
infinite relief, kept his place, leaning a tired head against the cushioned back
in a manner that evinced how much he needed rest and care.
At the "next station" all was
bustle and confusion, and, in the midst of it, Janet saw her "soldier-boy"
following her as she left the car.
It was dense darkness outside,
and a hurrying crowd and a Babel of tongues did not tend to put the young lady
at her ease.
Now and then the flashing of a
lantern would give her a glimpse of a train, and a conductor would rush by with
some unintelligible words, and baggage-men and the trundling of their freight
helped to confuse still more. A feeling of despair was giving place to her
uncertainty when some one touched her arm:
"This way, if you please. You are
to take the down train, are you not?"
"Yes, thank you."
She was conscious of a light
touch upon her arm in guiding, and presently the voice spoke again—a deep-toned,
well-modulated voice—that of a gentleman undoubtedly.
"Here we are: be careful of that
Inside the car she turned to
thank him. The lights fell only upon the "soldier-boy." The words staid upon her
lips, a look of surprise on her face, and then a few words of question:
Again that sudden searching look
she remembered from the brilliant eyes; a suggestion of a smile just the flutter
of an eyelid, and he said:
"Allow me to thank you for your
great kindness. I was really more unable to stand than I at first thought. I can
do very well in walking a little distance, but the continued tension of the
muscles of my leg in standing for any length of time I find more fatiguing than
any thing else."
The same voice that had warned
her of the step.
Her protector was, after all, the
As she glanced at the
rough-looking fellow before her, and heard those clearly-modulated tones, she
could scarcely credit her senses.
The few words of refusal he had
spoken at their first meeting an hour or two ago were so faint and low, that she
had not detected the quality of voice.
He turned a seat for her away
from the glare of the lamps, and placed himself in the one just behind, with a
weary motion that stayed the interested questions that Janet was about to ask
him concerning his wounds. And left to silence and her own thoughts, she fell to
speculating over the odd contrast of speech and person. She had just come to the
profound conclusion that though his condition in life was ever so humble, he
certainly must have a refined nature to possess such a voice; and then smiling
drowsily at her thoughts, she was half way down a dream where Grant Carew was
rallying her for her "queer interest in all sorts of people," she who was born
"—palm and the purple,"
when a gust of winter-wind
recalled her. Then a deep, laboring breath, which was half a groan, smote her
ear. She started quickly.
The window below hers was flung
open, and the figure of the soldier, leaning forward to inhale the air, with an
aspect of faintness. In a moment she had handed him a little cassolette filled
with aromatic salts that had hung at her watch-chain. Its pungent odor seemed to
have a vivifying influence, and she begged him to keep it—"she had really no use
Again the simple, self-possessed
manner, those wonderful tones, as he thanked her.
And again Janet fell to her
speculations, and thought of the great men who had risen from obscurity and
poverty to honor and eminence. She was sure this rough-looking soldier had the
soul of a gentleman. "Somebody ought to give him a helping hand, poor fellow!"
And again she laughed at herself, and fell to dreaming that same dream of Grant
Carew, never waking till they steamed into the town—her last stopping-place—and
the gray light of the dawn showed to her sleepy vision her brother Kit and Tom
the coachman in waiting for her. "How-de-do, Jenny ?" and Kit leaped in, giving
an order to Tom to bring the carriage nearer, and, as if there were not a second
to lose, was beginning to hustle her off in his usual Young America style, when
she turned and said something kind and pleasant to the soldier, "poor fellow!"
hoped he would be better, etc.; which the poor fellow answered with that same
easy simplicity of manner, in that inconsistent voice of his.
"Hallo, Jenny, who was that?,"
asked Kit, as they went out.
"Hush, Kit, he'll hear you!" and
then she told him all she knew about it in a lower voice. He laughed, but called
her a trump for giving her seat up to him; and arrived at home, where a
Christmas houseful of guests awaited them, what must he do but relate the story
himself, with embellishments, the saucy scamp!