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Page) civilization upon a large scale? No. Why do the rebels so
nervously denounce us as barbarians and extol themselves as highly civilized?
Because they know this truth. Unless, then, they can prove slavery to be the
sign of an advanced and advancing civilization, they forecast their own doom.
PAYING COLORED SOLDIERS.
IN his late Message to the
special session of the Massachusetts Legislature, Governor Andrew recommends
that the State pay its colored regiments the difference between their present
wages and those of other United States soldiers. His argument is conclusive.
There is no law of the United States by which any discrimination in payment of
military service can be made by reason of color. In truth, nobody but those who
are blinded by the stupid prejudices of slavery would for a moment think it
compatible with national honor to invite men to give themselves to the military
defense of the country, and then pay some of them lower wages because they were
of a different complexion. But in the case of the Massachusetts regiments the
men were expressly told that they were to receive the same pay as other
soldiers, so that it is a special injustice to them.
Governor Andrew presumes that
Congress will correct the unwise and dishonorable discrimination. For nothing is
more plainly established than the bravery, fidelity, and docility of the colored
troops. Moreover, their employment is part of the policy of the war, and unless
it be also part of that policy to prevent enlistments and destroy the morale of
the army, this foolish reluctance to a frank acknowledgement of the services of
every good soldier will disappear. When it is remembered how splendidly these
men behaved upon the Mississippi and at Morris Island—that, wounded and upon his
knees, the color-sergeant of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts held up the flag,
and brought it still flying out of the fiery storm—and how ardent and profound
is their attachment to the flag and the cause it stands for, it is incredible
that any man, not a rebel or a Copperhead, should for a moment doubt what ought
to be done.
VICTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN 1832-3.
THE Loyal Publication Society
have lately issued a very interesting paper by Judge John Mason Williams,
ex-Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas in Massachusetts. It is a brief
account of the Nullification Controversy of 1832-3, and is intended to show that
South Carolina, and not General Jackson, was the victor. And the Chief Justice
shows what he intends, as appears from a very simple statement.
On the 24th of November, 1832,
the South Carolina Convention passed the Nullification Ordinance, making it the
duty of the Legislature to arrest the operation of the tariff of '32 in South
Carolina after the 1st of February, 1833. The Convention also issued an address
to the other sovereign States, stating that, in its desire to preserve the
Union, South Carolina would make certain concessions—which were, in substance,
that it would allow Congress to pass a revenue but not a protective tariff. This
address was sent to the President and to the Governors. Judge Williams quotes
the replies of seventeen of the twenty-three States, which, with the exception
of that of Virginia, vehemently denounce the South Carolina doctrine. The other
six are Rhode Island, Vermont, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Louisiana. Of
their action he has no record at hand.
The Act of Nullification reached
President Jackson early in December. He acknowledged its receipt on the 10th, in
the famous proclamation written by Edward Livingston. But in his annual Message
of the 4th, after the threats of South Carolina had been openly made, he
recommended that the tariff be reduced to the revenue standard. On the 12th of
February, 1833, Mr. Clay's Compromise bill was introduced, which was intended to
raise no more revenue than was "necessary for the economical support of the
Government." Mr. Calhoun, incarnate nullification, immediately approved it. Mr.
Robbins, the scholarly Senator from Rhode Island, said, "We offer her [South
Carolina] this bill, not to renounce this power [of nullification], but to
refrain from its exercise at present....If this precedent is to govern, where is
the security for the stability of the Union I can not see." Mr. Choate, of
Massachusetts, said, "You suppress nullification....by just promptly
granting....all it demands."
Meanwhile troops were raising in
South Carolina; and Congress passed the "Force Bill," while it was hastening to
yield the point in dispute. After that was yielded, on the 11th of March, the
South Carolina Convention met again. It congratulated itself upon its attitude
of resistance to the Government, by which it had procured a modification of the
tariff of 1832, even before it took effect. The Convention therefore repealed
the Nullification Act, which had achieved its purpose. But it declared the
"Force Bill" null and void within the State; and that act of nullification was
never repealed, revoked, or modified.
Thus, according to Judge
Williams, who supports his point by ample historical citations, the tariff of
1832 was modified by Congress under a threat from Smith Carolina. That the
Government was authorized to compel the execution of the laws is of no
importance, in view of the fact that the attitude of resistance had been assumed
and the day named for revolt to begin. Under such circumstances to change a law
is to surrender the dignity, the honor, and the power of the Government. If the
present Administration had abandoned Sumter before the 12th of April, 1861, it
would have done exactly what the Administration of 1832 did. Both said to South
Carolina, "You will fire at your peril." But the one hastened to do what
Carolina wanted before she had a chance to fire; the other calmly did its own
duty, and has turned the traitorous fire of South Carolina against her own
heart. There has been a great deal of sighing for General
Jackson since this war began.
General Jackson was a resolute soldier, but this war demanded a wise man.
No American picture is better
known than "Mercy's Dream," by Daniel Huntington, the President of the National
Academy. It was first exhibited in 1841, and the impression it then made of
grace, tenderness, richness, and loveliness has been since most widely extended
by a print which suggested, if it did not reproduce, the painting. Seventeen
years afterward Mr. Huntington, naturally anxious that a work, the fruit of his
earlier powers, which had been so universally admired should be made as perfect
as possible, painted another copy in a more masterly manner, which he intrusted
to one of the most eminent of the English engravers, Mr. Barlow, whose work is
familiar to all of us in his exquisite "Huguenot Lovers." It is this second,
mature work which is now exhibited under the auspices of Mr. M'Clure at Goupil's
It is a picture of great
brilliancy and beauty. The angel, lightly poised, is just placing the radiant
crown upon the head of Mercy, which is raised toward it with yearning
tenderness. The scene is a wood, and at the right of the spectator a deep, rich
vista of landscape nobly completes the work. It is remarkable for its purity,
sweetness, and simplicity, and the face of Mercy has a touching loveliness which
haunts the memory. The picture has also an interest of curiosity in its
remoteness from the topics of the time, and from the "sensational" effect, which
is as popular in art as in literature. Its charm depends upon the intrinsic
beauty of the theme and the treatment, and they are of the kind which time does
In another gallery at Goupil's is
Mr. James Hart's Memory of Berkshire Scenery—a large landscape, belonging to
Senator Morgan. It is full of the characteristic points of the Berkshire
landscape, although there is a sombreness in the long ranges of hills covered
with dark evergreens which is scarcely enough felt in the open, sunny rurality
of this scene. But the brawling brook, the intervale, the wood, the hill-side,
the farm, the long, delicious reach of summer perspective, with the white church
tower, and the remote, glimmering hills, are very beautiful. "Think of sitting
at your winter breakfast," said a friend, "and seeing upon your walls this
glimpse of summer!" That describes its magic. It is the painter's memory of a
summer made real and permanent.
THERE can be little doubt that
the rebellion is sorely pinched. Simultaneously with the confessions of want
which appear in the Southern papers comes the capture of two of the chief
blockade-runners. It remains only that
Wilmington should be sealed up, and the
privation which the rebel Commissary-General feared last April will be felt by
every ill-starred rebel in the South. As was said in the editorial columns of
this paper last week, the suppression of the rebellion becomes merely a question
of time. And then what? What is the danger? Merely that we shall be in
possession of a victory which we do not know how to use; that appeals to
magnanimity will be forcibly made in order to defraud success of its value.
The one thing that every man who
really understands the war will bear in mind is this, that although the rebel
armies may be defeated, the rebel mind will remain the same. The war is only the
cropping out of the radical, vital, social contest, which will generate open war
just so long as it continues. If an early New England settler, living on the
edge of the forest, supposed that he had secured peace and safety because he had
driven the wolf that threatened his farm into the woods, he was mistaken. The
wolf was the threat; the wolf was the danger. While the wolf lived the settler
could not lay his gun aside; but when he had killed him the peril ceased.
We may drive the rebel armies
before us, but if we leave their cause and inspiration untouched, they retire
only to recuperate. If the men who have led the rebellion return to the Union
under an oath of allegiance, the necessary hostility of Slavery and Liberty will
stimulate them to new plotting and treason. Some may abandon hope. But he does
not know slavery who does not know that it would begin the education of a new
generation of rebels.
GENERAL GANTT'S LETTER.
IT is a natural question whether
the letter of the rebel General Gantt to his fellow-sinners at the South may be
considered to be the expression of any very general feeling. Is it likely that
the waning fortunes of the rebellion will incline many of its supporters to
acquiesce in the profound social change and destruction of sectional traditions
which the victory of the Government logically implies? Will suffering and loss
and discomfiture, inflicted by men and a part of the country they have always
been taught to despise, incline the rebels to resign with equanimity their own
social system and theories? or will they generally be left sullen and
unconvinced, although subdued?
That there will be very many like
General Gantt can not be doubted. But can the long social and political
convictions of a section like the South be uprooted by the fortune of a brief
war? Is it not only very recently, and not without great reluctance, that so
noble, sincere, and unreserved a Union man as Andrew Johnson has come to see
that colored soldiers ought to be employed, and that slaves should be
emancipated? And how many authoritative and imposing manifestations have we had
from Union men in Louisiana, for instance, which we have so long held in part,
and in which the slavery system has been demoralized, that they are willing to
let it go, and combine heartily to try the inevitable experiment of free labor?
While in Missouri, which has been mangled by the war and scourged with fire,
loyal vote is almost equally
divided between a policy of liberty and slavery.
Such facts should be pondered,
that we may not expect hearty sympathy with the emancipation policy even among
Union men at the South, nor suppose that when we win the final battle we have
reached the end of the struggle. As we say elsewhere in these columns, let us be
ready to use our victory when it comes by previously understanding exactly what
it demands of us. Let us reflect that the foundation of peace is not the capture
of rebel arms, but the destruction of rebel principles and systems.
As the holidays approach the
publishers are busy and the trade is very lively. Scribner issues Mr. Mitchell's
(Ik Marvel's) new book, "My Farm of Edgewood," which is a delightful record of
the farming experience of a scholar who sees and enjoys all the poetry of his
rural life, while he perfectly understands that to make his story valuable to
farmers he must show that farming is profitable as well as pleasant. It is very
interesting to remark the shrewd Yankee faculty under the dainty elegance of the
"Bachelor," whose "Reveries" by the fire have given place to these clear, open
air, open-eyed, and open-hearted sketches of the experience of a practical
farmer. There is the same twinkling humor, tenderness, grace, and pathos, with
the elegant culture and polish of the man of the world, in this book that are so
well known in Mr. Mitchell's earlier works, "The Reveries of a Bachelor" and
"Dream Life," which Mr. Scribner has now issued in beautiful form. Few prettier
gift books will be found, and few more warmly prized by youths and maids. Yet we
can not part with "My Farm" without regretting the tone of half ennui in which
the times are sometimes mentioned, as when the author says: "The American eagle
is (or was) a noble bird." Is he any less noble because traps are set for him
and guns aimed at him? Does the mere fact of civil war, irrespective of its
cause or probable consequence, seem to our friend, the farmer of Edgewood, as to
another friend, Monsieur Aubepine, of Concord, merely a bore? If the war had
been avoided by surrender to rebellion, or by compromise with traitors, would
the American eagle still be a noble bird?
The utmost resources of the
typographical art are to be lavished upon the "Life of Prescott," by Professor
Ticknor, now preparing by Ticknor & Fields. It is to be a quarto, and as superb
a book as can be made in the country.
AND NAVY ITEMS.
GENERAL DIX arrived at Buffalo on 13th, and is
engaged with the authorities in concerting proper measures for defense, and in
ferreting out the parties, if any, that are engaged in the reported plot at
BUTTERFIELD, who has been temporarily on ditty with the Eleventh and
Twelfth Corps, under
General HOOKER, is to be recalled and assigned
to a new command elsewhere.
There are good grounds for the
belief that General M'DOWELL will soon be assigned to an important command.
General BUTLER has arrived at Fortress Monroe
and assumed the command of his new department.
General FOSTER, upon leaving, issued a farewell
order to his troops.
General RUSSEL, of the Sixth Army
Corps, arrived in Washington last week, and presented to the War Department the
rebel flags recently captured by his brigade on the Rappahannock.
Captain SHAW, aid to
Major-General AUGUR, has been ordered from
New Orleans to the head-quarters at Washington.
Lieutenant-Colonel GREEN has been
relieved from duty as Chief Quarter-master at Washington, by Captain PERRY, and
will be assigned to another field.
Brigadier-General CHARLES K.
GRAHAM has been relieved, by order of the Secretary of War, from his command in
the Army of the Potomac, and directed to report to General BUTLER.
Commander HARRISON has been
detached from the command of the Minnesota, and is awaiting orders.
Inspector-General of General HEINTZELMAN'S Staff, has been relieved and ordered
GENERAL ORDERS—No. 356
WASHINGTON, November 5, 1863.
By direction of the President of
the United States, Major CHARLES J. WHITING, Second United States Cavalry, is
hereby dishonorably dismissed the service for disloyalty, and for using
contemptuous and disrespectful words against the President of the United States.
By order of the SECRETARY OF WAR.
E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant
Rev. H. M. TURNER, colored pastor
of the Israel Bethel church, in Washington, has been appointed chaplain of the
First regiment of United States colored troops, now in South Carolina. He is the
first colored minister who has been commissioned chaplain.
Brigadier-General GEORGE J.
STANNARD, who has recently been appointed to succeed
General CANBY in the command of the United
States troops in the city and harbor of New York, in consequence of that officer
having been ordered to Washington to resume his former position in the War
Department, is a native and citizen of Vermont.
Commissary-General of the United States Army, has been relieved from duty at
Washington and ordered to
Chattanooga. Colonel SHIRAS succeeds General
TAYLOR at the head of the department.
Colonel WISEWELL, of the Sixth
regiment, Invalid corps, has been appointed chief of the Invalid Bureau, vice
Colonel RUSH, relieved.
Major-Generals MEADE, NEWTON, and
PLEASANTON, and Brigadier-General KILPATRICK arrived in Washington last week. It
is understood that
General MEADE proposes, should the situation of
affairs at the front permit, to attend the inauguration of the National Cemetery
Gettysburg on the 19th inst., and that the Army
of the Potomac will also be represented on that occasion by a detachment from
each division of the army engaged in that battle.
Recent advices from Pensacola
state that Lieutenant FLINT, of the United States Marines, died on the 15th ult.
He was from Wisconsin. The fever, which was unusually fatal, has abated. Of
three hundred cases more than seventy failed to recover. The Marine Guard lost
one lieutenant and thirteen privates.
Commodore WILLIAM D. PORTER has
been ordered before the Naval Retiring Board, which, after a recess, has again
convened. Commodore PORTER is a brother of DAVID PORTER, and saw some important
service himself on the Mississippi. He some time since designed a plan of a new
iron-clad vessel of war, which, however, was not adopted by the Government.
Captain G. H. SCOTT has been
ordered to the command of the De Soto; Commander STANLEY to the North Atlantic
Squadron; Commander LYNCH to the St. Lawrence; and Lieutenant-Commander QUEEN to
General GIBBON has been assigned
to the command of the Conscript Camp at Cleveland, Ohio—his wound, received at
Gettysburg, still preventing him from entering the field.
Surgeon-General HAMMOND has
returned from his extended Southern tour of inspection.
The rebel General FITZHUGH LEE is
on his way to Fort Lafayette.
Lieutenant-Colonel FREDERICK has
been placed in command of the Invalid corps depot, vice Colonel WISEWELL,
appointed chief of that bureau.
A DISPATCH from Atlanta, Georgia,
on the 13th, says that a fight between the rebel batteries and our forces before
Chattanooga continued briskly up to that time, and that our troops have made a
diversion from right to left, with a view probably to attack
or, it may be, to send troops to reinforce
Major-General Sherman was at
General Thomas's head-quarters on 16th, having made a junction, with his entire
corps, with the right of
General Grant's army at Chattanooga.
The latest news from
is by way of Richmond to the 14th instant. On the 13th the firing from our
batteries averaged about two shots a minute throughout the night, and continued
with greater rapidity next day. The casualties were only two killed and one
Every thing is quiet on the
Rappahannock and Rapidan.
General Meade has returned to his command. Heavy
cannonading was heard on 16th in the vicinity of Stevensburg, commencing at
eight o'clock, and continuing about an hour. It was renewed between eleven and
twelve o'clock, and was heard at Bealton, twenty miles distant, as the train
passed that point. It was supposed that Kilpatrick, who has his camp at
Stevensburg, had engaged a reconnoitring force of the enemy.
A PLOT IN CANADA.
Buffalo, Detroit, and other Lake
cities were much frightened last week by rumors of an intended attack from
Canada. The Montreal Adviser (a rebel organ) says:
"An expedition was fitted out,
consisting of thirty-six officers, under the commend of one who had
distinguished himself in similar dashing enterprises, and three hundred men. The
officers embarked at Wilmington, in the Confederate steamer Robert E. Lee, and
landed at Halifax. The cotton and tobacco brought by that steamer as freight
were sold to furnish the funds required, amounting to about $110,000. The men
came overland through the States in small parties to the general rendezvous. The
intention was to surprise the Federal garrison on Johnson's Island, liberate the
prisoners, convey them to Canada in vessels provided for that purpose, and
forward them by Halifax to Nassau or Bermuda; the greater pert of the funds
being specially devoted to paying their passage to one of these points."
Unluckily for them the
Governor-General of Canada communicated the plot to our Government, and measures
were promptly taken which nipped it in the bud. All is quiet at Sandusky and
DISASTER IN EAST TENNESSEE.
The recent attack on General
Burnside's outposts, in which six hundred of his men and four cannon were
captured by the rebels, occurred at Rodgersville, Hawkins County, Tennessee,
fifteen miles from Knoxville, and situated at the termination of the branch of
the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. This fact is communicated in a
dispatch from General Burnside himself, in which he says that his main army is
in an impregnable position and in good spirits, awaiting the orders of General
SUFFERINGS OF' OUR PRISONERS AT RICHMOND.
A returned prisoner from
Richmond, Rev. H. C. Trumbull, of the Tenth Connecticut regiment, says that when
he left the Libey prison at Richmond on Wednesday, the Union officers confined
there had only received one-third of a pound of bread and some water for two
days previous, and for several days no meat had been served out. The
Quarter-master explained to the prisoners that be had no provisions to give
them, and excused himself for the seeming inhumanity on his part. He stated that
on the same day he was unable to supply the prisoners on
Belle Island with any
thing whatever, and that it was with the greatest difficulty he could procure a
little meat for the hospitals. It is evident from these facts that the only way
to relieve the Union prisoners is to take possession of Richmond and release
them from misery, which it would appear the very necessities of the rebels
compel them to inflict upon them.
SENT THEM FROM FORTRESS MONROE.
A large quantity of provisions,
consisting of pork, beef, sugar, rice, potatoes, coffee, and bread were shipped
from Fortress Monroe on 14th by the Commissary of Subsistence to the unfortunate
starving Union prisoners at Richmond. Twenty-five thousand rations in all were
forwarded, and it remains to be seen whether the prisoners will receive them.
The attempt at blockade-running
into Wilmington, North Carolina, seems to be unfortunate of late. Within a few
days past five large steamers have been captured, as we have reported, by which
we have not only obtained valuable cargoes and considerable quantities of arms
and munitions of war, but also some valuable correspondence from the rebel
agents in Europe, which has been published in the papers.
MARRIAGE OF MISS CHASE.
The nuptials of Governor Sprague
Kate Chase took place on 13th in the presence of the President and
Lincoln, the several heads of departments, and a brilliant array of the foreign
Ministers resident here. Among the guests at the reception were a number of the
most distinguished men and women of the country.
THE case of the suspected rebel
gun-boat Alexandra has been again up in the Court of Exchequer, London, and it
seems probable that the Attorney-General's motion for a new trial, with a view
of raising all the points of the case, will be granted, and that the ruling now
had will decide the case of the Laird rams.
The British iron-clad frigate
Prince Consort was very badly damaged when steaming from Plymouth for Liverpool
to look after the Laird rams. She put into Kingstown harbor half full of water
and leaking badly.
OPENING OF THE LEGISLATURE.
The session of the French
Legislature was opened by Napoleon in person. His speech was of a pacific
character. He made only a passing allusion to American affairs, expressed the
hope that Maximilian's arrival in Mexico would prove advantageous to the
country, and recommended the assemblage of a European Congress on the Polish
question. The Emperor acknowledged that the financial exhibit did not realize
his expectations. Reforms are promised in favor of the French people.