Battle of Cedar Creek


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Civil War Harper's Weekly, November 5, 1864

Welcome to our collection of Civil War newspapers. These Harper's Weekly papers were published within days of the battles and events depicted. The wood cut illustrations were created by war correspondents on the front lines, creating eye-witnesses drawings of the critical events of the war.

(Scroll Down to See Entire Page, or Newspaper Thumbnails below will take you to the page of interest)


Sheridan's Ride

Sheridan's Ride to the Front


Sheridan's Ride

Battle of Cedar Creek

Battle of Cedar Creek

Adams Express

Adams Express Office

Adams Express Banking

Colonel Gardiner

Trench Warfare

Trench Warfare

Colored Regiment

Colored Regiment


Civil War Refugees








NOVEMBER 5, 1864.]



(Previous Page) in the flower of his youth and domestic happiness, another of the costly sacrifices that

this nation offers for its salvation. And so long as the grass grows green upon the graves of these dear and heroic youths, the hearts that loved and honored them are pledged more surely than ever to the overthrow of the system which instigated this rebellion to destroy the country, and murders our friends and brothers who die to save it. They die, these brave and noble boys, but they live. They live in our purer purpose, in our firmer resolution, in the surer justice of the nation. Against compromise, against concession, against surrender, this precious blood cries from the ground. God be thanked ! no nation could be saved to which it cried in vain.


"MY first effort was for peace," said JEFFERSON DAVIS at Augusta, "and I sent commissioners to endeavor to arrange an amicable dissolution. From time to time I have repeated efforts to that end, but never, never have I sought it on any other basis than independence."

" It is asserted," says the Montreal correspondence of the London Times.,. " that the Hon. C. C. CLAY and the Hon. JACOB THOMPSON, the Confederate Commissioners in Canada, have received instructions from Richmond to propose peace   on the basis of a restoration of the Union, I am able to state on the highest authority that Messrs. CLAY and THOMPSON have no such mission   Their platform is Southern Independence, and that alone."

Mr. ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS says the same in his letter.

Governor BROWN repeats the same statement.

HERSCHEL V. JOHNSON must have independence at least.

" If you can not or will not reconcile your differences," says Mr. GEORGE H. PENDLETON; " then, gentlemen, let the seceding States depart in peace."

"Mr. PENDLETON'S actions and records are the same as the records and position of GEORGE B. McCLELLAN," says Mr. SANDFORD E. CHURCH.


A FEW evenings ago Mr. JOHN VAN BUREN introduced to a serenading multitude in front of the New York hotel, the favorite resort of secessionists in the city, his " erring sister" Mr. GEORGE H. PENDLETON. Mr. PENDLETON said that he was born in Ohio, and knew the sentiment of her people. But we all know what that is. Ohio told us on the 11th of October. Mr. VALLANDIGHAM is also from Ohio—and he knows her sentiments. He learned them last year.

Mr. PENDLETON also alluded to a campaign document representing him as giving a vote in Congress on the 7th of July, 1864, when Congress adjourned on the 4th of July ; and from this " fraud and forgery," he says, you may judge of the credibility of the whole fabrication.

But the student of Mr. PENPLETON'S record will find that, on the 7th of January, 1864, for which evidently July is a misprint, Mr. JOHN D. BALDWIN offered a resolution with a preamble utterly denouncing the rebellion as " organized treason," etc. All who voted voted aye.


On the 18th of January, 1864, Mr. Smith of Kentucky submitted the following preamble and resolution :

" Whereas, A most desperate, wicked, and bloody rebellion exists within the jurisdiction of the United States, and the safety and security of personal and national liberty depend upon its absolute and utter extinction; therefore,

"Resolved, That it is the political, civil, moral, and sacred duty of the people to meet it, fight it, crush it, and forever destroy it."

Mr. JAMES C. ALLEN moved to lay the preamble and resolution on the table. This failed, but Mr. PENDLETON voted for it—yeas 26, nays 102.

The resolution was then adopted—yeas 112, nays 16—Mr. Pendleton voting against it, with


On the 18th of January, 1861, at the beginning of the rebellion, Mr. GEORGE H. PENDLETON asserted the right and power of the President to recognize secession in these words

"What may be the constitutional power of this Government to recognize the secession of a State I decline to discuss at present. But this I say, it we should become engaged in a war with a foreign enemy, and a portion of our territory should be captured and reduced to possession by the enemy, and we should be obliged to make a treaty of peace on the basis of retaining what each party had acquired—uti possidetis—acknowledging the sovereignty of that territory to have passed away frees us, certainly the Federal Government would have the power to conform to our restricted limits, and to confine its jurisdiction to our admitted boundaries. If war be dismemberment, as my colleague declares, has not the Federal Government as much power to treat that question now as at the end of a war? Will a conflict of arms confer constitutional power upon the Federal Government? If these Southern States can not be conciliated, and if you, gentlemen, can not find it in your hearts to grant their demands—if they must leave the family mansion, I would signalize their departure by tokens of love."

On the 16th of September, 1864, Mr. GEORGE H. PENDLETON was in Dayton on a visit to his friend Mr. VALLANDIGHAM, and he made a little speech, in which he speaks of the Democratic party — meaning the Chicago Convention — " whose beneficent principles recently solemnly announced in National Convention will bring us peace." Those beneficent principles are, that the war has failed ; that we must ask for an immediate cessation of hostilities ; and go into " an ultimate Convention."

This will perhaps serve to show the " fraud and forgery" of the assertion that Mr. GEORGE H. PENDLETON is of the ultra Southern States rights school, as it certainly reveals the exact quality of his " devotion to the Union and the Constitution."


UPON his return from Macon JEFFERSON Davis made a speech at Augusta. It has the same wild tone of despair as that at Macon. " Words," he says, " will not now avail......You must consult your heart : perform more than the law can exact ; yield as much as free men can give, and all will be well." In his foolish fury JEFFERSON Davis calls his loyal fellow citizens of the United States " deniers of the rights of men," while he and the world know that the only reason for the war which he wages upon the Government of his country was that it was secured in the future to Liberty and equal rights. He and his associates rebelled to save slavery. They now declare it was for independence, and because of incompatibility. But the independence they seek is for the purpose of perpetuating slavery, and the incompatibility they plead is because of the existence of slavery. " We were a free and independent people, in States that had a right to make a better Government when they saw fit," says DAVIS ; and his Lieutenant, STEPHENS, declares that they designed that better Government to rest upon the "corner stone of slavery."


IN a late speech for the Chicago candidates in the city of New York Mr. SANFORD E. CHURCH said that " he could not see why any one should OBJECT to GEORGE H. PENDLETON : his actions and his records were the same as the records and position of GEORGE B. McCLELLAN."

If this be true, General McCLELLAN is of the political school of JOHN C. CALHOUN and JEFFERSON DAVIS, as Mr. PENDLETON is.

He then supports the extreme doctrine of State sovereignty, as Mr. PENDLETON does.

He thinks that the States have the right to secede at pleasure, as Mr. PENDLETON does.

He believes that the Government has no right to defend itself from the attacks of rebels, as Mr. PENDLETON does.

He believes the war to be atrocious and wicked, as Mr. PENDLETON does.

He is in favor of saying to the rebels, "Depart in peace," as Mr. PENDLETON is.

If Mr. CHURCH tells the truth of his candidate, General M'CLELLAN agrees entirely with the rebels ; for if Mr. PENDLETON'S theory of our Government be correct, secession is strictly Constitutional. What a pleasing President of the United States such a theorist would make !

It is wise to insist that the Chicago candidates hold the same views, for they will be obliged to follow the same policy if elected. Whoever votes for the one necessarily votes for the other, and they stand side by side upon the Chicago platform.


WHILE SHERIDAN'S name is upon all lips and in all hearts the following passage from EDMUND KIRKE'S "Down in Tennessee" is interesting :

"At SHERIDAN'S I saw ROSECRANS unbent. The bow which is always strung loses its power; so workers, such as he, wear out by constant working. The hour of relaxation is the time to learn any man, and I tried to study him. SHERIDAN had invented a game he called 'Dutch Ten-Pins.' On the lawn in front of his quarters, between two immense elms, he had suspended a long rope, and to the end of it attached a small cannon ball. On the ground, midway between these trees, was a square board which held the ten pins. The game lay in throwing the ball so that it would miss the pins in going out and strike them in coming back. To do this, a peculiar twist had to be given to the rope by bending the wrist, and it seemed almost impossible to avoid hitting the pins on the direct throw. Three ' throws' were a ' game,' and thirty 'strokes' could be made. SHERIDAN, by such practice, had become expert at the play, and could make pretty regularly twenty 'strokes,' but a novice did well if he made ten. He soon challenged ROSECRANS, and the dozen officers with him, to the lists. SHERIDAN opened the play, cleared the board twice, and missed it altogether the third throw. ' Twenty,' cried the ' scorer,' and another player took his place. He did indifferently well. Others followed with more or less success, though none came up to SHERIDAN'S 'score.'

" 'Now for the General,' shouted ' the Major,' laughing as ROSECRANS took his place. ' He'll score thirty, sure.' " 'Don't laugh till you win, my boy,' answered the General, with his peculiar smile.

"Calculating deliberately the motion of the ball, he let it go. Every pin fell, on the direct throw, and a general laugh followed. Not at all disconcerted, he tried again till he had played three or four ' games' with scarcely better success. Amidst the mock congratulation of the whole assemblage he at last sat down, and GARFIELD entered the lists. ' It's nothing but mathematics,' said GARFIELD ; 'you only need an eye and a hand,' and carelessly throwing the ball, he cleared the board and scored twenty-three.

You can't do that again.'

"' I'll try,' answered the modest Brigadier, and he did do it, several times in succession.

"'I can do better than that,' said ROSECRANS, again taking the ball. A shout of derision followed the boast, but he quietly set himself to work, and, half a dozen times in succession, made from twenty-five to thirty ' strokes.' "


THE speech of the President in response to the serenade from the loyal Marylanders in Washington is so manly and noble, so simple and characteristic, that we print it entire, and commend it to the thoughtful perusal of every faithful citizen, soldier, or sailor in the country, and ask him if this is a dangerous man to trust with the administration of the Government :

"I am notified that this is a compliment paid me by the loyal Marylanders resident in this District. I infer that the adoption of the new Constitution for the State furnishes the occasion, and that in your view the extirpation of slavery constitutes the chief merit of the new Constitution. Most heartily do I congratulate you and Maryland, and the nation, and the world, upon the event. I regret that it did not occur two years sooner, which, I am sure, would have saved to the nation more money than would have met all the private loss incident to the measure; but it has come at last, and I sincerely hope its friends may fully realize all their anticipations of good from it, and that its opponents may, by its effects, be agreeably and profitably disappointed. A word upon another subject : Something said by the Secretary of State, in his recent speech at Auburn, has been construed by some into a threat that, if I shall be beaten at the election, I will between then and the end of my Constitutional term do what I may be able to ruin the Government. Others regard the fact that the Chicago Convention adjourned not sine die but to meet again if called to do so by a particular individual as the ultimatum of a purpose that if the nominee shall be elected He will at once seize control of the Government. I hope the good people will permit themselves to suffer no uneasiness on either point. I am struggling to maintain the Government, not to overthrow it. I therefore say that if I shall live I shall remain President until the 4th of next March. And whoever shall be constitutionally elected, therefore, in November shall be duly installed as President on the 4th of March, and that in the interval I shall do my utmost that whoever is to hold the helm for the next voyage shall start with the best possible chance to save the ship. This is due to the people, both on principle and under the Constitution. Their will, constitutionally expressed, is the ultimate law for all. If they should deliberately resolve to have immediate peace, even at the loss of their country and their liberties, I know not the power or the right to resist them. It is their own business, and they must do as they please with their own. I believe, however, they are all resolved to preserve their country and their liberty ; and in this, in office or out of it, I am resolved to stand by them. I may add, that in this purpose—to save the country and its liberties—no class of people seem so nearly unanimous as the soldiers in the field and the seamen afloat. Do they not have the hardest of it ? Who should quail when they do not ? God bless the soldiers and seamen, and all their brave commanders !"


REBELS shrink from SHERMAN'S sword and Copperheads from his pen. A foolish story has been circulated that he had said ninety-nine out of every hundred soldiers in his army would vote for McCLELLAN. General SHERMAN flanks and routs the falsehood in the following letter:


"MY DEAR SIR,—There is not one word of truth in the paragraph you sent me cut from the New York Herald of September 20. I never thought, said, or wrote that McCLELLAN would get ' ninety-nine out of every hundred' votes in the army. I am as ignorant of the political bias of the men of this army as you are at a distance of a thousand miles, and I would as soon think of tampering with a soldier's religion as with his preference for men. I have not and shall not attempt to influence a vote in the coming struggle. I believe Mr. LINCOLN has done the best he could. With respect, etc.   W. T. SHERMAN.



HON. AARON VANDERPOEL says; in a late letter to a Union meeting in Ulster County.

"I voted against Mr. LINCOLN in 1860, and for HORATIO SEYMOUR in 1862, but now feel called upon, by every obligation of duty and patriotism, to cast my vote for ABRAHAM LINCOLN and Mr. FENTON.

" My doctrine is that, as the rebels began the war without cause, they must end it by laying down their arms and submitting to that Government against which they have so wantonly rebelled. I can see in the election of McCLELLAN and PENDLETON nothing but the breaking up of the Union. I agree with FERNANDO WOOD, a prominent supporter of McCLELLAN, that as the Chicago nominee he is bound to carry out the principles of the Chicago platform, which has not a word of fault to find with the rebels, and goes for peace at all events, and at any price.

" I, too, am for peace; but I am for a peace which is honorable—not for one which brings disgrace and humiliation to the North. As the game now stands I am against making McCLELLAN and PENDLETON my peace makers. My peace makers are GRANT, SHERMAN, SHERIDAN, and FARRAGUT, and the hosts of loyal and gallant spirits under them; the sons of Freemen, who have so triumphantly pushed their ruthless toe to the last ditch."


THE hour of the departure of the steamers upon the Stonington, or Groton, line has been changed to 4 o'clock p.m. daily.



THE prominent topic of the week is General Sheridan's victory in the Shenandoah Valley.

On Saturday, October 15, General Sheridan went to Washington, leaving General Wright in command of the army, which was situated on the turnpike from Strasburg to Winchester, north of Cedar Creek, the Eighth Corps on the left, the Nineteenth in the centre, and the Sixth on the right. Still further to the right was Custer's cavalry division. The enemy, under command of General Early, was intrenched at Fisher's Hill, a few miles southwest of

Strasburg. The Federal army also intrenched itself, occupying a line running nearly north and south, and situated on a commanding elevation. Monday morning, the 17th, the rebels made an attack on our right, which answered the purpose both of a reconnoissance and a feint, as it was intended finally to attack on the left. Tuesday passed without an engagement, and a Federal reconnoissance made that day appeared to settle the fact of Early's continued presence in force at Fisher's Hill. The rebel army consisted of five infantry divisions under Gordon, Bamseur, Pegram, Wharton, and Kershaw. With this force, amounting to nearly 20,000 men, Early attacked on Wednesday morning before light.

A dense fog favored his designs. Three divisions—Pegram's, Ramseur's, and Gordon's—were advanced against our left, while Wharton and Kershaw moved against our centre along the Winchester pike. The attack on the left was a perfect surprise, and, to enhance the effect, it was made without the usual preliminary of a skirmish. Almost at the first onset the works were taken and a large number of guns; the advantage thus gained was pursued ; the encampments were overrun, and a large number of prisoners taken. In Crook's rear was a provisional division commanded by Colonel Kitchin, which was also routed.

The other two divisions at the same time advanced and attacked the Nineteenth Corps, which was exposed on its left flank by Crook's retreat. Here also breast-works and guns were taken. The rebel artillery meanwhile, posted in commanding situations on the opposite side of Cedar Creek, continued to pour in upon our disorganized troops. The whole left was soon retreating on the Winchester pike toward Middletown.

North of this road was posted the Sixth Corps and the cavalry, which had as yet taken no part in the battle. The cavalry, moving in rear, soon appeared on the left, where it checked the enemy's advance. The Sixth Corps followed in the same direction, coming up on the left of the Nineteenth Corps. Here the enemy began to be held at bay, and the entire Federal line was withdrawn a short distance to a more defensible position. The enemy followed close, and more guns were taken, on account of the difficulty in getting them off in time. At this point the artillery divisions suffered great loss in horses and men. After the line was formed there was yet enough of an organization to repel two vigorous charges of the rebels. To maintain a perfect connection with the cavalry on the left it was necessary to withdraw the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps still farther to a position just north of Middletown. Up to this time twenty-four guns had been taken from us, and a great number of killed and wounded marked the line of retreat, among whom were several able officer's. Colonel Thoburn, commanding First Division, Eighth Corps, had been killed ; also General Bidwell, commanding Third Brigade of Second Division, Sixth Corps. Gerneral Ricketts, commanding the Sixth Corps, had been badly wounded, and General Wright himself was wounded in the chin.

Sheridan had slept at Winchester the previous night, but hearing the cannonade in the morning he took his horse and pushed on toward Strasburg at full gallop, arriving on the field at ten o'clock A.M., just as the army had taken up its position north of Middletown. On his way he had met the throng of wounded and stragglers. The latter were forthwith gathered in by provost marshals.

The new line of battle ran as follows: The Nineteenth Corps on the right, the Sixth in the centre, and the recovered Eighth Corps on the left. Custer's cavalry was on the extreme right, and Merritt's on the left. The enemy attacked at one P.M., and was repulsed. At three o'clock Sheridan assumed the offensive and attacked. The cavalry made a furious charge on either wing, which was followed by an impetuous advance on the centre. The rebel line was completely broken, and the cavalry followed up the retreat, reaping the fruits of a decisive victory ; all the guns lost were recaptured, and fully as many more in addition taken from the enemy: and 3600 prisoners were captured, including 300 officers. The cavalry continued the pursuit to Mount Jackson. The entire rebel loss is estimated at about 10,000. Nearly 12,000 stands of arms have been taken.


The following is a copy of a letter addressed to General Sheridan by the President:

" EXECUTIVE MANSION, WASHINGTON, Oct. 22, 1864. "MAJOR-GENERAL SHERIDAN,—With great pleasure I tender to you and your brave army the thanks of the nation and my own personal admiration and gratitude for the month's operations in the Shenandoah Valley, and especially for the splendid work of October 19. Your obedient servant,   ABRAHAM LINCOLN."


Hood is no doubt retreating southward, with Sherman closely pursuing. No new developments have been made in regard to the designs of the rebel cavalry under Forrest.

October 19 an engagement occurred between Price and General Blunt at Lexington, Missouri, the result of which was a Federal victory. General Price is retreating southward.


In the afternoon of October 19 considerable disturbance was occasioned in St. Albans, Vermont, by the appearance in that town of several marauders from the Canada side, who, under pretense of being Confederates, murdered a number of the citizens and stole a considerable sum of money from the banks. After accomplishing their object they returned into Canada. Captain Conger, with a detachment of men, immediately started In pursuit. They succeeded in capturing the greater part of the marauders and in recovering $150,000 of the stolen money. The Governor-General of Canada telegraphed, offering to respond to a requisition from the United States Government for the surrender of the robbers, as many of them as could be found. The raid was followed by considerable excitement, and in a few hours the whole frontier was under arms.


The steamer Roanoke was captured by pirates October 7, while on her way front Havana to New York. It was taken by the same plan as the Chesapeake, and Brine, the leader of the piratical gang, was also the leader in the case of the Chesapeake. Braine has been arrested, together with his associates, and imprisoned at Bermuda. But the British authorities, as usual, have released them.

Henery C Niles, a clerk employed in the city delivery department of the New York Post-office, was arrested a few days ago by Mr. J. Gayler, the Special Agent of time Post-office Department, on a charge of embezzling and rifling mail-letters. It was the duty of the accused to prepare the letters to he taken out by the down-town carrier, and it is charged that he availed himself of the opportunity to commit extensive depredations, especially upon the correspondence of persons doing business in portions of Nassau, Ann, Fulton, Beekman, and William streets. Suspicion at first naturally attached itself to the carriers for those districts; but the detection of Niles has of course exonerated them. The prisoner admitted his guilt to Mr. Gayler, and the clearest evidence of it was also found upon his person. He was taken before United States Commissioner Stilwell, and held to bail in $5000.

Brigadier-General Paine, commanding the District of Illinois, has been temporarily relieved at his own request. Brigadier-General John Cook, of Springfield, will succeed him in command of the District.

The County Volunteer Committee are now recruiting with considerable success. The bounties now offered by the county are $300 for three years, $200 for two years, and $100 for one year men, and the Government bounty is the same, which makes just double that sum paid to each volunteer. The Government is paying no hand money, but the county is paying for a three years' recruit $50, for a two years' recuit $30, and for a one year recruit $20. 



IT is reported that Captain Semmes has departed from Liverpool with 108 men for Madeira, where he will man the steamer Ranger, and proceed upon another cruise.

The commercial depression still continues in England. The confederate loan was quoted at 55.




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