The Fugitive Slave Question


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Civil War Harper's Weekly, August 17, 1861

This original 1861 newspaper has a cover illustration showing an injured Civil War soldier. The issue also has a nice illustration of the Battle of Bull Run. The paper includes news of the day, and illustrations of Boston's Faneuil Hall.

(Scroll Down to See Full Page, or Thumbnails below will take you to the specific page of interest)



Civil War Medicine

Necessity of War

Slave Question

Fugitive Slaves

Mansfield McDowell

General Mansfield and McDowell

Monroe Battle

Battle of Monroe Missouri

Bull Run Zouave

Zouave from the Battle of Bull Run

Rebel Atrocities

Rebel Atrocities at Bull Run


Napoleon's Yacht

Faneuil Hall

Boston's Faneuil Hall


Slave Stampede

wounded Bull run

Bull Run Battlefield

Civil War Ballad


Contractor Cartoon



AUGUST 17, 1861.]



(Previous Page) you may leave to the good sense of intelligent people what has been hitherto enforced by law. It assumes, for instance, that the freedom of the press or of speech will not be abused to the detriment of the common weal; and that men of sense will see that the friends of a cause may do as much harm to it by indiscretion as its enemies by direct and open attack.

But while this is true of the free expression of opinion, the public safety requires that no useful information shall be communicated to the enemy, and that all direct appeals to force which aid and comfort treason shall be stopped, and they should be stopped in the manner which seems to be most effectual. This has been done in St. Louis, and should be done every where that the necessity exists.

With the epigrammatic terseness which is peculiar to his style the President asks in his Message the very question of questions which we in this country are engaged in answering : "Must a government, of necessity, be too strong for the liberties of its own people, or too weak to maintain its own existence ?"

It will be proved too weak if the citizens, when war is upon them, disregard the first principles of success.



MRS. ROCHEFOUCAULD would like to know why her maxims should not be read as well as those of her old lord and master. All women are not weak-minded ; quite the reverse.

Mrs. R. is quite convinced that the gallantry of Mr. Punch will induce him to do her justice, by opening his brilliant columns to a few of her good things.

The following are by no means her best:

We can all bear with resignation a rent in the dress of our very dearest friend.

We should, indeed, be often ashamed of the noble devotion and self-sacrifice with which we give ourselves away, were it always possible for the happy man to know why we pass into the temple of Hymen.

We are really not answerable for our defects, and they are to be pardoned; but when we see a friend endeavoring, by base arts, to hide the maladresses of nature, we are justified in proclaiming the attempted deceit to the world.

We are jealous of men whom we love; and of women whom we hate.

Bracelets and ear-rings are to women what stars and garters are to men. Women are vain of their persons; men of their actions. Yet the men cry "Poor weak woman!"

It is difficult to announce the birth of love to another; but how much more difficult to declare that he is dead! It requires the most consummate tact to hate politely. Our laziness often keeps us in the path of duty where our parents dropped us. But if the world will cry "Bravo!" why should we say "Hush!"

Generally, when we praise any body, if we search our motives we shall find that we are returning them only a very small percentage of the admiration they have expressed for ourselves. If a friend praises our dress and carriage, we handsomely find that her gloves are not quite so ill-fitting as they usually are.

Better be despised than ridiculed. Very great criminals have had exquisite taste in dress.

PHILOSOPHY ON THE BUTCHER'S BLOCK.— Prosperity, they say, is much more trying than Adversity. As with Man, so it is with Meat. In adverse weather, it will keep sweet for a long time; but only let there be a long succession of sunshine, and see how quickly it goes to the bad!


(Until one of the Parties dies).

TO MOVE:—for the Returns of all the Birth-days of a Lady who positively declares she is not a day older than thirty-two.

CLEAR AS MUD.—The Abbe Cruice has lately been preferred to the See of Marseilles. This ecclesiastic, according to the Courrier de Marseille, " is of Irish descent, and the author of several esteemed works, remarkable for the qualities of their style and the clearness of their ideas." The clearness of the ideas contained in the works of Bishop Cruice is perhaps the strongest possible evidence, next to an authenticated pedigree, of his Irish descent.

Never look at the girls. They can't bear it ; they regard it as an insult. They wear their feathers, furbelows, and frills merely to gratify their mammas—that's all.

A theological student, supposed to be deficient in judgment, in the course of a class examination was asked by a professor, "Pray, Mr. E-, how would you discover a
fool?" "By the question he would ask," said Mr. E—.

"Jim, how does the thermometer stand to-day?"

" Ours stands on the mantle-piece, right agin the plastering."

"Hallo!" said a farmer to a rustic who was crossing a turnip-field, " did you not read the board at the gate?" " Yes," was the reply; " you are not to trespass, which makes me wonder to see you here."

"The other day, at the Central Criminal Court, a prisoner was upon his trial, and at the conclusion of it he was told that the jury had found him guilty. "Exactly," replied the culprit ; " that's just my conviction."

An English lady, who went to make purchases in Jamaica, accompanied by her black maid, was repeatedly addressed by the negro shopman as "massa;" whereupon her sable follower exclaimed, with a look of infinite contempt, "Why for you speak such bad English—no grammar, sabby? Why for you call my missus massa? Stupid fellah—him's a she!"

A little three-year-old boy, already set apart for a lawyer's calling, being taken in hand with a switch after having been forbidden to pick another pear from a favorite dwarf tree, indignantly exclaimed, "Mamma, I did not pick off the pear ; you come see if I did." Sure enough he didn't. He simply stood there and ate it, and the core was still dangling from the stem!

"Mr. Dentist, do you see that decayed tooth?" "Yes, Sir." "Well, I want you to pull it, provided it don't hurt too much." "Yes, Sir?" " Well, now put on the tweezers; if it hurts bad I'll sing out, and you'll hold on, won't you ?" " Yes, Sir?" (Dentist takes hold with his instrument.) "H-o-l-d on! You've not only pulled the tooth, but half of my jaw-bone. Why didn't you let go when I sung out ?" "Because you told me to hold on!"

"What is the meaning of lost in French?" said a cabdrivrr to a foreign gentleman. "Perdu," answered the gentleman. " Well, then, your trunk is perdu," said the cab-driver.

Those who lack a good natural character may be sure they can not long sustain, without detection, an artificial one.

Theodore Hook, after having been frightfully crammed at an aldermanic feed, being asked to be helped again, replied, " No, thank you, I don't want any more: but I will take the rest in money, if you please."

TO GET A DUCK FOR DINNER. —Jump into the river.


Sweet Amy ask'd, with pleading eyes, "Dear Charley, teach me, will you, The words I've heard your captain say-I should so like to drill you!"

"What! little one, you take command! Well, Amy, I'm quite willing:

In such a company as yours

I can't have too much drilling.

" Stand over there, and sing out clear, Like this, ' Squad—Stand at ease.'" "Oh, Charles, you'll wake papa up stairs, Don't shout like that, dear, please."

"I stand at ease, like this, you see! And then I need scarce mention, The next command you have to give Is this one, 'Squad—Attention!'

"Now, Amy, smartly, after me

(You're sure, dear, it don't bore you?), Forward—Quick March—Halt—Front—Right Dress—There, now, I'm close before you.

"Present arms—Well, it does look odd, You don't believe I'd trifle;

We hold our arms out just like this, In drill without the rifle.

"Now say, ' Salute your officer.'"

"Oh, Charles, for shame, how can you? I thought that you were at some trick, You horrid cheating man, you."

Charles "order'd arms ;" without command She smoothe'd her rumpled hair,

And pouted, frown'd, and blush'd, and then Said softly—" As you were!"



ON Tuesday, 30th July, in the Senate, the resolution approving of the acts of the President was taken up, and postponed. The Tariff Bill was passed by a vote of 22 to 19. A message was received from the House asking a committee of conference, which was granted. The bill to suppress insurrection was taken up, and postponed after discussion. On the announcement that the House had passed the Tax Bill, the Senate took it up, and referred it to the Committee on Finance. A long debate took place on a report from the Conference Committee with regard to the construction of steel-clad war vessels. During the discussion the Senate found itself without a quorum, and adjourned.-In the House, the Military Committee reported the bill adding to the West Point cadets a number equal to that of the Senators in Congress, giving the President power to fill the vacancies caused by the rebellion in the Southern States, and requiring all cadets to take the oath of allegiance; passed. The bill for making a temporary addition to the number of pupils in the Naval Academy was also passed; likewise a bill authorizing the construction by the Navy Department of twelve small side-wheel steamers, and appropriating twelve hundred thousand dollars therefor. The House also passed the bill prohibiting the sale of intoxicating drinks to soldiers in the District of Columbia, and that for the punishment of frauds on the part of government contractors. A report from the Select Committee appointed to ascertain the number and names of persons in Government employ known to be inimical to the Union cause and in league with the traitors, states that the action of the House in instituting this examination with regard to the personnel of the Departments is fully justified by the facts. A bill to define and punish unlawful communication with the enemies of the Union was introduced and referred.

On Wednesday, 31st July, in the Senate, the bill in relation to the superintendents of navy-yards was taken up, discussed at some length, and passed. The bill supplementary to the act to increase the military establishment was passed. A bill was introduced, and referred to the Committee on Commerce, for the repeal of the fishing bounties. The bill to increase our consular representatives abroad during the continuance of the rebellion was passed. The report of the Committee of Conference on the bill providing for the construction of steel-clad war vessels was considered. All the amendments of the House, excepting the one in reference to uncompleted vessels, was agreed to, when a new Conference Committee was appointed, and the subject laid over.-The House passed the Senate bill transferring the control over District Attorneys and Marshals from the Secretary of the Interior to the Attorney-General; also a bill providing for the monthly payment of the troops. A resolution was adopted reprobating the retention in office of rebel sympathizers. A bill was introduced to give bounty land warrants to the soldiers of the present war, and granting homesteads to actual settlers.

On Thursday, August 1, in the Senate, a bill appropriating $100,000 for field fortifications for the defense of the capital was passed. The bill also prohibits flogging in the army. The bill to promote the efficiency of the volunteer forces was also passed; likewise a bill reducing consular fees on vessels running to or between foreign ports. A bill for the organization of the volunteer militia was reported, and its consideration postponed till the first Monday in December. Notice was given of a bill declaring unconstitutional the act retroceding a portion of the District of Columbia to Virginia. The bill to punish fraud on the part of officers making contracts for the Government, which was returned from the House with amendments, was taken up and passed. The report of the Conference Committee on the bill for the better organization of the army was adopted, and the bill passed. The bill providing for the suppression of insurrection was taken up, and a spirited discussion followed. A motion to postpone the subject till December was defeated by a vote of 16 against 28. The Conference Committee on the Supplemental Loan bill made a report, which was adopted, and the bill passed. After an executive session the Senate adjourned.-In the House a bill was passed authorizing enlistment in the navy for the war. The bill appropriating $100,000 for field fortifications for the defense of the capital was passed. Mr. Stevens, from the Committee of Conference on the Supplemental Loan bill, made a report explaining that the disagreements of the two Houses had been compromised. The report was adopted by 83 against 34. The Senate bill appropriating $10,000,000 for the purchase and manufacture of arms, ordnance, and ordnance stores was passed. A bill enabling the Secretary of the Treasury to charter and purchase additional vessels for the revenue service was passed. An appropriation of $300,000 for ordnance for the navy was agreed to. The question as to who is responsible for the advance of the army in Virginia, and the disaster at Bull Run, was brought up by Mr. Blair. Mr. Richardson made some explanations respecting the remarks of General Scott on the subject of the battle. He (Mr. Richardson) did not understand General Scott as implying that the President forced him to fight the battle.

On Friday, August 2, in the Senate, the bill authorizing the charter or purchase of additional vessels for the revenue marine was passed; also the bill authorizing the construction of twelve small side-wheel war steamers. A bill repealing the act retroceding Alexandria to Virginia was referred to the Judiciary Committee. The joint resolution approving the acts of the President in suppressing the rebellion was taken up, briefly discussed, and laid aside in order to take up the report of the Conference Committee on the disagreeing votes upon the Tariff and Direct Tax bills, which was adopted by a vote of 34 to 8. A number of appropriations were agreed to, including $20,000,000 for organizing volunteers, and $30,000 for naval night signals. —In the House, a joint resolution was adopted thanking the soldiers of the republic for their loyalty and devotion. The Judiciary Committee reported a substitute for the Senate bill to confiscate properly used for insurrectionary purposes, which was rejected. Mr. Bingham, of Ohio, offered an amendment which was finally rejected. Further discussion ensued, and on motion of Mr. Pendleton, of Ohio, the bill was recommitted, by a vote of 69 against 48. The chairman of the Conference Committee on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the Tariff and Direct Tax bills

made a report, which was adopted by a vote of 89 against 39. A bill punishing with fine and imprisonment persons guilty of enlisting men for service against the United States was passed.

On Saturday, August 3, in the Senate, a memorial from the Maryland Legislature, relative to the arrest of Ross Winans by the United States military authorities, was ordered to be printed. The Military Committee reported the bill requiring monthly payments of the troops, with a recommendation that it do not pass, which was agreed to; and a resolution was adopted recommending the Secretary of War to pay the volunteers monthly whenever practicable. The bill supplementary to the act to protect commerce and punish piracy was passed.-In the House, the Military Committee reported back the Senate bill to promote the efficiency of the volunteer forces, by authorizing the President to discharge from the service any commissioned volunteer officer for incapacity, inefficiency, misconduct, or neglect of duty. The committee reported a substitute, applying the principles of the bill to the officers of the regular army, as well as to those of the volunteers, the dismissals to take place with the instituting of a board of inquiry or a court-martial. The substitute was rejected, and the original bill laid on the table. The Judiciary Committee reported back the Senate bill confiscating property used for insurrectionary purposes, with an amendment in effect confiscating all slaves employed in the military or naval service of the rebels, and the bill, as amended, passed by a vote of 60 against 48. The President communicated to the House a dispatch from Hon. Alfred Ely, a member from New York, stating that he was a prisoner in the hands of the rebels at Richmond. A call was made for information with reference to the charges against Mr. Harvey, our Minister to Portugal, who is accused of holding correspondence with the enemy.


General McClellan has issued his two first orders as Commander of the Army of the Potomac. Order number one announces the appointment of his staff, and they comprise a body of excellent and efficient officers. Order number two embodies the first step toward reorganizing the army. It commands the instant return to their several camps of the officers and soldiers scattered around Washington at hotels and boarding-houses, reminding them that duty requires their presence at the head-quarters of their regiments, to restore order and discipline among the men. Colonel Porter is appointed Provost Marshal to carry out this order, and he has already begun his work by closing up the liquor saloons in the capital, around which much drunkenness and riotous conduct has existed for some days past.


The people will not be disappointed in the new Commander of the Department of the West. Within a week General Fremont organized and sent from St. Louis to Cairo a fleet of eight steamers, four regiments of infantry, two companies of artillery, and several detached companies of infantry. This is something like work.


An official dispatch received at the War Department last week from Brigadier-General Rosencrans states that General Cox, with his Union troops, who was following Wise, reached Gawley Bridge on Monday the 29th ult., where the Gawley and New rivers conjoin to form the Kanawha, and that Governor Wise fled before them without showing fight, leaving 1000 muskets and several kegs of powder in the hands of General Cox's troops. Wise destroyed the bridge behind him to prevent pursuit. It was said that Governor Wise's soldiers were deserting him in large numbers, in consequence of the destruction of property which he permitted on his march. General Rosencranz says that the Kanawha valley is now entirely free from rebels.


A number of the new military appointments are understood to have been confirmed by the Senate—among them those of Major-Generals Fremont, M'Clellan, Dix, and Banks, and Brigadier-Generals Hooker, Curtis, McCall, Sherman, Lauder, Kelly, Kearney, Pope, Heintzelman, Porter, Stone, Reynolds, Hunter, Franklin, Rosencrans, Buell, Mansfield, McDowell, and Meigs.


The organization of a Military Board of examination into the qualifications of officers is beginning already to operate with good effect. Several resignations of officers in volunteer regiments have been tendered, the recipients of commissions not feeling themselves equal to the test of such a rigid examination as they will be compelled to undergo by the Military Board. By an order just issued from the War Department all officers are required to report themselves for examination, and those who do not so report will be considered as having vacated their positions, and the vacancies will be filled at once by the Department.


The commissioners who were dispatched with a flag of truce to the rebel army at Fairfax by the Secretary of War, to request the delivery of his brother's body (Colonel Cameron, of the Seventy-ninth Highland regiment) have returned to Washington without effecting the object of their mission. They report that every kindness and courtesy were shown them by Colonel Stewart, the officer in command at Fairfax Court House, but their communication having been addressed, not to any particular individual, but to "whom it may concern," they were unable to obtain the remains of Colonel Cameron.


An order of General Beauregard addressed to Colonel Rust, military commandant of the rebel district of Loudon County, Virginia, in which the General asks for supplies of corn, wagons, and teams for the use of the army, has been published. He expresses the hope that no difficulty will be found in complying with this demand, and that all classes of citizens will contribute their quota; but hints, very significantly, that, if necessary, constraint must be employed with all such people as are forgetful of their obligations to that army which "has gloriously maintained the independence and sovereignty of Virginia, and has driven back, in ignominious flight, the invaders of her soil."


The New Orleans True Delta incidentally asserts that "three-fourths of the gallant men from this city and State who have abandoned family and home, and all that is dear to man, to march to the battle-field in defense of Southern rights and Southern honor, are Irishmen."


General Butler is so much in earnest in his zeal for the promotion of temperance and discipline in the forces under his command that he not only staves the whisky barrels and drives the grog-selling sutlers out of camp, but he insists upon his officers pledging themselves not to touch the pernicious cup, and, by way of example, banishes it from his own quarters. The demoralizing effects of free drinking upon his soldiers have admonished him that he must take measures accordingly; and we congratulate the General that he has gone the right way about it. We trust his example may be imitated by other commanding officers.


General Butler, in the course of a letter to Secretary Cameron on the subject of the " contraband" at Fortress Monroe, asks: "Are these men, women, and children slaves? Are they free? Is their condition that of men, women, and children, or of property, or is it a mixed relation? What their status was under the Constitution and laws we all know. What has been the effect of rebellion and a state of war upon that status? When I adopted the theory of treating the able-bodied negro fit to work in the trenches as property liable to be used in aid of rebellion, and so contraband of war, that condition of things was in so far met, as I then and still believe, on a legal and constitutional basis. But now a new series of questions arise. Passing by women, the children certainly can not be treated on that basis ; if property, they must be considered the incumbrance, rather than the auxiliary of an army, and, of course, in no possible legal relation could be treated as contraband. Are they property ? If they were so, they have been left by their masters and owners, deserted, thrown away, abandoned, like the wrecked vessel upon

the ocean. Their former possessors and owners have causelessly, traitorously, rebelliously, and, to carry out the figure, practically abandoned them to be swallowed up by the winter storm of starvation. If property, do they not become the property of the salvors? but we, their salvors, do not need and will not hold such property, and will assume no such ownership; has not, therefore, all proprietary relation ceased? Have they not become thereupon men, women, and children? No longer under ownership of any kind, the fearful relicts of fugitive masters, have they not, by their masters' acts and the state of war, assumed the condition which we hold to be the normal one of those made in God's image ? Is not every constitutional, legal, and moral requirement, as well to the runaway master as their relinquished slaves, thus answered ? I confess that my own mind is compelled by this reasoning to look upon them as men and women. If not free-born, yet free, manumitted, sent forth from the hand that held them never to be reclaimed.

" Of course if this reasoning thus imperfectly set forth is correct, my duty as a humane man is very plain. I should take the same care of these men, women, and children, houeless, homeless, and unprovided for, as I would of the same number of men, women, and children who, for their attachment to the Union, had been driven or allowed to flee from the Confederate States.


"I should have no doubt on this question, had I not seen it stated, that an order had been issued by General M'Dowell in his department, substantially forbidding all fugitive slaves from coming within his lines, or being harbored there. Is that order to be enforced in all military departments? If so, who are to be considered fugitive slaves? Is a slave to be considered fugitive whose master runs away and leaves him? Is it forbidden to the troops to aid or harbor within their lines the negro children who are found therein; or is the soldier, when his march has destroyed their means of subsistence, to allow them to starve because he has driven off the rebel master? How shall the commander of regiment or battalion sit in judgment upon the question, whether any given black man has fled from his master, or his master fled from him? Indeed, how are the free-born to be distinguished? Is one any more or less a fugitive slave because he has labored upon the rebel intrenchments? If he has so labored, if I understand it, he is to be harbored. By the reception of which are the rebels most to be distressed, by taking those who have wrought all their rebel masters desired, masked their battery, or those who have refused to labor and left the battery unmasked ?

"I have very decided opinions upon the subject of this order. It does not become me to criticise it, and I write in no spirit of criticism, but simply to explain the full difficulties that surround the enforcing it. It the enforcement of that order becomes the policy of the Government, I, as a soldier, shall be bound to enforce it steadfastly, if not cheerfully. But if left to my own discretion, as you may have gathered from my reasoning, I should take a widely different course from that which it indicates.

"In a loyal State I would put down a servile insurrection. In a State of rebellion I would confiscate that which was used to oppose my arms, and take all that property which constituted the wealth of that State and furnished the means by which the war is prosecuted, beside being the cause of the war ; and if; in so doing, it should be objected that human beings were brought to the free enjoyment of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, such objection might not require much consideration."


Prince Napoleon arrived at Washington Friday evening from Philadelphia, and repaired immediately to the house of the French minister at Georgetown without attracting any extra attention.

He passed the evening quietly at the house of the Minister, where he has decided to remain while at Washington, having declined the polite offer of the President to lodge at the White House.

On Saturday he called on the President at twelve o'clock, and was duly presented by the Secretary of State. The President received the Prince with marked courtesy, and welcomed him to the country in a few simple but hearty words of compliment. Without seeking, he said, to attach to this flattering visit of one so closely allied to the French throne, at this solemn crisis of the country's history, an undue importance, he could but feel that his presence at the capital was a guarantee of the friendly interest and generous sympathy of the French Government.

The Prince, it is reported, listened with deep interest to the informal address of the President, and replied with brevity and much feeling. He dined at the White House that evening. As the Prince travels incognito, the dinner was quite en famille. There were twenty-seven persons present. The party was composed of the President and the Presidential family, Mrs. Lincoln, Mrs. Grimsley, Mr. Edwards, Mr. R. T. Lincoln, Mr. Mecoukey, and Messieurs Nicolay and Hay, the private secretaries of the President.

Prince Napoleon was accompanied by Captain Coufils, commander of the steamer upon which the imperial party came to New York; Lieutenant-Colonels Ferri, Pisan, and Ragon, Aides-de-camp, and Mr. Maurice Sand. The other guests were Lord Lyons, the British Minister; Monsieur Mercier, French Minister ; Monsieur de Geofroy, Secretary of the French Legation; Mr. Banoche, attache; the Secretaries of State, the Treasury, the Navy, the Interior, and the Postmaster-General; Lieutenant-General Scott, Major-General M'Clellan, Senator Foot, President pro tem. of the Senate ; Senator Sumner, Chairman of Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, and Fred. W. Seward, Esq., Assistant Secretary of State.

The Secretary of War was absent from the city, and the Attorney-General was kept away by illness.


Robert Toombs has resigned his office of Secretary of State in the " Southern Confederacy," and R. M. T. Hunter has been appointed to succeed him. The cause of Toombs's resignation is his acceptance of a general's commission in the rebel army.

General Kelly, who was severely wounded at Philippi, was presented with a splendid horse by citizens of Wheeling, on the 31st ult., and the next day left to take his position in the army in Western Virginia.

General Barnard E. Bee, of South Carolina, who was killed in the rebel army at the battle of Bull Run, was thirty-five years of age, and has left a wife and one child. He entered West Point in 1841, and when the rebellion broke out he was a first lieutenant in the American army.

A young lady was found In a company at Lafayette, Indiana, on the 29th ult., "enlisted for the war;" but as the proclamation of the Governor called for abled-bodied "men," she was invited to leave the ranks and return her regimentals to the Quarter-master.

General Fremont, in his orders to the commander of the Second Missouri Rifle regiment, says he must have for captains "only such officers as have seen service." Austin E. Smith, late Navy Agent of San Francisco, and son of "Extra Billy Smith," ex-Governor of Virginia, arrived in New York on Friday by the Northern Light, and was arrested by United States Marshal Murray, on the charge of being a defaulter.



A PRIVY council was to be held in London on the 25th of July to arrange certain ministerial changes. Lord Palmerston, it was said, would resume his old position in the House of Commons as the exponent of the foreign policy of the British Government.



At latest dates Italy was still much infested by brigands, especially in the Neapolitan provinces. The Pope, on the 23d of July, announced a short allocution in the Consistory at Rome, in which he declared himself grateful for the continued presence of the French troops, but deprecated the recognition of the Kingdom of Italy by the Emperor Napoleon, which he characterized as a painful act.



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