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Civil War Harper's Weekly, March 23, 1861

The March 23, 1861 edition of Harper's Weekly featured a stunning portrait of Major Anderson's command at Fort Sumter.  The paper also features important news associated with the opening days of the Civil War. The issue also features a portrait of Abner Doubleday, popularly remembered as the inventor of baseball, on the cover.


Major Anderson's Command

Major Anderson's Command

General Twiggs's Surrender

Affairs in Texas

The Alamo

The Alamo

Salmon P. Chase

Salmon P. Chase

Robert Anderson's Command

San Antonio Plaza

The San Antonio Plaza







MARCH 23, 1861.]



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of about four thousand, and a trade of about eight millions of dollars annually, principally with Mexico.

The mouth of the Rio Grande has only from two to four and a half feet water on its bar ; therefore no sea-going vessel of a size safe to navigate the Gulf can cross its bar.

All shipments for Brownsville and other points on the Lower Rio Grande are made to Brazos Bay —which has from eight to ten feet water on its bar, and is ten miles in a straight line from the Rio Grande—from thence the freight is reshipped in light-draught steamboats via the Rio Grande, or sent by lighters to Point Isabel, three miles distant from the anchorage, and from Point Isabel transported to Brownsville by land.

From the time of the first settlement of the country by the Spaniards Brazos and Point Isabel have been the harbor and place of entry for the sea trade of nearly the whole Rio Grande Valley. Point Isabel is situate on the main land, about ten miles in a straight line from the Rio Grande, and twenty-eight miles from Brownsville.

The coast for a long distance, and even Brazos island, is swept, during heavy gales, by the sea; and for this reason the Government has been obliged to place her light-house for the entrance to Brazos harbor on the bluff at Point Isabel, which bluff is elevated about twenty feet above the water of the harbor.

At the commencement of the Mexican War Point Isabel was selected for a military depot, and Fort Polk erected there.

The Rio Grande is navigated by steamboats to Rio Grande city, about three hundred miles above Brownsville. During the Mexican War a United States Government steamer navigated the river to Laredo, about six hundred miles above Brownsville.

Brazos harbor is the only anchorage and harbor south or west of Aransas.



THE Senate is still in session, for the purpose of confirming appointments. A motion was made on 12th for the expulsion of Senator Wigfall, of Texas, who declared that he was a foreigner and owed no allegiance to the United States. After some debate it was referred to the Judiciary Committee. Senator Douglas has made a speech declaring that he regards the Inaugural as a peace document. On 13th he offered the following resolution:

"Resolved, That the Secretary of War be requested to inform the Senate what forts, arsenals, navy yards, and other public works within the limits of the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, are now within the actual possession and occupation of the United States, and by what number of men each is garrisoned and held, and whether reinforcements are necessary to retain the same, and if so, whether the Government has the power and means under existing laws to supply such reinforcements within such time as the exigencies and necessities of the case may demand, and whether the defense and protection of the United States and their interests make it necessary and wise to retain military possession of such forts, places, and other property, except at Key West and Tortugas, and to recapture and reoccupy such others as the United States have been deprived of by seizure or surrender, for any other purpose and with a view to any other end than the subjugation and occupation of those States which have assumed the right to secede from the Union, and within whose limits such forts and other public property are situated; and if such be the motives for recapturing and holding the forts and other public property, what military force, including regulars and volunteers, would be necessary to enable the United States to reduce the States aforesaid and such others as are supposed to sympathize with them to subjection and obedience to the laws of the Union, and to protect the Fe lend capital."

On the same day Senator Fessenden, of Maine, offered the following resolution, which was laid over under the rule:

"Resolved, That Messrs. Benjamin of Louisiana, Brown and Davis of Mississippi, Clay of Alabama, Mallory of Florida, and Toombs of Georgia, laving announced that they are no longer members of the Senate, their seats have become vacant, and the Secretary of the Senate is directed to strike their names from the roll of members."

On Thursday, 14th, Senator Mason, of Virginia, offered a resolution of inquiry, directed to the Secretary of War, relative to the militia of the District of Columbia. It was objected to and laid over. Senator Douglas made an effort to get before the Senate his resolutions, offered on Wednesday, calling for information relative to the Southern forts and other Federal property, but he did not succeed. In the course of the debate Senator Clingman, of North Carolina, announced that he had prepared a resolution advising the President to make a treaty with the seceded States, but he did not offer it. Senator Fessenden's resolution, offered on Wednesday, proposing to strike from the roll the names of those Southern Senators who have withdrawn from the Senate, was then considered. Efforts were made by Senators Mason, Hunter, and others, to have the phraseology changed, and finally Senator Fessenden accepted a substitute offered by Senator Clark, of New Hampshire, simply declaring the seats vacant, and directing the omission of the names in calling the roll. This was adopted—24 to 10. The Senate spent but a brief period in Executive Session.


A synopsis of the permanent Constitution adopted by the "Congress" of the C. S. A. for the fundamental law of the seceded States has been published. Among its provisions is one allowing the officers of the Executive Departments to occupy seats on the floor of Congress, with the privilege of discussing any measure relating to his Department. Another provides that the President and Vice-President shall hold office six years, and the President is given the power to remove the principal officers of the Departments and in the Diplomatic service at pleasure. The foreign slave-trade is prohibited, and the basis of three-fifths for slave representation is continued. When five States shall have ratified the Constitution, it shall be established in those States—otherwise the Provisional Constitution shall continue in force one year.

The Tariff Act has been published. It goes into operation on the 1st of May. Compared with the Tariff Act of the United States, most of the 30 per cent. duties are reduced to 25; the greater portion of the 24 and 19 duties are reduced to 15. There is a large 10 per cent. schedule and a very small free list.

The Alabama Convention has ratified the permanent Constitution by a vote of 87 to 5.


The Charleston Mercury's Montgomery correspondent says that Mr. Davis, styled the President of the "Southern Confederacy," has vetoed the bill concerning the African slave-trade. The effect of this bill was to reduce the crime of importing slaves from piracy to a misdemeanor. The Mercury asks what the purpose of the veto is, whether it is intended to keep in force the higher penalty, and hints that the President is making a mistake in bringing on the agitation of the Slavery question so early in the history of the new Confederacy. The paper also finds fault because the veil of secrecy, removed from the original act, is still kept on the veto and the course of the Congress thereupon,


The Commissioners of the Southern Confederacy, now at Washington, on Wednesday sent a communication to the State Department requesting recognition by the Government, with a view to the opening of negotiations, at the same time stating that the Secretary of the Commission would call for an answer at noon on 14th. At the hour designated the Secretary called at the State Department, when he was informed that the Administration desired time for further reflection on the communication submitted.


The question as to the evacuation or reinforcement of Fort Sumter has been decided by the Cabinet. The fort is to be evacuated, and peace will thus be preserved. The order for the evacuation has not as yet been dispatched to Major Anderson, but will be. The abandonment of the fort is a military necessity, and the President and Cabinet, in coming to a conclusion on the subject, are said to have been governed by the opinions of the chiefs of the army. General Scott's opinion is based upon an elaborate report of General Totten, Chief Engineer of the Engineering Bureau, to the effect that a regular series of well-constructed fortifications have been erected around Fort Sumter, completely encircling it, so that a very large land force would be required to silence their fire, if vessels with reinforcements were sent into the harbor. At the same time Captain Ward, of the navy, who has made a special examination of the circumstances, reports that it would be impossible to deliver supplies by water without a considerable accompaniment of war vessels, to keep up a combined attack upon the hostile forts while a steamer or tug should be making its way to the garrison. But the execution of either plan would require more time for the preparation of it than now remains before Anderson and his little guard would be completely short of provisions.


The New York Times says: "The Cabinet, on 13th, sent several nominations to the Senate—among them that of Colonel E. V. Sumner, as Brigadier-General, in place of the traitor Twiggs, and several Army promotions. The mission to Spain was at first declined by Cassius M. Clay, but was afterward accepted. It was reported also that Mr. Corwin declined the mission to Mexico, but the report was at least premature. It is believed that he will accept it, provided his health will permit him to leave home. Joshua R. Giddings will probably be Consul-General at Montreal, and Mr. Thayer Consul-General at Alexandria. The mission to London is understood to lie between Hon. William L. Dayton and Hon. Charles Francis Adams. General Spinner, Chairman of the Committee on Accounts in the last House of Representatives, is to be Assistant-Secretary of State. Jacob F. Halderman, of Pennsylvania, has been nominated as Minister Resident at Stockholm.


The Herald correspondent says: "The first levee of President Lincoln was given at the White House on 7th. It was a monster gathering. The oldest frequenters of the Executive mansion declare that they do not recollect ever to have seen so many people pass through the House at any previous levee. Some of the officers of the House, who served Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Pierce, say they never saw any thing approaching it in numbers, and that it was never excelled in brilliancy. An hour before the doors of the house were opened the great driveway was blockaded with carriages, and the sidewalks and approaches to the Whits House were thronged with ladies and gentlemen, anxiously awaiting an opportunity to enter and pay their respects to the President and Mrs. Lincoln. At eight o'clock the doors were opened, and the house was soon filled. By half past eight the crowd inside was so intense that—it being impossible to pass out of the door, owing to the large numbers outside waiting for admission—it was found necessary to pass the ladies and gentlemen who desired to retire out through the windows. This mode of exit lasted nearly an hour, especially for the gentlemen."


The famous Gaines case was decided by the United States Supreme Court on 14th. A decision has at last been rendered in favor of Mrs. Gaines, and the Court has given such directions as will place her in possession of all the property of Daniel Clark in New Orleans and Baltimore.


The vessels comprising the home Squadron of the United States are ready for instant service, and all but three or four are now in this port. The list comprises twenty-six vessels, carrying 190 guns and 2757 men. This is the largest naval force ever concentrated in one squadron since the organization of the United States Navy. It consists of more ships than the Channel fleet of England.


New Hampshire held her State election on 12th. The leading candidates were as follows:

Republican.   Opposition.

Governor    Nathaniel S. Berry.   George Stark.

Railroad Com....J. T. P. Hunt.   Frederick Vose.

Congress, Dist. 1..Gilman Marston.   Daniel Marcy.

Congress, Dist. 2.. Edward H. Rollins. Samuel D. Bell. Congress, Dist. 3.. Thomas M. Edwards. William Burns. Judge Bell was of old a Whig, the rest of the Opposition candidates were Democrats. The election resulted in the complete triumph of the Republicans. Returns from 102 towns indicate that their majority in the State will be from 3500 to 4000. All the Republican candidates for Congress are elected, four of the five Councilors, eight or nine of the twelve State Senators, and an overwhelming majority of the State Representatives.


From Texas we learn that on the 4th inst. the Convention declared that State out of the Union, and Governor Houston issued a proclamation to that effect. Vessels sent by the Federal Government to Texas are not to be seized. Governor Houston, it is stated, will neither take the oath of allegiance to the State nor resign. The returns of the election were still incomplete, but as far as ascertained show a heavy majority in favor of secession. Dispatches from San Antonio and Fort Brown state that Colonel Waite, the commander of the United States forces, had endeavored to reorganize the troops, but, owing to their demoralization by the conduct of General Twiggs, found it impossible to do so. Captain Hill, the commander at Fort Brown, was in expectation of a collision between the State authorities and his troops.

A later telegram from New Orleans states that Captain Hill has found his position at Fort Brown untenable, and has in consequence been forced to surrender. It is stated that the transfer of this post to the Texan Commissioners had been arranged, and that the United States troops, as soon as transportation could be procured, would proceed to the Coast, taking with them two light batteries.


A telegram, dated Galveston, Texas, March 11, says : "Governor Houston has refused to recognize the Convention. He considers that its functions terminated in submitting the secession ordinance to the people. He tells the Convention that he and the Legislature (which meets on the 18th) will attend to the public questions now arising; and he favors a new Convention, to make such changes in the State Constitution as may be necessary. He opposes Texas joining the Confederacy.

"The Convention, in reply, passed an ordinance, claiming full powers, promising to consummate as speedily as possible the connection of Texas with the Confederate States, and notifying the State of this course. The Convention will at once require all officers to take the oath of allegiance to the support of the new government, and carry out the Convention ordinances.

"It is reported that Mr. Clark will be put in Mr. Houston's place, if the latter refuses the oath ; also, that Governor Houston is raising troops on his own account."


We have some interesting items of news copied from the Washington letter of the Pensacola Observer, dated the 3d instant:

"Lieutenant Slemmer has had about forty men engaged in raising a sand battery about a quarter of a mile to the eastward of Fort Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, for the past two or three days. The Wyandotte was engaged all

day yesterday in conveying water to the United States ships outside. Lieutenant M'Nab, of the Eufaula Rifles, being anxious to find out what Slemmer's men were doing on the island, procured a boat and went over. He was placed under arrest by the authorities of Santa Rosa Island, and sent to the Navy-yard. This morning the bay is as calm as a mirror—the sun shines in all his majesty—the stars and stripes are afloat from the flag-staff on Fort Pickens and from the Wyandotte, which is now engaged in towing out the water-tank to the ships. The sloop of war St. Louis, the frigate Sabine, and the United States steamer Brooklyn, are to be seen lying at anchor beyond the bar. Quite a crowd have passed, with wheel-barrows, spades, shovels, etc., to work on the sand-batteries in course of construction at the old and new light-houses, and on the beach opposite the village of Warrington."


The Key West Key of the Gulf, in its issue of February 23, gives us the following important news : "The steamer Daniel Webster, Captain Minor, arrived at this port last evening, six days from New York, with Major Fitz John Porter, Assistant Adjutant-General, and Captain Dawson, First Artillery, for Brazos Santiago, Texas; Captain W. F. Smith, Topographical Engineers, on light-horse duty, and ninety recruits, sixty-two to fill up Captain Brannan's company at Fort Taylor, and twenty-eight for Fort Jefferson, and company stores for both works."


We read in the Charleston Mercurry: " At an early hour yesterday morning, while the gunners were firing blank cartridges from the guns of the Iron Battery at Cumming's Point, one of the guns loaded with ball, the men not being aware of the fact, was discharged. The ball struck the wharf of Fort Sumter, close to the gate. This, it appears, caused some excitement in the garrison of Sumter, for three or four of the ports fronting Cumming's Point were soon after thrown open. No warlike reply to the unintentional shot was given, however, and about two hours afterward a boat was sent over to explain the occurrence to Major Anderson. The Major received the message in good part, and thus the matter ended, after having caused no little talk at the harbor forts and in the city."


We find in the Savannah Republican of the 7th the following announcement of the proposed sale of the New York vessels : " Governor Brown has issued an order for the sale, at public auction, of the ship Martha J. Ward, and schooner Julia A. Hallock, for the purpose of indemnifying citizens of Georgia for the losses which they have sustained on account of the robberies perpetrated by the New York authorities, and of paying all expenses incurred in the premises.' It is understood, we believe, that the owners of these vessels will not interpose to prevent or delay the sale, having elected to look to their Government for indemnity, for all losses sustained by reason of the transaction."


The French Minister at Washington last week waited upon the Secretary of State and offered the services of his Government as mediator between the United States and Peru, in the difficulty arising from the seizure of an American vessel by the Peruvian authorities.


The court-journal of the Southern Government—The Confederacy—of the 9th inst. says:

"Mrs. President Davis, who has already made a most favorable impression on our community, left last Thursday for her home in Mississippi. She purposes, however, to return shortly with her family, and will occupy the handsome residence of Colonel Edmund Harrison, on Washington Street, which will be the 'White House' for this year at least. The President is still at the Exchange hotel, where his time is almost constantly engrossed with official business."

Wm. M. Browne, late editor of the Washington Union (Mr. Buchanan's organ), has been appointed Assistant-Secretary of State of the Southern Confederacy. He is an Irishman.

Jere Clemens, the redoubled novelist and editor, and a terrible fire-eater, has been appointed a Major-General in the rebel army.

The Miss Lilly Tyler, who loosed "the impatient folds" of the Southern banner at Montgomery the other day, is a daughter of ex-President Tyler, and not a grand-daughter, as has been reported.

The recent resignation of Captain Withers of the United States Army was not prompted by sympathy with secession. The Captain married a Spanish lady at San Antonio, Texas, where she has a large and valuable property menaced by political disturbances, and as she has no one at home to take care of her property interests, her husband was forced to resign his commission in order that he might go to Texas for that purpose.

General Beauregard, now in command of the rebel forces at Charleston, has much fame as a tactician. It is said that when General Scott's council differed in opinion as to the plan for attacking Mexico, after others had spoken, General Scott called on Lieutenant Beauregard, whose conduct at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, and Contreras, had strongly attracted his attention. That young officer observed that, inasmuch as he differed in toto with his brother engineers, he felt great diffidence in expressing his views; but he finally agreed with the plan of General Scott, it was acted upon, and the city- was taken.

Ex-General David E. Twiggs, late of the United States army, was formally received at New Orleans last week. During the past month, the oldest person of the Onondaga tribe of Indians, a woman named Hannah, died at the supposed age of over one hundred and twenty years! From the family traditions, it is believed that she was born as early as 1741, and perhaps at a still earlier date.



IN the House of Commons the subject of the slave-trade, introduced by a series of senseless resolutions, has provoked an animated discussion, and elicited important explanations and remarks from Lord John Russell and Lord Pamerston. Loth these statesmen denounced the faithless conduct of' Spain in encouraging the traffic, but yet more bitterly denounced the Government of the United States for persisting in its refusal to submit to an indiscriminate right of visitation and search. The opinion was expressed in the course of the debate that the Southern Confederacy should never be recognized until it had given satisfactory guarantees of its purpose to abstain from the slave-trade.



The French Senate has availed itself of the new privileges accorded it by the Emperor, to respond to the Imperial Address. Its references to the foreign policy of the Empire are generally laudatory, but in shaping its language in regard to the Roman question, care has been taken to give a decidedly ultramontane character to the sentiments. In the mean time, the violent language of some of the bishops is moving the Government to strong measures of repression; and the Diocesan of Poictiers is to be made an example of.


A Paris dispatch says that Colonel Faulkner, United States Minister to France, had been officially informed by M. Thouvenel that the South Carolina Conmissioners had not been received either by the Emperor or himself.


We read in the London Post, February 21: "The failure of the house of M. Mires & Co. was formally announced on the Bourse at an early hour this morning, and created considerable excitement. Count de Germiny, Governor of the Bank of France, has been named to liquidate the estate. The house of Mires & Co. is one of those large banking es-tablishments which have grown up suddenly in Paris, and

become identified with extensive railway contracts, foreign loans, and domestic enterprises, on a scale which involves many millions of francs. M. Mires & Co., it will be remembered, lately contracted with the Turks a new loan, which, owing to the opposition of the French government and the house of Rothschild, was not successful in Paris. This blow appears to have condemned the house of M. Mires to ruin. Before entering into an agreement to pay the Ottoman government a large sum monthly, M. Mires had heavy calls on his bank, originating in his engagements with Spanish and Roman railways, public works at Marseilles, and other smaller liabilities. Under such a weight of liabilities the house has broken up, and caused much consternation to hundreds of shareholders. It it whispered about that M. Mires will make some remarkable revelations concerning the financial transactions of great personages. If so, he will prove himself a good friend of the Emperor. I hear that not only has M. Mires been put under arrest, but three other gentlemen, whose names I do not care to mention, are also under the control of the authorities. The liabilities of the house of Mires are estimated at from 200 to 600 millions of francs; but, the fact is, no one knows at the present moment the real condition of the estate."


The Herald correspondent writes: "The great excitement of the week has been the arrest of the celebrated financier Mires. Some time back an ugly hitch occurred in his affairs, and his books were for a few hours in the hands of the officers of justice. His son-in-law, Prince de Polignac, averted the storm at that time by seeking an interview with the Emperor, and obtaining from his Majesty an order for the release of the books. It was subsequently rumored about the city that Mires would not have escaped had he not been concerned with high personages; and rumor even went so far as to state that the Emperor himself had mixed in the speculations of Monsieur Mires. Annoyed at these scandalous reports, the Emperor determined that a stop should be put to them, and that the best method of so doing was to ventilate the business affairs of Mires. So at a recent council of Ministers his Majesty asked M. Delangle, the Minister of Justice, whether due attention was being paid to the Mires affair. M. Delangle answered that enough was already known to arrest that individual, but that he judged great care was needed in transacting the proceedings, as the consequences would entail ruin upon so many. The Emperor answered that the shock must not be avoided; that public morality must be satisfied. In this view his Majesty was warmly seconded by Count de Persigny. A rumor of their proceedings having come to the ears of M. Mires, he wrote to the Emperor a letter, the contents of which conveyed that many of his Majesty's nearest surrounders were implicated with Mires, and that in case he was dealt with harshly he would expose all. The Emperor at once, upon receipt of this epistle, sent for Count de Morny, M. Billault, and one or two others, and the result of the conference was the order given to the police to arrest M. Mires. This was done the next day (Sunday), while the financier was at dinner. Again did Prince Polignac seek the Emperor to plead for his father-in-law; but in vain. His Majesty's answer was, ' Let him clear himself of the charges made against him.'

"Great was the consternation on Monday when it became known that Mires was in prison. Rumors, startling and many of them unfounded, circulate, but no one can doubt that many, very many personages of great distinction, are deeply compromised by the papers of Mires, now being examined by the officers of the law. We have been startled by the sudden death of M. de Richemont, collector of taxes in this city. He committed suicide. It is alleged that he was to be arrested, and got wind of the fact, and in his dismay committed the fatal act of taking his own life. Several arrests have taken place; but as all is done in the greatest secrecy, it is almost impossible to say who are those now in prison."


We read in the Levant Herald ; " We have good reason to believe that a part, at least, of the object of Admiral La Ronciere le Nourry's late visit to Constantinople had reference to the for some time intended pilgrimage of the Empress of the French to Jerusalem. Her Majesty is said to have had such a journey in view ever since the death of her late sister, the Duchess d'Alba, and the official rumor now is, that her intention is to be carried into effect before the French troops leave Syria. As the Imperial voyage, however, can not be made till at least the end of March, this fact is put forward as one reason for stretching the term fixed for General Beaufort's departure by the Convention. On the other hand, our information is that the Porte disposes of this insinuated necessity by the amplest offers of escort and munificent care of her Majesty during her stay in its territory. It is said that the Empress—like any other Helena—intends to commemorate her visit to the Holy Places by the foundation either of an hospital or a church worthy of Imperial France, and, in fact, to make a "progress" whose effects shall be at once striking and durable. She will, it is said, replace the diamond star, stolen—according to Consul Botta—by the orthodox Greeks from the Cave of the Nativity at Bethlehem, by another of greatly superior value."


The general extravagance just now indulged in at Paris is thus pictured by the correspondent of the London Review: " The other night at a ball-supper, which was served on massive silver-gilt dishes and Sevres china, I heard a man say to the lady on his arm : ' What a waste of truffles it is to stuff partridges with them !' to which in that sharp, thin voice so peculiar to Parisiennes, she answered, ' I wish, for my part, they would stuff them with truffles of gold! that would be worth being squeezed to death for !'

'Des truffes d'or!' I shall not easily forget the tone in which the wish was expressed. I looked back at the speaker; she was a very young woman, extremely fair and gentle-looking, but with, at the same time, a keen, sordid light in the eye that would frighten any one who was not familiar with the race. The days, of Cleopatra are gone, and I should like to see any one of her French descendants dissolving the pearl we know of! Not one of them all would dissolve the pearl for the pleasure of waste, but any of them would squander their own souls for its possession, if it were a sufficiently fine one! Meanwhile gold is the order of the day; its acquisition absorbs them morally, and its display spoils their taste. Furniture-dress—all is overlaid with gold. What glitters is what is resorted to universally, and the eye has nowhere whereon to rest."


From a paragraph in the Paris Pays of February 21 we learn the circumstances attending the death of M. Scribe. Le Pays says : " At the moment of our going to press we learn very sad news. M. Eugene Scribe died yesterday at noon, in his carriage, of cerebral congestion." We conclude from this that the distinguished personage in question died suddenly of apoplexy.



 Prince Napoleon's journey to Italy has been deferred, the Emperor having enjoined him to remain in Paris for the present, on the ground, as is alleged, that the anti-clerical views of the Prince would give a rude impulse in Italy to the question of the Pope's temporal sovereignty.


The ecclesiastical movement is proceeding rapidly at Naples, and bids fair to form a prominent feature in the history of the next few months. While the Cardinal Archbishop is dennuncing and preaching against Padre Gavazzi, the Padre has opened a room in affectionate proximity to the Nuncio, where, on Wednesdays and Fridays, he gives controversial lectures, and on Sunday he preaches twice a day. Last Sunday evening, among a great number of Italians, there were five priests present, who applauded the Padre during a part of his discourse, the audience joining in the demonstration, which Gavazzi immediately endeavored to check. One priest has thrown aside his robes and declared himself a Protestant. The police have on several occasions sent to warn the Padre that his life was in danger, but he told them that it was their duty to protect him, and that he should persist in doing what he considered his duty. Gavazzi has shown immense moral courage and great self-denial in very straitened circumstances.



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