Battle of Chattanooga


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Civil War Harper's Weekly, October 3, 1863

Welcome to our archive of original Civil War Harper's Weekly newspapers. Browse through these papers and read incredible details and view impressive illustrations, all created by eye-witnesses to the events. These details are simply not available anywhere else.

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Battle of Charleston



Battle of Chattanooga

Fort Wagner

Assault on Fort Wagner

Explosion at Fort Moultrie

Harbor Obstruction

Harbor Obstruction


Georgia Battle Map

Battle at Raccoon Ford

Sword Presentation to General Meade

Sword Presentation to General Meade


Russian Frigate Osliaba

Britannia Cartoon

Britannia Cartoon

Battle of Raccoon Ford

Battle of Raccoon Ford




OCTOBER 3, 1863.]



"The Capital of the Tycoon," a narrative of a three years' residence in Japan, by Sir Rutherford Alcock. This is the story of the British Minister in Japan, and it is the most comprehensive survey of Japanese life and institutions that we have had. The detailed descriptions and the copious illustrations, with facsimiles from Japanese drawings, give it a curious interest. Sir Rutherford kept his eyes open constantly, and does not omit the smallest details. He tells us that the Cape jasmine is one of the few flowers in Japan that are fragrant, and that the wheat is never sown broadcast. His descriptions of social life are valuable; and from his account it is clear that there is the same kind of fierce, barbarous hate of foreigners in Japan that there is of men who love liberty in our southern country. As to the vexed question of the treaties between Japan and Great Britain, Sir Rutherford clearly inclines to the opinion that the Japanese should be strictly held to their agreements. The chief difficulty lies in the disposition of the Daimios, a kind of regal aristocracy. But he says that the Government represents and controls elements of strength and order independent of them, and with that Government a firm and friendly policy is desirable. It is a most timely work. (Harper & Brothers.)


THE most amusing result of the overwhelming Union and Administration victory in Maine is the various shades of excuses urged by the various shades of Copperheads for their disastrous popular defeat. One says it was because the Copperhead platform was not strong enough for peace. Another declares that it was not strong enough for war. But the most ludicrous of all is the position of the paper which said on the 12th of August that the platform of "the Democracy" in New York "will be that of the Kentucky conservatives, that of General Tuttle in Iowa, that of Bion Bradbury in Maine....It embraces unconditional loyalty to the Union .... the support of the war by all necessary men and means." On the 15th September, the morning after the news from Maine, the same paper remarked in a double-leaded paragraph: "There is a very simple solution for the defeat of the Democracy .....Bion Bradbury, the Democratic candidate for Governor, was set up not only as a Copperhead of the peace pattern of Seymour of Connecticut," etc, etc. And it concludes by saying that, if the party had adopted the platform which on the 12th of August it declared it had adopted, Bradbury would have been elected.

Of all political slop the drivel of what is called "Conservatism" is the poorest.


OUR winter prospect of music is most excellent. Max Maretzek, the best operatic manager we have had, will direct the Academy with Medori, whose success in Norma and the grander roles was very decided. He announces fresh operas and good singers, and the public has learned that he keeps his word. He has established, by long and faithful service, a feeling of interest in the public heart which is a part of his capital; and every frequenter and lover of the Opera heartily bids him welcome again and God-speed.

Mr. Gottschalk, also, begins a series of concerts in the city immediately. He has no superior for popularity in the concert-room, and his manipulation of the piano is marvelous. No man executes such astonishing tours de force as Gottschalk, and yet, in certain impassioned pieces of Chopin, he is as rigorously exact as the most purely classical performer. It is a constant surprise and pleasure to hear him, and he has mastered the secret of success.

Mr. Anschutz, stimulated by his good fortune last year, will produce the German Opera, more perfectly represented than last year. But he will search far before he gives us any thing better than Madame Johannsen's Fidelio; and we earnestly beg him to remember that he will disappoint his most faithful friends if he does not let us hear that Opera very often.


THE excellent Governor Seymour says, in his last speech, "I am not disposed to criticise the President's recent letter unkindly." Probably not. His Excellency's success in criticising and answering the President's letters has not been signal. The same remark may be made of his Excellency's similar efforts with the letters of General Dix. It is a wise old saw that says, "A burned child fears the fire."


LET every man whose support is claimed for the anti-administration ticket reflect, that the chief authority which declares that the Government will be defeated in this State by fifty or sixty thousand majority insists that Fernando Wood should be made next Speaker of the House, because "he can best serve the Conservative cause in that position."

The ex-Mayor and hero of the Peace meeting, who regretted that he could not send arms to the rebels, is presented as the model "Conservative." And justly so. Of what is now called "Conservatism"—a policy for the success of which Jeff Davis prays—he is a perfect representative.


THE Lounger has received several letters informing him that Mr. Seymour is the purest of patriots and the greatest of statesmen. He has also received several stating that Mr. Lincoln is an ape, a gorilla, and a baboon. The Lounger has the honor in these lines to reply to both classes of his correspondents, and to inform them that he is of a different opinion. He does not consider a gentleman who has conducted this war to its present condition an ape or a gorilla; nor does he think a gentleman who says that he prefers slavery to the Union the

purest of patriots; nor a Governor who calls bloody rioters his "friends" the greatest of statesmen.


THAT Mr. Hawthorne should cling to his college friends is natural. That he should feel kindly toward the man by whose influence he went to Europe, and saw "Our Old Home," is simply human. That after that man had shown himself in his official career the most pliant of tools for the basest of purposes, and in his subsequent retirement the most shameless abettor of bloody war upon the Union, Mr. Hawthorne should be anxious to declare his friendship, is a kind of friendly generosity which is yet intelligible. But that he should gravely say of Franklin Pierce that "no man's loyalty is more steadfast," can be explained only by the fact that the letter to Pierce is dated on the 2d of July, while it was not until the 4th of July that Pierce made his Concord speech, and not until September that his letter to Jeff Davis was published, in which the ex-President assures his ex-Secretary that the North would support his rebellion even to blood.

Mr. Hawthorne owes it to himself—to every friend of his who loves liberty and man—to his country, and to the name of loyalty which he profanes by coupling it with so dishonored a name as Franklin Pierce—to explain in a subsequent edition that the final proof of Pierce's infamy had not then been spoken or printed, and was unknown to him.


GENERAL HALLECK is fast recovering from his late protracted though not serious indisposition, through all of which his official labors have been pursued with that inexorable industry which is one of his main characteristics. He is at his head-quarters every morning at nine, and remains at work until four in the afternoon, when he returns to his residence on Georgetown Heights. His labors are again resumed at eight in the evening, and continues without intermission until the last item of-the day's work is disposed of—often not ceasing until the "wee sma' hours" after midnight.

General BENJAMIN F. BUTLER will enter immediately into the canvass in Pennsylvania in favor of the re-election of Governor Curtin. His first speech will be made at Harrisburg.

Lieutenant-Commander JAMES E. JONETT is detached from the command of the R. R. Cuyler, and ordered to the command of the Sebago.

Among the casualties in the recent battle of Chattanooga are the following:

Colonel HEG and Colonel BRADLEY, commanding brigades, wounded.

Colonel JONES, of the Thirty-sixth Ohio regiment, and Colonel CARROL and Major VANNETTA, of the Tenth Indiana regiment, wounded.

Lieutenant JONES, of Company A, Tenth Indiana regiment, killed.

Lieutenant-Colonel HUNT, of the Fortieth Kentucky regiment, and Lieutenant-Colonel MAXWELL, of the Second Ohio regiment, wounded.

Lieutenant DEGRAW, Lieutenant LUDLOW, and Lieutenant FESSENDEN, of Battery H, Fifth Artillery, wounded.

Lieutenant FLOYD, of Battery I, Fourth Artillery, and Captain BROWN, of the Thirty-first Illinois regiment, wounded.

Captain SEARLES, Assistant Adjutant-General of STARKWEATHER'S brigade, killed.

Quarter-master-General MEIGS departed last week on his inspection tour through the several military departments. Colonel Thomas, of Philadelphia, is Acting Quarter-master-General. It is reported that General INGALLS is also about to set out upon a mission similar to that of General MEIGS.

A young officer recently released from the Libby prison in Richmond, furnishes the following information in relation to Captain SAWYER and FLYNN, who were condemned to death by JEFF DAVIS:

Captains SAWYER and FLYNN, it will be remembered, have been condemned to death in retaliation for the execution by General BURNSIDE of two rebel officers caught recruiting within his lines. The Richmond mob demanded the death of these brave and patriotic men, but the authorities were deterred by the threatened fate of WINDER and LEE, held by us at Fortress Monroe. Captains SAWYER and FLYNN are confined in a sort of cage or bin partitioned off from the cellar of the building. Measured by the eye, it appeared not larger than six feet by eight. The only light and air are admitted through a hole near the ceiling, about a foot square, through which also the food is passed down twice a day. This den is damp, dark, and most shockingly filthy; and the unfortunate victims of rebel hatred are enduring within it a living death from day to day. The plan seems to be, since their cowardly tormentors dared not shoot or hang them, to torture their lives away by this long agony, and then report them as having died of sickness.

The court of inquiry demanded by Colonel DAVIS, of the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry, is still in session at Washington. This inquisition thus far fails to adduce any evidence derogatory to Colonel DAVIS'S character as a brave and useful officer.

Commander REED WORDEN has been ordered to the Navy-yard at Philadelphia.

Lieutenant-Commander R. V. SCOTT is detached from the South Atlantic Blockading squadron, sick, and waiting orders.

Lieutenant-Commander CLARK WELLS is detached from the Navy-yard at Philadelphia and ordered to the command of the Galena.

Captain BARBER, Fifth New York Cavalry, was seriously wounded near Kelly's Ford on 17th. There is some reason to believe that the shot was fired by a deserting conscript to avoid being captured.

The many friends of Major R. J. FALLS will be pleased to learn that he has so far recovered from the injuries received in General STONEMAN'S raid to the rear of LEE'S army as to be able to perform light duty. He has been ordered on General HATCH'S Staff, at Philadelphia, where his duties are mainly the instruction of young officers.

A letter from Cairo says: Some changes have taken place in this vicinity since last I wrote you. They are as follows:

Colonel W. F. LYNCH, of the Fifty-eighth Illinois Infantry, is to command the post of Cairo, vice General A. B. BUFORD, who is ordered to Helena.

Captain J. R. FREESE, of Pennsylvania, late with General MONTGOMERY, is Acting Assistant Adjutant-General to Colonel LYNCH.

Captain T. C. WEATYARD goes with General BUFORD as his Assistant Adjutant-General. Lieutenant COOPER, his aid-de-camp, will also go to Helena with General BUFORD. They start to-day.

Colonel JAMES K. MILLS, Twenty-fourth Missouri, is commanding at Union City, in place of Colonel Fox, who is ordered to St. Louis to attend the court-martial there.

Captain BENSON, Thirty-second Iowa, is commanding at Island No. 10, in place of Captain GORDON, relieved to accompany his command to Nashville.

Major W. R. ROWLEY, newly appointed to the responsible position on General GRANT'S Staff of Provost Marshal of the Department of the Tennessee, started yesterday for Vicksburg to assume the duties of the post. He has been upon the General's Staff since the times of Donelson, and is an able, experienced officer and a gentleman. What Colonel KENT, the present occupant of the Provost Marshalship, is to do has not transpired. He will probably

have a leave of absence, or be assigned some equally important duty with that he has been relieved from.

The following assignments of medical officers have been made:

Assistant Surgeons S. S. HOLMAN and Enoch PEARCE, U. S. Volunteers, recently appointed, to report to Major-General MEADE, commanding Army of the Potomac.

Assistant Surgeon KNEELAND, U. S. Volunteers, to report to Major-General BANES, commanding Department of the Gulf.

Assistant Surgeons W. S. ELY, H. C. ROBERTS, and C. C. CHAFFEE, U. S. Volunteers, to report to Major-General FOSTER, commanding Department of North Carolina.

Assistant Surgeon M. K. HOGAN, U. S. Volunteers, to report to the Medical Director, Washington, for duty with Battalion First, D. C. Volunteers, Colonel L. C. BAKER.

Assistant Surgeons H. W. BURRITT, GERHARD SAUL, and ROBERT GOWAN, U. S. Volunteers, to report in person to Major-General BURNSIDE, and by letter to Assistant Surgeon-General R. C. WOOD, at St. Louis, Missouri.

Assistant Surgeons M. H. SALISBURY and J. C. NORTON, U. S. Volunteers, to report to Major-General ROSECRANS, and by letter to Assistant Surgeon-General R. C. WOOD, at St. Louis, Missouri.

Assistant Surgeons JABEZ PERKINS and W. C. DANIELS, U. S. Volunteers, to report to Major-General GRANT, and by letter to Assistant Surgeon-General Wood, at St. Louis, Missouri.

Assistant Surgeon JOHN D. WOOD, U. S. Volunteers, is hereby relieved from duty in the Medical Department, and will report in person, without delay, to Major-General ROSECRANS, Department of the Cumberland, and by letter to Assistant Surgeon-General R. C. WOOD, at St. Louis, Missouri.

Surgeon EDWARD SKIPPEN, U. S. Volunteers, now on duty in the Army of the Potomac, will report without delay to Surgeon W. S. KING, U. S. Army, Medical Director Department of the Susquehanna, to relieve Surgeon PAUL B. GODDARD, U. S. Volunteers, in charge of the South Street General Hospital, Philadelphia.

Commander JOHN C. HOWELL has been detached from the command of the Metacomet and ordered to the command of the Nereus.

Commander T. G. CORBIN has been detached from the Naval Academy and ordered on ordnance duty in the Philadelphia Navy-yard.

Commander DONALD M'N. FAIRFAX has been ordered to the Naval Academy as commandant of midshipmen.

Lieutenant-Commander P. LOWRY has been ordered to the command of the Metacomet.

Captain JACOB S. STRETCH, Provost Marshal for the Third district of Pennsylvania, has been dismissed.

General BURNSIDE, the Washington Republican says, tendered his resignation not on account of any personal or political grievances, but from a desire to attend to his private affairs. Having finished his campaign in Tennessee, he thought he might be relieved from service. The President thought otherwise; and at his request General BURNSIDE has patriotically consented to remain at the head of his command.

Four hundred men, belonging to Colonel TEVIS'S cavalry regiment, arrived at Philadelphia on 21st from Fort Delaware. They were originally captured rebels, who refused to be exchanged, took the oath of allegiance, and joined the Union service.

Subscriptions for McCLELLAN testimonials are passing through the Army of the Potomac. One of these, proffered to an officer, was headed by General SYKES with a subscription for $20.

Major-General Dix, commanding the Department of the East, is about to visit Boston on a tour of inspection. He will be accompanied by General TOTTEN of the Engineer Corps.

Governor TODD has sent JAMES M. EDWARDS (Rep.) and Colonel WILLIAM MUNGEN (Dem.) to General GRANT'S army to canvass the votes of the soldiers. He has also arranged to record the votes of the Ohio soldiers in other armies.

The rebel ram Atlanta arrived in Philadelphia last week, in tow of the United States steam-frigate Powhatan. The Atlanta will be fitted up for sea in such manner as may seem best to the naval authorities.



A VERY important and bloody battle was fought near Chattanooga on Saturday, 19th, and Sunday, 20th Sept., between General Rosecrans and Bragg's rebel army, which had been heavily reinforced. Up to the present time we have no full and reliable account of the battle. A Louisville dispatch, received here on 21st, stated that Rosecrans had been "badly beaten." Later dispatches merely speak of his being obliged to fall back on Chattanooga. The following account is condensed from the Washington Star, and is supposed to be official:


On Saturday, the 19th, a demonstration was made by the rebels in strong force, which appears to have been repelled by the force under General Thomas, with the advantage on the Union side.

On Sunday an engagement commenced late in the morning. The first gun was fired at nine A.M., but no considerable firing took place until ten. Previous to ten o'clock General Rosecrans rode the whole length of our line. Soon after the battle commenced.

General Thomas, who held the left, began to call for reinforcements. About twelve o'clock word came that he had been forced to retire.

The second line of reinforcements were then sent to him, and M'Cook's whole corps, which was on the right and as a reserve in the centre, was sent to his assistance. General Wood, of Crittenden's corps, and Van Cleve, who held the front centre, were also ordered to the left, where the fury of the cannonade showed that the enemy's force was massed.

Their places were filled by Davis and Sheridan, of General McCook's corps. But hardly had these divisions taken their places in the line, when the rebel fire, which had slackened, burst out in immense volleys upon the centre.

This lasted about twenty minutes, and then Van Cleve, on Thomas's right, was seen to give way, but in tolerable order; soon after which the lines of Sheridan and Davis broke in disorder, borne down by the enemy's columns, which are said to have consisted of Polk's corps. These two divisions were the only divisions thrown into much disorder. Those of Negley and Van Cleve were thrown into confusion, but soon rallied and held their places, the first on the left and the second on the right of Thomas's corps. Davis and Sheridan, late in the day, succeeded in rallying about eight thousand of their forces, and joined Thomas.


General Thomas, finding himself cut off from the right, brought his division into position for independent fighting, his line assuming the form of a horse-shoe along the crest of a wooded ridge. He was soon joined by Granger, from Roseville, with a division of General M'Cook and General Steadman's division. and with these forces firmly maintained the fight until after dark.

Our troops were as immovable as the rocks they stood on. The enemy repeatedly hurled against them the dense columns which had routed Davis and Sheridan in the morning; but every onset was repulsed with dreadful slaughter. Failing first on one and then on the other point of our lines, the rebels for hours vainly sought to break them. General Thomas seemed to have filled every soldier with his own unconquerable firmness; and General Granger, his hat torn by bullets, rode like a lion wherever the combat was thickest. Every division commander bore himself gloriously, and among them Generals Turchen, Hazen, and Parker especially distinguished themselves. Turchen charged through the rebel lines with the bayonet, and being surrounded, forced his way back again. Parker, who had two horses shot under him on Saturday, forming his men in one line, made them lie

down until the enemy was close upon them, when suddenly they rose and delivered their fire, with such effect that the assaulting columns fell back in confusion, leaving the ground covered with killed. When night fell this body of heroes stood on the same ground occupied by them in the morning, their spirits being unbroken. Their losses are not yet estimated.


General Thomas telegraphs (Monday forenoon) that the troops are in high spirits. He brought off all his wounded. Of the sick and wounded at Crawfish Spring, including our main hospital, nearly all had been brought away.

The number of prisoners taken by the enemy will hardly surpass two thousand, besides the wounded, of whom not more than one thousand could have fallen into their hands. Of rebel prisoners we have sent thirteen hundred to Nashville.

Most of our losses in artillery were occasioned by the killing of all the horses.

General Thomas retired to Rossville on Sunday night after the battle had closed.

General Rosecrans had issued orders for all his troops to be concentrated with the forces at Chattanooga.

In the last two assaults our troops fought with bayonets, their ammunition being exhausted.

The latest information that has reached this city is from Chattanooga last evening, and was to the effect that General Rosecrans would concentrate on Chattanooga last night.

General Thomas had been engaged with the enemy prior to 5 P.M. yesterday, and it was therefore questionable whether he would be able to reach Chattanooga last night.

There were indications that the enemy were contemplating a demonstration on another part of our line last evening.


We have received the full details of the recent cavalry fight with the rebels near to, at, and beyond Culpepper Court-House. The Union forces were under the chief command of General Pleasanton, with Generals Buford, Kilpatrick, and Gregg as division commanders. The gallantry of our troops has again been brought to the test with a grand result. The rebels were under the command of General Stuart, and the rebel accounts of the fight acknowledge the loss of the three pieces of artillery mentioned in the Union accounts as having been captured from them. The rebels took refuge in the houses of Culpepper during the contest, and fired from the windows and street-corners, necessitating the shelling of the place to drive them out, and thereby causing the death of several non-combatants. On Wednesday the rebels drove back part of our forces at Raccoon Ford; but General Kilpatrick, dismounting a Michigan cavalry regiment, and being assisted by artillery, speedily redrove the rebels back beyond the Rapidan, capturing seventeen prisoners. The head-quarters of the Union generals were also shelled without serious effect. The rebel guerrillas are still operating successfully on the outskirts of the various Union camp lines and along the railroads.


We have particulars of an expedition under General Franklin to the mouth of the Sabine River, Texas, which has proved unsuccessful. On arriving at the place designed for the landing of the troops, outside the enemy's fortifications, it was found impossible to disembark, owing to the marshy nature of the ground and excessively shallow water. Upon the gun-boats Clifton, Sachem, and Arizona, therefore, devolved the whole task of attacking the batteries, and they came gallantly up to the work. The bombardment continued some time, gradually increasing in briskness until the vessels got within point-blank range of the forts, when the enemy suddenly opened a terrific fire, in which they were aided by a fleet of three cotton-clad steamers and a schooner further up the river. At first the fire from our gun-boats was more accurate than that of the enemy, and we seemed clearly to be getting the advantage; but unfortunately the Sachem grounded broadside to the rebel fleet, and very soon she was riddled and left an utter wreck. The Arizona's greater draft of water would not admit of her nearer approach to the batteries, and the Clifton was compelled to essay the task of silencing them unaided. In the gallant attempt she also struck hard on the bottom, and was not long before meeting a fate similar to the Sachem's. Captain Crocker, her commander, made a heroic effort to save his vessel, but seeing the matter hopeless, he loaded his after-gun with a 9-inch solid shot, and fired it through the centre of the ship, crashing the machinery in pieces and effectually destroying the vessel. The Arizona was then forced reluctantly to withdraw, unable to cope singly with the enemy. Besides the vessels' crews, we lost as prisoners 98 soldiers, who were acting as sharp-shooters. The numbers killed and wounded are not very large.


The following dispatch has been received at the head-quarters of the army at Washington:


LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS, September 10, 1863.

Major-General H. W. Halleck, General-in-Chief:

We have just entered Little Rock. The cavalry under General Davidson is pursuing the enemy, who are in full retreat South.   F. R. STEELE, Major-General.


A dispatch, dated Knoxville, Tennessee, Wednesday, September 16, says: On Wednesday, Lieutenant-Colonel Cayes, with 300 men of the One Hundredth Ohio regiment, was attacked near Tilford, 23 miles up the railroad, by 1800 rebels under General Jackson.

After fighting gallantly for two hours, our forces, losing heavily in killed and wounded, were compelled to surrender to overpowering numbers.


At latest dates General Gilmore was very busy mounting heavy guns on the upper part of Morris Island for the purpose of bombarding Charleston, and, although Fort Sumter was still held by the rebels, the siege was progressing favorably. General Gilmore has issued an eloquent congratulatory order to his troops, and a copy is to be placed in the hands of every living officer and soldier who has participated in the Campaign on Morris Island. On the morning of the 15th inst. the magazine of one of the rebel batteries on Sand Point, near Fort Johnson, exploded with terrific violence, destroying the battery, its magazine, guns, etc. One hundred rebel prisoners, taken on Morris Island, came North in the McClellan.




WE have the very important information that the British Government has decided to detain Laird's rebel iron rams. This fact has thrown a decided gloom over the rebels and their sympathizers in England.



Three members of the Mexican deputation dispatched to tender the crown to the Archduke Maximilian have arrived in Paris. Although five of their colleagues were still at sea, it was reported that the offer had been made and accepted, the Cabinet of Spain, with the King of Belgium, approving of the decision of the Archduke. It was said that he stipulated for two conditions only, viz., "A unanimous appeal to him from the Mexican people, and the moral and material co-operation of the Western Powers in the establishment of a respected and stable Government."


Secretary Seward's recent circular has caused some ill-feeling at the French Court. The Moniteur, with all the official journals of Paris, in publishing the paper, print the article of the London Times, in which it is analyzed and condemned, side by side with it.




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