Civil War Overview
Civil War 1861
Civil War 1862
Civil War 1863
Civil War 1864
Civil War 1865
Civil War Battles
Robert E. Lee
Civil War Medicine
Civil War Links
Civil War Art
Republic of Texas
Civil War Gifts
Robert E. Lee Portrait
First-Lieutenant ARTHUR F. SMALL,
Adjutant Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, First-Lieutenant OSCAR H. CLEMENT,
First Company Andrew's Sharp-Shooters, Massachusetts Volunteers, and
Second-Lieutenant THOMAS H. REED, Ninety-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, have
been cashiered for conduct unbecoming officers and gentlemen, drunkenness, and
breach of arrest.
The evidence in the case of
General MILROY has been reviewed by the Judge-Advocate-General and submitted to
the President for his decision, which has not yet been promulgated.
Colonel JAMES A. TAIT, First
District of Columbia Volunteers, has been dismissed the service by order of the
President. He was Provost Marshal General of the defenses south of Washington
last winter, and was charged with neglect of duty and disobedience of orders,
for which he was tried and honorably acquitted; but General HEINTZELMAN,
commanding the department, disapproved the finding of the court, alleging that
the evidence adduced showed that the charges were conclusively proved. The case
was referred to the President, who ordered Colonel TAIT to be dismissed.
Colonel RAMSAY has been appointed
Brigadier-General, and assigned to the charge of the Ordnance Bureau, which he
has filled since the retirement of General RUPLEY.
Colonel DELANCEY, recently
captured by the rebels, was attached to Governor PIERPONT'S staff. He was at the
time sojourning at the house of a relative several miles from Alexandria.
AT last accounts both armies were
confronting each other, and General Rosecrans had established three lines of
defense in front of the town, while General Bragg was at the same time
fortifying Missionary Ridge. General Rosecrans's reinforcements reached him on
2d, and his army is now believed to he larger than ever.
Richmond Examiner admits that
General Rosecrans's position is impregnable, and that the attempt of the rebel
General Imboden to cut off the communication between Rosecrans and his
reinforcements on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad had proved a failure.
The position of General
Burnside's command is announced in a dispatch from Knoxville. His right wing is
in communication with the army of General Rosecrans. He holds the entire country
south from Knoxville to Calhoun, on the Hawassee River, and east of the former
point as far as Greenville, on the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. He also
holds possession of all the passes into North Carolina.
BRIDGE BURNED AT MURFREESBORO.
Nashville of 5th
state that the enemy had destroyed the large railroad bridge south of
Murfreesboro. They burned one portion of it, and the other portion they cut
THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC.
Affairs remain unchanged in
General Meade's army, and with the exception of some skirmishing between the
pickets on either side of the Rapidan, and the firing of the rebel batteries
occasionally on our foraging parties, there is nothing to disturb the repose
which both Union and rebel soldiers are enjoying in the delicious weather which
prevails in the vicinity of the Rapidan.
We have news from
the 1st inst. Our forces were progressing with the erection of batteries on
Morris Island. The troops were in fine health and spirits. Official reports from
Admiral Dahlgren have been received at the Navy Department to the effect that
the land and naval forces are not idle in their operations. Our guns were making
terrible havoc on Forts Sumter, Johnson, and Simpkins. The enemy's batteries on
Fort Moultrie replied briskly.
AFFAIRS IN THE SOUTHWEST.
Cairo to the 3d
state that over two thousand Arkansas Unionists have joined our army at
different points; that two newspapers have been revived at
Little Rock, and that
the railroad between Duvall's Bluff and Little Rock is in charge of Colonel
Meade, brother to General Meade, of the Army of the Potomac. The steamer Robert
Campbell, from St. Louis to Vicksburg, was fired by incendiaries, near
Milliken's Bend, on the 29th ult. The flames spread so rapidly that the
passengers were forced to jump overboard before the boat could be got to shore.
Twenty-two lives were lost, including several officers of the Federal army.
A RECONNOISSANCIC AT MOBILE.
There has been a brush between
our gun-boats and the rebel fort at Grant's Pass, near the entrance of Mobile
Bay, in which the fort is believed to have been materially damaged, as well as a
rebel iron-clad that for a brief time participated in the engagement.
RUMORED CONSPIRACY AT THE WEST.
Several persons have been
arrested and placed in irons in St. Louis, owing to a report that a conspiracy
exists there to burn all the steamers in Western waters which may be of any
service to the Government. An investigation is now on foot which will probably
unravel the mystery of this desperate undertaking, if any such should be in
MASON WITHDRAWN FROM ENGLAND.
MR. MASON'S removal from the
position of rebel envoy in London is confirmed. The English journals deny that
he ever enjoyed a diplomatic character. The writers say that the door of Earl
Russell's official chamber was invariably closed against him in a "polite"
manner, and that the Davis manoeuvre of calling him from London can not alter
the neutral course of the Government, or entrap the Cabinet into a recognition,
even by a "side wind."
THE PIRATE AND OUR CRUISERS.
La France says a Federal steam
corvette (Kearsage) had arrived at Brest from Madeira, having been sent, with
another Federal corvette, in pursuit of the Florida. The Florida leaves Brest on
the 23d, completely repaired, and proceeds immediately to meet the second
Federal corvette, which is at Lisbon, and attack her before she can be joined by
the one at Brest, which is repairing.
La France says the Federal
corvette Kearsage will be treated at Brest like the Florida. Both belligerents
will enjoy the same rights and advantages.
A BOLD STAND ON THE POLISH
Russia had replied to the French
note on the Polish question. The State paper reiterates the determination of the
Czar to deal with the subject himself. Prince Gortschakoff adds that the Emperor
of Russia can not "permit" the affairs of his provinces, to which no
international relations apply, being ever alluded to by the other Powers, even
"incidentally" or in a "friendly" manner.
MORE ROYAL ALLIANCES.
The Archduke Louis of
Austria—brother of Maximilian —is to be married to the daughter, the only child
of the Emperor of Brazil. The London Post regards the event of very high
importance, as two thrones en this side of the Atlantic—that of Mexico and
Brazil—may soon be filled by members of the house of Hapsburg, who will mutually
support each other. The London Post speaks of such a royal accomplishment with
Page) of the war said that France was
going to impose a Government; and Juarez, who was false to his oaths, and whose
administration was deplorable, was represented as the choice of the Mexicans. It
was said, too, that the Emperor was too adventurous, and the first ill-success
at Puebla awoke the echoes of the Palais Bourbon (Prince Napoleon's party), and
endless calumnies were cast upon the project.
The war is more than justified by
the wrongs of France. She aims to help the Mexicans choose a Government which
pleases them. After the Puebla failure it was resolved to have force enough to
secure success. Others saw only glory in the plan, but Louis Napoleon had laid
down a new policy. In his instructions to Forey he says that France wishes the
United States well, but does not wish to see her the sole distributor of the
products of the New World. She must oppose the absorption of the Southern by the
Northern American States, and also the diminution of the Latin races upon the
Western continent. The interest which carries France to Mexico has already given
her sympathy to secession. The French army in Mexico is but the van-guard of a
great commercial immigration. Napoleon III. has long planned what he is doing,
and he will push it to its completion.
The second part of the pamphlet
is devoted to a survey of the soil, climate, and resources of Mexico. Why are
they not turned to better account by the Mexicans? Because anarchy is fomented
by the leaders, and the people are too feeble in numbers for the territory; of
these people, also, the Indians and Creoles are too lazy or tyrannical. The
Mexican soil demands intelligent immigration and capital. Now the tranquillity
and solidity of French institutions pushes away from her soil all kinds of
colonists. Give them protection, and they will go to Mexico. It is thus a
national interest that takes France to Mexico; and whether Maximilian accepts or
not, French influence will remain there. The French army carries to Mexico—1st,
cohesion; 2d, order; 3d, industry; 4th, an army. At home the empire has utilized
Socialism and conquered anarchy. It wishes to do this in Mexico; but it can not
do it with profit and security until after the recognition of the Confederate
The third part opens by the
remark that the war has shown Europe how much she was menaced by the power of
the United States. At her own cost she has learned how precarious is an industry
which depends upon a single source of material, with all the vicissitudes to
which it is subject. England has no particular interest in ending the war. She
sees with satisfaction a great power destroying itself, and she fears for
Canada, which, at the end of the war, the North might seize as compensation for
the lost South. While the war lasts her commerce profits and she sells arms to
both sides, and is all the time developing in India the cotton culture. She will
not be the first to recognize the South. Her rejection of both the overtures of
France to that end shows that. But France can only look to the South for cotton,
which, for quality and cheapness, is the best of all. This the Federals know,
and the war is one of interest. Emancipation is a pretext to win the liberals of
Europe. If victorious, the Federals would not emancipate for fear of hurting the
cotton culture. In Europe we understand their coarse cry of freedom. We see what
judicial liberty they have at the North, and the Governor of Minnesota offers
twenty-five dollars for an
Indian scalp. If the Federals conquer, the poor
negroes will suffer. The European power which first recognizes the Confederacy
can exact conditions favorable to the blacks. If France be the first, humanity
and progress are secure. Emancipation at some time will come from the alliance
between France and the Confederates. Besides, slavery need be no bar to
recognition. France has cordial relations with many slaveholding nations. The
Northern States saw long ago this result of emancipation from the alliance of
some foreign power with the South, and the Monroe doctrine was but a policy of
insurance against civilization.
The men of the North have
destroyed every guarantee of liberty in order to hold the provinces which yield
them a support. The model republic is gone. The men of the North would never
confess the superiority of the men of the South, but the latter have furnished
the great statesmen and most of the Presidents. They are mere peddlers, and lest
the South by its intelligence should destroy the rampart against Europeanism,
the North would even annihilate the Confederate States. It is the North which
has supported Juarez in Mexico. The war in America can serve France only if it
ends in separation: for, first, the Confederates will be our allies against the
North; second, Mexico in our hands and the North kept off, will do all she can;
third, our manufacturers will be sure of cotton.
The fourth part declares that the
American question must be solved at once. There is no pence possible in the
reconstruction of the Union. The North is powerless in ideas, arms, and
production, and can not absorb the South. Consequently separation ends the war.
While Europe believed that the North was fighting insurgents it was its duty to
do nothing. But the South has made out its policy, its programme, and its
rights; the peculiar interest of France conforms to it; and the moment she
recognizes the Confederate States their force is increased five-fold. The
secondary commercial nations will consent, and if slavery has frightened them,
they will be satisfied that humanity will be cared for when France leads. Spain,
which owns Cuba, will follow. Austria, if Maximilian accepts, will, of course,
assent. And England will not refuse. The North will abandon the struggle, and in
case of need the French military marine would support those diplomatic acts.
As a defense of French Mexican
and American policy this pamphlet, of which we have given a faithful analysis,
is neither brilliant nor forcible. It is merely a painful special plea for a
foregone conclusion. It suggests and sounds public sentiment
in France. In no other way does
it help Louis Napoleon to answer the question upon which depends the peace of
the world, whether he will remain in Mexico. To stay is to imperil France. To go
is to endanger himself.
A YEAR TOO LATE.
IT is hinted in the Index, the
rebel organ in London, and by a newspaper correspondent from Baltimore, who
seems to have intimate communications with the rebel managers, that it is not
impossible that Davis will in some way try the experiment of arming the negroes.
In a speech delivered two years ago Mr. Wendell Phillips said that Davis would
certainly do it, and he urged it as a reason for our getting the start of him.
The rebels are already too late.
By such an act the entire theory
of the rebellion falls. That theory is, that slavery is the true foundation of
liberty; that the doctrine of the United States Government is impossible and
false; and that in the Southern States no relation between whites and blacks is
possible except that of slavery. Moreover, all the pretense of revolution
disappears with such an act. The constitutional right of secession having been
proved to be simply the constitutional right of anarchy, the only pretext left
to the rebels was the right of revolution against an apprehended oppression,
which was to consist in some assault upon the system of slavery. When the rebels
arm and free slaves, therefore, they confess that they can not build upon the
corner-stone they have so carefully quarried out of fog; and they do the very
thing themselves the fear of which from others they allege as a justification of
this bloody war.
Of course no considerations of
logic or common sense would influence them in so momentous an act. They would do
it in hopeless spite, as a savage throws his tomahawk at a victorious foe.
But how many hands can they spare
from their corn-fields? How much do the slaves know of the scope of the war? How
far can they be trusted with arms in their hands? How much will they believe of
a promise of freedom? Which army will they suppose to be their true friend?
Whose victory would they imagine would secure their liberty? In a word, will
Abraham Lincoln or Jefferson Davis? These are a few of the
questions which the rebel chiefs must ask themselves, and quake as they ask.
They are questions which only the experiment can answer. But the slaves know now
that our success is their freedom. The rebel subterfuge of emancipation would
come too late.
MASTERS AND LACKEYS.
THE peace party, which burns
Orphan Asylums and murders innocent and defenseless men, women, and children,
and then, by the mouth of its leader, Fernando Wood, talks about the Prince of
Peace and brotherly love, has just received a blow from the rebels whose bloody
treason it is trying to serve. On the 28th of September a resolution was
introduced into the Virginia House of Delegates for inquiring into the tone and
temper of the people of the United States upon the subject of peace. The House,
by a unanimous vote, put its foot upon the resolution.
These rebel gentlemen can not
make their Northern lackeys understand. They told them long ago that they were
willing to use them, but in their own way. After separation, and when the
cornerstone of slavery has been firmly planted, they have signified that it will
still be their pleasure to trade with the North. But, as they expressly told Mr.
Vallandigham, only upon condition of holding their noses. They no more wish a
renewal of association with the Copperhead apostles of peace than they wish to
live in their own slave-pens. Until they were ready to secede their Northern
allies were, in their estimation, good enough cattle, like their other
"servants," for their purposes. But having milked them dry, they have done with
them. And now when the vaccine herd, breathing palm branches and fraternity,
propose to share their masters' quarters, the amused and indignant masters can
not kick them away.
It is not the first job which the
rebel gentlemen have undertaken and could not do. But they may be consoled. The
loyal people of the country will manage a spurious "peace" party as they manage
an open rebellion. When a lion brays the most stupid shepherd does not fear the
A PENNSYLVANIA DOCUMENT.
IN the year 1857 Bishop Hopkins,
of Vermont, published a book called "The American Citizen," which we carefully
read, wondered how Mr. Hopkins ever came to be Bishop in any Church of
intelligent and Christian men, and laid aside to the oblivion for which we
supposed it to be destined. Of the ability of this instructor of the American
citizen his pupils may judge by looking at page 85 of his book, upon which he
says, "I am compelled to conclude that, under the Constitution, no Romanist can
have a right to the free enjoyment of his religion." And do you ask how the
Bishop reaches this astonishing conclusion? Because, he says, the Constitution
has made "the free exercise of religion" one of the supreme laws of the land! Of
course it is incredible. But you will find it upon page 85 of the Bishop's book;
and you will be very likely to say, as you read, what Mr. Squeers said when
there was very little breakfast, and that very bad, "Here's richness!"
In a large part of this notable
volume the Bishop explains, defends, justifies, and commends the system which
whips women to force them to work without wages, and sells their children to pay
the debts of the whipper. The substance of this part was published by the
"Democratic State Central Committee" of Pennsylvania, and was widely circulated
in that State as a Copperhead campaigning document, in company with a speech of
Judge Woodward, the Copperhead candidate for Governor, in which he takes similar
ground with the Bishop. The fact shows that the merits of our great
controversy are most rapidly
coming to light. The friend of the rebels, for whose success they prayed, and
for whom every Copperhead voted, appeared as the open advocate of slavery,
supported by a Bishop. But let us not fail to mention that the Bishop of
Pennsylvania and his leading clergy did not hesitate to protest, as men and
Christians and citizens, against the infamous views set forth by the Vermont
Diocesan. The Bishop and the Judge, working for slavery, and consequently for
rebellion, encountered also another tremendous antagonist. While they were
talking smoothly about the "divine sanction" and "the brotherly love" of this
foul social remnant of barbarism and the dark ages, and while the Copperheads
carefully spread their talk before the people of Pennsylvania, the loyal men of
that State issued a pamphlet, in which the truth is told from experience, and
the sophisms of the clergyman and the politician were utterly scattered and
This was done by printing a few
extracts from the Bishop's letter or the Judge's speech, and then illustrating
them by copious and thrilling passages from the terrible book of Mrs. Kemble,"A
Residence on a Georgian Plantation." It was an argument which no man was so dull
that he could not comprehend. Every farmer in every remote nook of Pennsylvania,
who had been taught that Democracy consisted in "damning niggers," and who
therefore lent a willing ear to the divine and the lawyer theorizing about
slavery, suddenly saw and felt to the bottom of his heart what slavery is. Let
every honest man in the land see it and feel it also, and the rebellion, with
its Copperhead bulwark, would be swept away like a leaf by the ocean.
The Union and Loyal Leagues of
this State can do the great cause no bettor service than a universal
distribution of this Pennsylvania pamphlet, or of a cheap edition of Mrs.
Kemble's book. Meanwhile, if any sincere man is troubled for a moment by the
argument of Bishop Hopkins, that God meant that babies should be bred for sale,
let him read Goldwin Smith's conclusive reply to the question, "Does the Bible
sanction American slavery?"
ARMY AND NAVY ITEMS.
MAJOR-GENERAL JOHN A. LOGAN
returned to his command at
Vicksburg September 14, and had an enthusiastic
General PRICE is reported to have
been raised to the rank of Lieutenant-General in the Confederate army.
Generals M'COOK and CRITTENDEN
are relieved of their commands, and ordered to report at Indianapolis. The 20th
and 21st Army Corps, formerly under these Generals, are consolidated, called the
4th Army Corps, and placed under command of General GORDON GRANGER. A Court of
Inquiry is to inquire into the conduct of the deposed Generals at the
battle of Chickamauga.
A movement is on foot in
Massachusetts to procure an elegant sword for presentation to
General BANKS as a
special recognition of the taking of Port Hudson.
Lieutenant A. M. BRADSHAW,
Assistant-Quarter-master, has been promoted to the rank of Captain and ordered
to the Department of the Gulf.
Major SIDNEY COOLIDGE, of Boston,
reported to have been killed at Chattanooga, is a prisoner, supposed to be
wounded. He was second in command of the regulars under Brigadier-General JOHN
Captain MAFFIT had resigned the
command of the privateer Florida in consequence of ill-health. Lieutenant BARNEY
was likely to succeed him.
ANDERSON, in response to an inquiry from the War Department, has stated that the
flag which he hauled down from Sumter on the occasion of its surrender to the
rebels is still in his possession, and has never left his custody.
In 1856 four officers in our
regular army, three of whom belonged to one regiment, imported four French
sabres, exactly alike in pattern and workmanship, for their own use. Two of
these officers—ROBERT E. LEE and FITZHUGH LEE—are now in the rebel army, and the
other two—Colonel D. B. SACKETT and Lieutenant-Colonel A. P. PORTER —are in the
army of the Union.
Major-General BARNES, the new
Military Governor of Norfolk, arrived in that city on 30th ult., and entered
upon the duties of his office.
ULRIC DAHLGREN arrived at
Washington last week. His wound is of a very painful and complicated character.
Two amputations have been performed, besides several other operations; but the
surgeon is now sanguine of effecting even a more satisfactory cure than has been
for some time anticipated.
General PATRICK will for the
present continue his duties as Provost Marshal General of the Army of the
General MEADE finding it extremely difficult to dispense with his
Colonel PERCY WYNDHAM, who only a
few days ago resumed command of his brigade of cavalry, has been relieved from
duty in the Army of the Potomac.
Major CHARLES J. HOYT, Paymaster
of Volunteers, who was summarily dismissed the service, has been reappointed, it
having been ascertained that the dismissal was based upon charges made against
another officer of the same name, and that Major CHARLES J. HOYT bears the
highest reputation for integrity and correctness, and that his accounts are
considered at the Paymaster-General's office as satisfactory and correct as
those of any paymaster in the army.
A Board of Medical officers, to
consist of Surgeons J. J. B. WRIGHT, E. H. ABADIE, and Assistant-Surgeon J. H.
HILL, U.S.A., has been ordered to convene at New York City on the 15th inst., or
as soon thereafter as practicable, for the examination of candidates for
appointment as Assistant-Surgeons in the regular army, and such
Assistant-Surgeons as may be brought before it for promotion as Surgeons.
Lieutenant-Colonel DELANEY, of
COBB'S Georgia Legion, from Athens, Georgia, died at Washington on the 3d inst.,
of a wound received in a recent skirmish on the Rapidan.
Major-General SCHENCK arrived at
Dayton, Ohio, on 30th ult. on a ten days' leave of absence. He left General
TYLER temporarily in charge of the Maryland Department. There is no foundation
for the report of his removal.
Major F. N. CLARKE, Fifth United
States Artillery, is under orders to proceed to Boston, Massachusetts, and take
post there as Superintendent of Recruiting Service, and Chief Mustering and
Disbursing officer for the State. Major W. H. SIDELL, Fifteenth United States
Infantry, goes to Louisville, Kentucky, on similar duty.
General SIGEL addressed a Union
meeting in Philadelphia on 30th ult. He rapidly reviewed the events of the war
and its successes, and predicted that it would not be long before all the armies
of the Union would be victorious. The great principle of self-defense compelled
the Government to engage in this war.
General BLUNT and staff arrived
at Fort Scott on Wednesday, September 23. He will be there until the 12th of
October, to finish up the recruiting business, and make final settlement of the
claims of the Kansas brigade.
A St. Louis paper says that the
Department of Kansas will be commanded by General M'NEIL. General CURTIS
declined the honor of succeeding BLUNT, who, report says, is under arrest.