Civil War Overview
Civil War 1861
Civil War 1862
Civil War 1863
Civil War 1864
Civil War 1865
Civil War Battles
Robert E. Lee
Civil War Medicine
Civil War Links
Civil War Art
Republic of Texas
Civil War Gifts
Robert E. Lee Portrait
Page) was evidently a prim, precise
Puritan, by no means cast in the heroic mould, but a lover of his native land
and a very sagacious observer of events, as his letters, no less than the diary,
show. It was no light trial to be torn away from his home, his wife, his
position, his fortune, his long habits of methodical comfort, at an age when
most men abhor change, and to be thrust out over the ocean, friendless, poor,
and in extremely low spirits. His spirits indeed were permanently low; and it is
droll to read his dry, cold inventory of the famous places and objects he saw,
which he jots down as a an in unhappy circumstances mechanically repeats a
prayer, totally unconscious of the words. The book is a curious and valuable
sidelight in the history of that time.
To a wide circle it has a
peculiar interest also from the name of its editor, GEORGE ATKINSON WARD. Mr.
WARD was a descendant of Judge CURWEN, and died very recently, after this
handsome volume was in print. He was perhaps to his death the finest living
representative of the old Essex County Federalist. His hostility to " TOM
JEFFERSON" was as earnest in 1864 as that of the Hartford Convention in 1814;
and his familiar knowledge of our political history and men made him a most
entertaining and instructive companion Mr. WARD was one of the most genial and
generous of men. He had the simplicity of a child with the courtesy of a
gentleman of the old school. Age could not wither the victorious cheerfulness of
his nature, nor his faith in noble principles, nor his patriotic fidelity, He
encountered and surmounted many misfortunes with unquerulous patience; and
toward the end of his life, after more than one warning of a sudden death, which
he received undismayed, he returned to his native place, and at once
sympathizing in all its interests, a good citizen and a true, brave, tender
hearted man, he was busy to the very last; and upon returning to his home some
weeks since from a flower show, sank quietly asleep, and was seen of men no
" The Autobiography of Lieutenant
- General Scott" (SHELDONS), This is a work which has been awaited with curious
expectation. The author has been a part of our history for half a century. He
has been upon familiar terms with many of our most famous men. He has been often
behind the scenes, and now is the curtain is about falling upon his own part the
veteran actor steps to the front and makes his farewell speech. There is
something pathetic in the position which disarms criticism. As the eye falls
upon him the spectator remembers the services he has performed, recalls the good
intention rather than the inadequate fulfillment, and as the player leaves the
stage is disposed to bid him a kindly farewell. Why did he not bow silently and
retire ? Why should he speak who can not speak wisely? Why publish a book which
if not mentioned at all is a mortification, and if mentioned must be described
truly ? And the simple truth is, that this is one of the most unsatisfactory
books ever published. It has none of the especial charm of memoirs, that
delightful, genial picture of the private lives of public men and relation of
characteristic incident which, if grave history disdains to note; is yet the
most delightful episode of history. The book tells in a clumsy way what was
already known of its author's services but as a picture of American life and men
during the long life of General SCOTT it is worthless. The preface remarks the
want in our literature of proper personal memoirs, and the work then proceeds it
two volumes to make that went more obvious and deplorable. The book will not
injure the national gratitute to General SCOTT for his faithful and undoubted
patriotic service ; it will be merely counted among those acts which all his
sincere friends will regret and the county hasten to forget.
"From Dan to Beersheba: Trevvls
Holy Land," by Rev. J. P. NEWMAN, D. D. (HARPERS ) A simple, earnest,
valuable book, describing Jerusalem and the usual tour in the Holy Land, but so
careful and exact in its details and descriptions that it is an admirable vade-mecum
for the traveler and a capital manual of reference for the student. Dr. NEWMAN
describes an attack of the Bedouins upon his party, sixteen against four, in
which the clerical author and his friends showed themselves to be efficient
doctors of the Church Militant. Every "Eastern travcier will turn, the pages of
this modest and well illustrated volume with peculiar interest.
" Margaret Denzil's History"
(HARPER'S) is one of those stories which are so good that we all hear of them
before we read them. This one has excited so much irterest as it appeared
serially that, as it some unusaul origin must be found for so remarkable a tale
it has been attributed to several noted persons and among others, to Queen
VICTORIA. But it is very clear that if that good lady had been capable of
writing such a book she would not have waited until now to reveal her power.
"Margaret Denzil's History" is doubtless a woman's book, and one of those which
must be real by every one who would be familiar with the remarkable variety of
literary power which, in our day, seeks its expression in the novel.
" Under the Ban" (Le Maudit)
(HARPERS) is another representative book. It is a highly wrought, exciting, even
exasperating tale, descriptive of the subtle influence and the inexorable method
of Jesuitism. For the American reader it has an extraordinary interest, and for
every reader a profound warning.
"The Seer; or, Common Places
Refreshed," by LEIGE HUNT (ROBERTS BROTHERS). This is a fresh and truly
beautiful edition of one of the most delightful series of essays in English
literature. They are genial, dainty, delicate little treatises upon familiar
topics and daily experiences graced with all the charms of the poet's fancy, and
garnished with the spoils of that elegant culture which was so marked in LEIGH
HUNT. The publishers will be cordially thanked for giving so fair a form to so
choice a work, and so timely and fit for a gift book.
" Arizona and Sonora: the
Geography, History, and Resources of the Silver Region of North America," by
SYLVESTER MOWRY, of Arizona. (HARPERS.) A compact, plain, and detailed account
of the mineral resources of the region, given often in the words of the official
authorities. It is full of useful and apparently accurate information.
THERE COMES A TIME.
THERE comes a
time when we grow old,
And, like a sunset down the sea,
Slopes gradual, and the night wind cold
Comes whispering sad and
And locks are gray
At Winter's day,
And eyes of saddest blue behold
The leaves all dreary drift away,
And lips of faded coral say,
There comes a time when we grow
old. There comes a time when joyous hearts,
Which leap as leap the laughing
main, Are dead to all save memory,
As prisoner in his dungeon chain,
And dawn of day
Hath passed away,
The moon hath into darkness
And by the embers wan and gray,
I hear a voice in whisper say,
There comes a time when we grow
old, There comes a time when manhood's prime
Is shrouded in the mist of years,
And beauty, fading like a dream,
Hath passed away in silent fears;
And then how dark ! But oh! the
That kindles youth to hues of
Still burns with clear and steady
And fond affections lingering
say, There comes a time when we grow old. There comes a time when laughing
And golden Summer cease to be;
And we put on the Autumn robe
To tread the last declivity.
But now the slope,
With rosy hope,
Beyond the sunset we behold
Another dawn with fairer light,
While watchers whisper through
There comes a time when we grow
ON Monday, December 5, the
Thirty-eighth Congress assembled at Washington to hold its second and last
session. In the Senate 37 members were present. After prayer by the Chaplain,
and after the usual notice to the House that the Senate was ready for business,
the credentials of Mr. Nathan A. Farwell, appointed to fill Mr. Fessenden's
place as Senator from Maine, were presented, and he was duly sworn into office.
It was resolved that the Senate should meet set twelve o`clock until otherwise
ordered. Mr. Sherman, of Ohio, offered a bill authorizing the construction of six
revenue cutters for service on the lakes, and appropriating for that purpose one
million dollars. Mr. Lane introduced a bill for the relief (by payment from the
Treasury) of the Kansas militia, who had been engaged in repelling the recent
invasion of Missouri.
In the House, 150 members
answered to their names. A committee consisting of Messrs. Washburn, Pendleton,
and Fenton, was appointed to join the committee from the Senate, consisting of
Messrs Foot, Conness. and Hendricks, to wait on the President and inform him
that both Houses were ready to receive any communication he might be pleased to
make. Mr. Dwight Townsend, elected in place of Mr. Stebbins, of New York,
resigned, was sworn in. Mr. Charles D. Poston was qualified as Delegate from
Arizona The credentials of five Louisiana members, purporting to be elected in
pursuance of the new constitution of that State, were referred to the Committee
on Elections. Mr. Davis, of Maryland, offered a protest from Louisiana against
their admission, which was also referred. Mr. Pendleton, of Ohio, offered a
resolution that the President be requested to communicate the report made by
Colonel Thomas M. Key of a meeting between himself and General
Howell Cobb, June
1862, on the banks of the Chickahominy, on the subject of the exchange of
prisoners. Objected to by Mr. Washburne, of Illinois, and lies over, Mr. Cox, of
Ohio, offered a resolution that the Committee of Ways and Means, with a view to
lessen the cost of the necessaries of life, he instructed to inquire into the
expediency of reducing the tariff on coffee, sugar, tea, and similar articles.
On motion of Mr. Dawes, of Massachusetts, the resolution was tabled, 63 to 49.
Mr. Marrill, of Vermont, offered a resolution that the Committee of Ways and
Means be instructed to inquire into the expediency of providing a sinking fund
at an early day for the gradual exetinction of the public debt. Mr. Washburne
offered a resolution to instruct the Committee of Ways and Means, if they
amended the Revenue bill at all, to lay a tax on all stocks of domestic liquors
on hand. Carried, 58 to 51.
The only changes which have taken
place since the last session are the following : In the Senate, George R. Riddle
takes the place of
James Bayard, resigned, for
Maryland ; from Maine, Farwell
takes the place of
Secretary Fessenden; and Bowden does not return. Bowden,
together with Carlile, represented Virginia in the last session. The two
Senators from Louisiana are R. K. Cutler and Charles Smith. In the House, E. C.
Ingersoll takes the place of Lovejoy, deceased, for Illinois; Samuel Knox that
of Frank Blair, Jun., resigned, for Missouri ; Dwight Townsend that of Stebbins,
for New York. Governor
Fenton holds his seat until the commencement of his
The appointment by the President
of the Hon.
Salmon P. Chase for Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court. in place of
the late Chief-Justice Taney, deceased, was received by the Senate December 6,
and immediately confirmed.
THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.
The President's Message was
transmitted to Congress December 6. It is a brief but comprehensive document:
The President regards the condition of our Foreign affairs as reasonably
satisfactory. In this connection he dwells at length on our relations with the
South American States. Alluding to the progress of the Republic of Liberia, he
solicits authority to furnish the republic with a gunboat to protect it against
the native African races, and to facilitate its operations in arresting the
slave trade. The President briefly alludes to the two projects to connnect
America with Europe, the one by sea and the other by land, as satisfactorily
under way. He refers to the temporary difficulties which, after the decease of
Counsul-General Thayer, resulted in a suspension of intercourse between Egypt
and the United States; to the suppression of the Chinese rebellion, and the
opening of the Inland sea in Japan. After mentioning that the ports of Norfolk,
Pensacola have been opened to the world, he proceeds to the
consideration of the difficulties on the Canadian border. He recommends that
notice be given to the British
Government that after the
expiration of six months the United States must feel at liberty to increase
their naval armament upon the Lakes, if they shall find it necessary to do so.
The President also recommends an
amendment of the act for the encouragement of emigration which shall prevent the
practice of fraud against immigrants on their way hither or on their arrival in
port, so as to secure them a free choice of avocations and places of settlement.
He reports that the enterprise connecting the Atlantic with the Pacific States
has been entered upon with a vigor which gives promise of success,
notwithstanding the embarrassments from the high prices of labor and material.
The route of the main line of the road has been definitely located for one
hundred miles westward from the central point at Omaha City, Nebraska ; and a
preliminary location of the Pacific Railroad of California has been made from
Sacramento, eastward, to the great head of Mucker River in Nevada. Numerous
discoveries of gold, silver, and cinnabar mines have been added to the many
heretofore known ; and the country occupied by the Sierra Nevada and Rocky
Mountains and the subordinate ranges now teems with enterprising labor, which is
It is believed that the products
of the mines of precious metals in that region have, during the year, reached,
if not exceeded, $100,000,000 in value.
The President recommends that
further attention be given to the reorganization of the Indian system. The
number of invalid pensioners is 23,479 of which 710 are from the Navy. The
number of widows and orphans on the Army Pension Rolls is 25,443, the Navy
pensioners numbering 793. During the year ending June 30, 1864, $4,504,616 have
been paid to pensioners of all classes. The President alludes to
Sherman's march through Georgia as an evidence of our great increase of relative
strength. He states that 12,000 citizens in each of the States of Arkansas and
Louisiana have organized loyal State governments with free constitutions, and
that movements in a similar direction should not be overlooked. In Maryland an
example is presented of complete success. The President congratulates the
country on the fact that the number of voters at the last elective in the loyal
portion of the country is greater than the corresponding number in 1860, by
145,000, without including 90,000 soldiers who could not vote and the largely
augmented population of the Territories. This fact proves that the resources of
the nation in respect of men are not in any measure exhausted by the war.
Negotiations for peace with the
insurgent leader the President regards as impossible, as the latter has so
distinctly and frequently declared that he would accept of no terms involving a
return to the Union. We are left then to the issue of war. When the Southern
people are beaten in the field or by their withdrawal from the field secure the
defeat of their leaders, then peace will follow upon victory. In regard to this
people the President says :
" They can at any moment have
peace simply by laying down their arms and submitting to the National authority
under the Constitution. After so much the Government could not, if it would,
maintain war against them. The loyal people would not sustain or allow it. If
questions should remain, we would adjust them by the peaceful means of
legislation, conference, courts, and votes."
In taking this position the
President declares that he retracts nothing heretofore said by him as to
slavery. He repeats former declaration that he will not attempt, while he
remains in his present position, to retract or modify the
Proclamation. "Nor," adds he, " shall I return to slavery any person who is free
by the terms of that Proclamation, or by any of the acts of Congress.
" If the people should, by
whatever mode or means, make it an Executive duty to re-enslave such persons,
another, and not I, must be their instrument to perform it.
" In stating a single condition
of peace, I mean simply to say that the war will cease on the part of the
Government whenever it shall have ceased on the part of those who began it."
The President recommends that
Congress should take the necessary measures to bring before the State
Legislatures the proposition for an amendment to the Constitution to abolish
Slavery. He considers the popular vote in the recent election to have indicated
a desire on the part of the people that such an amendment should be adopted.
The proposition came up at the
last session, and was carried in the Senate by a vote of 38 to 6, but was lost
in the House, receiving only 95 votes against 66 ; a two-thirds vote was
requisite. Twenty-two members of the House did not vote at all.
REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENTS.
The Reports of the separate
Departments accompany the President's Message.
The fiscal year closed July 1,
1864. The receipts during the year from all sources, including loans and the
balances in the Treasury from the previous year, were $1,394,796,007 62; the
disbursements, $1,298,056,10189, leaving a balance in the Treasury of
$96,739,905.73. Deduct from these amounts the amount of the principal of the
public debt redeemed, and the amount of issues in substitution therefor, and the
actual cash operations of the Treasury were: Receipts, $884,076,64677;
disbursements, $865,234,087 86, which leaves a cash balance in the Treasury of
$18,842,55871. Of the receipts, there were derived from customs $102,316,152 99;
from lands, $588,333 29 ; from direct taxes, $475,648 96 ; from internal
revenue, $109,741,134 10 ; from miscellaneous sources, $47,511,44810 ; and from
loans applied to actual expenditures, including former balance, $623,443,929.13.
There were disbursed for the civil service, $27,505,59946 ; for pension, and
Indians, $7,517,930.97; for the War Department, $60,791,84297 for the Navy
Department, $85,733, 292.79 for interest of the public debt, $53,685,421.69,
making an aggregate of $565,234,087.86, and leaving a balance in the Treasury of
$18,842,559.71, as before stated.
The Secretary of the Treasury
favor an increase of taxation to meet the expenses of the war. The entire public
debt July 1864, was $1,740,690,489 49. The Secretary is also of he opinion that
there should be in the country no banks of issue not authorized by Congress.
The Report of the Secretary of
War has not been received.
The Secretary of the Navy reports
that, including the vessels under construction December 1, 1864, there are
belonging to the Navy 671 vessels, carrying 4610 guns, and 510,396 tons, being
an actual increase during the year, over and above all losses by shipwreck or in
battle, of 83 vessels, 167 guns and 42,427 tons. The total number of men at this
time in the naval service, including officers, is about 51,000. There have been
captured by the navy during the year 324 vessels, and the whole number of navel
captures since hostilities commenced is 1379, of which 267 are steamers. The
gross proceeds arising from the sale of condemned prize property thus for
reported amounts to $14,396,250 51. A large amount of such proceeds is still
under adjudication, and yet to be reported. The total expenditure of the Navy
Department of every description, including the cost of the immense squadrons
that have been called into existence from the 4th of March, 1861, to the 1st of
November, 1864, are $288,647,262.35.
The Secretary recommends the
construction of a new navy-yard and suitable establishment for the construction
and repair of iron vessels. He also recommends the creation of the rank of
Vice-Admiral in our naval service.
The postal revenues for the year
ending July 1, 1864, amounted to $12,468,253 73, and the expenditures to
$12,644,78620, leaving a deficit of $206,652.42.
GENERAL SHERMAN'S CAMPAIGN.
The news from
Sherman is still
indefinite; indeed it is very apparent that the rebel journals are unable to
locate his main army with any degree of accuracy. The Mayor of Milledgeville
says that the Yankee army has despoiled the citizens of food, and has taken
their mules and horses. He also reports the destruction of the railroad bridge
and the bridge across the Oconee. The State House and Executive Mansion were
uninjured. There is no certain indication that Sherman has moved his main army
east of the Oconee, though there are rumors of his having reached Millen. The
Richmond Enquirer of December 1, on the basis of the report that Sherman had
reached Millen, declared its opinion that he would reach the coast in safety.
The Richmond Examiner, two days afterward, denied the
report and predicted Sherman's
defeat. It is impossible for us to say whether Sherman's main army is east of
the Oconee, or whether the attack, that side of the stream are merely feints
made by the cavalry, while the main body is moving between the Oconee and the
Ocmulgee toward Brunswick. In the latter case he has a long journey yet before
him, and the route is more unfavorable than the one originally selected.
An expedition under General
Foster sailed from Port Royal on the 29th of November up Broad River twenty
miles to Boyd's Point, where a force was landed which proceeded five miles
interior to Pocotaligo Bridge. The bridge, which was on the line of the Savannah
and Charleston Railroad, was captured. A large quantity of cotton was destroyed.
General Foster's expedition was meant to co-operate with Sherman. The rebel
journals give accounts of an engagement et Grahamsville between Foster and
Hardee, which they represent as having been a drawn battle.
GENERAL GREGG'S RAID.
On the 1st of December General
Gregg started southward on a
cavalry reconnoissance, by a long detour avoiding
the rebel right. Its captured Stony Ceek Station, taking two guns, which he
spiked, nearly two hundred prisoners, and destroying large quantities of
property, including 3000 sacks of corn.
BATTLE OF FRANKLIN.
Hood's army began to move on the
22d of November. Up to this date Forrest had remained on the Tennessee River, in
the neighborhood of Savannah, while the main body of Hood's army was in the
vicinity of Florence and Tuscumbia, with its base at Corinth. Forrest's cavalry,
amounting to from 12,000 to 15,000, moved westward, Hood at the same time moving
northward. Both columns by this advance flanked our positions at Decatur,
Huntsville, and Pulaski, which were evacuated on the 23d. Thomas's army failing
back on Columbia, 45 miles south of
Nashville. On the 24th and 25th skirmishing
was kept up between our cavalry and General Forrest, the latter being repulsed
with the help of the infantry. In the mean time Hood was moving past our left
northward aria's the Duck River and against Spring Hill, to cut off Schofield
who was at Columbia, from Nashville. He had crowed Duck River by the 28th. As
soon as this movement was discovered Schofield continued the retreat from
Columbia toward NashviIle, his flanks being covered by Wilson's cavalry. So
vigorous was Hood's pursuit that Forrest caught up with Wilson at Spring Hill on
the 29th. A severe fight followed, in which Wilson, assisted by a portion of the
infantry, repulsed Forrest. The enemy tried to bring on a general engagement,
but our feces with drew to Franklin, which is on the south side of Big Harpeth
River, and 18 miles south from Nashville. The next day, November 30, Hood
pressed so closely that Schofield determined to await attack before erasing the
river. Breast works were hastily thrown up south of the river, the army being
drawn up in semicircular line around Franklin. Schofield's head-quarters were
established at the strong fort on the north side of the stream. His army
consisted of two corps—the Fourth, under Stanley, and the Twenty-third under
Cox; the former held the right, and the latter the left wing Wagner's Brigade of
COX'S Corps and Riley's of Stanley's connected, forming the centre. The rebel
army consisted of three corps, under Cheatham, Stewart, and
Lee. These corps
attacked our lines at half past three P.M. The rebel attack was made chiefly on
the centre. Charge after charge was made, ending always in repulse in ore of
these Major-General Cleburne was killed; in another fell Brigadier-General
Adams; and our artillery and hot musketry fire swept and decimated their rank
end file. Still the assaults were repeated until at last the two brigades
holding the centre wavered and fell back. As the enemy advanced to pursue his
advantage, he was encountered by a new line consisting of Colonel Opdyke's
brigade. General Stanley ordered Opdyke to restore the line, and himself led a
countercharge against the enemy, in which he was wounded. But the rebels were
driven back, a large number of them having been captured. The battle continued
till night, when, under cover of the darkness, Schofield abandoned Franklin; and
having been reinforced by A. J. Smith, the army was concentrated just south of
Nashville. In the battle of Franklin the rebel loss was between four and five
thousand, ours was about twelve hundred. General Wood has taken command of
Stanley's corps during the temporary absence of the latter from the field
The country around Nashville has
been strongly fortified. A large amount of property belonging to rebel
sympathizers has been destroyed to facilitate the defense of the city.
A few weeks since a party of
rebels, daily commissioned by S. R. Mallory, Cenfederate Secretary of War,
organized a conspiracy for the destruction of our commerce on the Pacific. The
party, led by Thomas Hogg, and consisting of about twenty men, left Havana at
the close of September for Panama, with the intention of taking passage on the
Guatemala, one of the Panama Railroad line of steamers, and sailing October 25.
They arrived at Panama too late, but determined to wait the Salador, which would
sail November 10. Their purpose was to seize the vessel at sea and then use her
as a privateer against vessels of the Pacific Mail Steam ship Company In the
mean time their conspiracy became known to our officers, and when the party had
taken passage on the Salvador measures had been completed or their capture. When
the vessel was well out to sea it was boarded by 60 men from the United States
steamer Lancaster under Commander Davenport, who secured a large number of the
conspirators, among them Thomas Hogg. Their papers also were taken.
The resignations of the following
named officers have been accepted by the President, to take effect November 20th
: Major-General John A. M'Clernand, Brigadier General E. A. Payne, and
Brigadier-General Neal Dow.
Mr. A. W. Thayer has been
appointed Counsul of Trieste in the place of Richard Hildreth, the historian,
obliged to resign on account of ill health.
On November 26 a torpedo was
found in one of the berths of the Sound steamer City of New London, supposed to
have been placed there by some secessionist, just before the vessel started from
New York. The fuse had been lighted, but fortunately became extinguished before
ignition of the torpedo was effected.
General Merrit, with a large
force of cavalry, is thoroughly clearing out guerrillas from London County,
Virginia, destroying every thing that can be of service to men or horses, and
effectually breaking up the rebel place for pillaging in Maryland.
General Banks has returned to New
Orleans to resume the command of the Department of the Gulf.
General Humphrey has assumed
command of the Second Corps, as successor to General Hancock. Rabel deserters
report that General Ewell's Corps has gone southward.
FRANZ MULLER, the murderer, was
executed November 14. Up to the last moment he protested his innocence. His
ghostly adviser, who was one of his own countrymen, stood by him till the last,
and he reports that just before Muller was swung off he confessed the murder in
these words: " Ich habe es gethan—I have done it."
The new Constitution passed the
Assembly November 1. The discussion had been protracted to such a length that
his Majesty King George was obliged to step in and inform the wranglers that if
they did not complete their work within a month he should reserve to himself
action, throwing the
responsibility on the Assembly. He also advocated the creation of a Council of
State to take the place of the suppressed Senate. Indeed, ministers declared
that the King would sign the Constitution only on this condition. The royal
order had its effect, and the King's proposal was adopted by a vote of 136 to
Our Consul-General at Rio Janeiro
on the 14th of October addressed a letter to Senor Pedro Dins Vicira, Brazilian
Secretary of Foreign Affairs, offering ample reparation for the capture of the
Florida by Captain Collins.