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MAP ILLUSTRATING GENERAL SHERIDAN'S CAMPAIGN WEST OF RICHMOND.
Page) at the end of their present
difficulties, may not wish to fight. But they will be certainly able to fight ;
and so sagacious an observer as LOUIS NAPOLEON will hardly fail to note so
interesting and suggestive a fact.
It seems, therefore, as if COWELL
would lose his pains. Foreign war is not at all likely unless provoked by us ;
and the union of national. and rebel arms to provoke it is one of those shallow
whimseys which common sense instinctively repudiates. That the war has proved
the immense strength of our system and our formidable military power is plain ;
but it has not made us a military people. It has not tainted us with lust of
dominion, and by exterminating slavery it has extirpated the cancer of "
manifest destiny." A military force in the field we shall long retain, because
preparation discourages insurrection. Nor are we ever likely again to be so
utterly stripped of defensive and offensive means as we were when the war burst
But still the restored Union will
be moderation, firmness, and peace. The infinite swagger and bluster of a
slavery propagating policy, which disgusted every decent nation in the world,
will give place to a spirit of civilization and equity. The sentimentality and
savagery, which had both inflated and degraded the country, will yield to the
plain common sense of universal justice and fair play. Exactly what
LINCOLN is contrasted with SLIDELL, and WIGFALL, and Davis, and BENJAMIN, and
TOOMBS, and FRANKLIN PIERCE, and BUCHANAN, and FERNANDO WOOD, and YANCEY, and
PENDLETON, and SAULSBURY, and BRIGHT just that will be the contrast of the
spirit and policy of the United States after and before the war.
THE tragical delusion of the
Charleston four years ago, that they could over throw a great nation
as easily as they could fire upon a provision ship or upon a little isolated
garrison, is vividly illustrated by the two following extracts. The first is
from the Charleston Mercury of the 10th of January, 1861, and the second from a
letter to the Tribune, written in Charleston on the 20th of February, 1865:
" The expulsion of the steamer
Star of the West from the Charleston harbor yesterday morning was the opening of the ball of the
revolution We would not exchange or recall that blow for
millions The haughty echo of
her cannon has ere this reverberated from Maine to Texas, through every
hamlet of the North, and down along the great waters of the Southwest. And
though greasy and treacherous ruffians may cry on the dogs of war, and
traitorous politicians may lend their aid in deceptions, South Carolina will
stand under her own palmetto tree, unterrified by the snarling growls or the
assaults of the one, undeceived or deterred by the wily machinations of the
other. And if that red sea of blood be still lacking to the parchment of our
liberties, and blood they want, blood they shall have, and blood enough to stamp
it all in red. For, by the God of our fathers, the soil of South Carolina shall
be free !"
So wrote men who were ready and
eager to smother in blood a Government which they did not pretend had ever
harmed them, and which they had absolutely controlled. Four years pass. One by
one their hopes disappear. And now amidst the desertion, according to Governor
VANCE, of half their army, amidst the imprecations and cries of the Richmond
journals that their leaders shall not flee, by the mere wind of
thundering march Charleston falls without a blow, and the crazy city that
causelessly defied a Government as strong as it is benign, is thus described :
" The wharves looked as if they
had been deserted for half a century broken down, dilapidated, grass and moss
peeping up between the pavements, where once the busy feet of commerce trode
incessantly. The warehouses near the river; the streets as we enter them; the
houses and the stores and the public buildings we look at them and hold our
breaths in utter amazement. Every step we take increases our astonishment. No
pen, no pencil, no tongue can do justice to the scene. No imagination can
conceive of the utter wreck, the universal ruin, the stupendous desolation.
Ruin, ruin, ruin, above and below; on the right hand and the left; ruin, ruin,
ruin, every where and always staring at us from every paneless window ; looking
out at us from every shell torn wall; glaring at us from every battered door and
pillar and veranda; crouching beneath our feet on every sidewalk. Not Pompeii,
nor Herculaneum, nor Thebes, nor the Nile, have ruins so complete, so saddening,
so plaintively eloquent, for they speak to us of an age not ours, and long ago
dead, with whose people and life and ideas we have no sympathy whatever. But
here, on these shattered wrecks of houses built in our own style, many of them
doing credit to the architecture of our epoch we read names familiar to us all;
telling us of trades and professions and commercial institutions, which every
modern city reckons up by the hundred ; yet dead, dead, dead; as silent as the
grave of the Pharaohs, as deserted as the bazars of the merchant princes of Old
WE have already mentioned
Professor TAYLER LEWIS'S remarkable monograph, " State Rights, a Photograph from
the Ruins of Ancient Greece," in which the most copious scholarship is brought
in a most trenchant and picturesque style to illustrate the condition and the
dangers of our condition. The pernicious folly of the doe. trine of supreme
State Rights, which is but another name for the right of secession, is shown in
the history and fate of Greece, and shown not only with the inexorable logic of
the philosophic historian, but with the pathetic regret of a scholar who, deeply
versed in the literature
and language of Greece, perceives
the exceeding charm of Grecian civilization and its possible influence upon the
course of history, an influence which was paralyzed and lost by the same false
doctrine that now imperils the American Union and finally destroyed Greece.
The pamphlet, originally
published last autumn, and one of the most interesting and significant which the
war has produced, is now reissued by WEED, PARSONS, & Co., of Albany, enriched
with three supplementary chapters on the Ideas of Nationality ; of Sovereignty;
and the Right of Revolution. The stringent common sense of these chapters is not
less striking than their clear and conclusive reasoning. As a contribution to
the solution of the vexed question of nationality, which will be debated until
it is finally put to rest in the fundamental law, this pamphlet of Professor
LEWIS will hold a distinguished place. It is plain that as the partial obscurity
of the Constitution upon the point of Slavery has compelled the people to make
it clear as day, so its equally dangerous want of an explicit declaration of the
national inviolability will be supplied by the same power. There can be no more
important topic for the consideration of every citizen. There is no more
valuable treatise upon it than the pamphlet of Professor LEWIS.
THE SOLDIERS--A CARD.
WE publish the following card
with pleasure, and remind our readers once more how easily they can please and
help the soldiers :
Mr. JOHN SAVARY, Agent of the
United States Sanitary Commission, returns his thanks on behalf of the soldiers
to those Northern friends and patriots who have remembered no, in the way of
books and papers sent to the Hospital Library at City Point. To the editor and
patrons of Harper's Weekly his thanks are especially due. The help and comfort
thus afforded to sick soldiers is second to none in importance in this war.
Invoices of books have been received from New York and Philadelphia; a box of
Harper's also from young ladies in Lexington, Kentucky; and papers from an
unknown friend in Indiana.
All reading matter intended for
soldiers at this Point should be boxed up and marked as follows:
For BASE HOSPITAL, Care of Dr.
(or to JOHN SAVARY, Care of U. S.
City Point, Va.
Contributors, in future, will
please make known their name and address, that suitable acknowledgments may be
SECOND CORPS HOSPITAL, March,
A GENERAL view of the military
situation has been given on the preceding page. It appears that no small portion
of the rebel army in North Carolina is in the vicinity of Kinston, in
Schofield's front. Sherman and Schofield are doubtless in communication. The
panic in Richmond will not be diminished, we may be sure, from the fact that the
line of communication toward Lynchburg is as effectually interrupted as it could
possibly be if Lynchburg itself were in our possession. If Sheridan crosses the
James the Southside Railroad will suffer a similar fate. In the mean time
movements are on foot in the Confederacy to supply
Lee's army by subscription.
Every thing promises favorably for
Grant and Schofield and Sherman and Sheridan.
There is no political news. The
extra session of Congress, after effecting its own organization, has adjourned.
FIRST NEWS FROM SHERMAN.
On the 14th a dispatch was
received from General Sherman, dated Laurel Hill, North Carolina, March 8. He
says: " We are all well, and have done finely."
SHERIDAN AND SCHOFIELD.
On the 10th of March two
dispatches were penned, one by Schofield, near Kinston, and the other by
Sheridan, on the north bank of the James, at Columbia. We copy these dispatches
HEAD-QUARTERS, MIDDLE MILITARY
COLUMBIA, VIRGINIA, March 10,
1865. Lieutenant-General U. S. Grant, Commanding Armies
GENERAL,—In my last dispatch,
dated Waynesborough, I gave you a brief account of the defeat of Early by
The same night this division was
pushed across the Blue Ridge and entered Charlottesville at two P.M. the next
day. The Mayor of the city and the principal inhabitants came out and delivered
up the keys of the public buildings.
I had to remain at
Charlottesville two days. This time was consumed in bringing over from
Waynesborough our ammunition and pontoon trains.
The weather was horrible beyond
description and the rain incessant.
The two divisions were during
this time occupied in destroying the two large iron bridges one over the Rivanna
River, the other over Morse's Creek, near Charlottesville and the railroad for a
distance of eight miles in the direction of Lynchburg.
On the 6th of March I sent the
first division, General Deven commanding, to Scottsville, on the James River,
with directions to send out light parties through the country and destroy all
merchandise, mills, factories, bridges, etc., on the Rivanna River, the parties
to join the division at Scottsville. The division then proceeded along the canal
to Duguldsville, fifteen miles from Lynchburg, destroying every lock, and in
many places the bank of the canal. At Duguldsville we hoped to secure the bridge
to let us cross the river, as our pontoons were useless.
On account of the high water in
this, however, we were foiled, as both this bridge and the bridge at
Hardwicksville were burned by the enemy upon our approach. Merritt accompanied
The third division started at the
same time from Charlottesville, and proceeded down the Lynchburg Railroad to
Amherst Court House, destroying every bridge on the road, and in many places
miles of the road. The bridges on this road are numerous, and some of them five
hundred feet in length. We have found great abundance in this country for our
men and animals. In fact the canal had been the great feeder of Richmond. At the
Rockfish River the bank of the canal was cut, and at New Canton, where the dam
is across the James, the guard lock was destroyed and the James River let into
the canal, carrying away the banks and washing out the bottom of the canal.
The dam across the James at this
point was also partially destroyed.
I have had no opposition. Every
body is bewildered by our movements. I have had no news of any kind since I
The latest Richmond paper was of
the 4th, but containing nothing.
I omitted to mention that the
bridges on the railroad from Swoop's Depot, on the other side of Staunton, to
Charlottesville, were utterly destroyed ; also all bridges for a distance of ten
miles on the Gordonsville Railroad.
The weather has been very bad
indeed, raining hard every day, with the exception of four days, since we
started. My wagons have, from the state of the roads, detained me.
Up to the present time we have
captured fourteen pieces of artillery eleven at Waynesborough and three at
The party that I sent back from
Waynesborough started with six pieces, but they were obliged to destroy two of
the six for want of animals. The remaining eight pieces were thoroughly
We have captured up to the
present time twelve canal boats laden with supplies, ammunition, rations,
medical stores, etc.
I can not speak in too high terms
of Generals Merritt, Custer, and Deven, and the officers and men of their
commands. They have waded through mud and water during this continuous rain, and
are all in fine spirits and health.
Commodore Hollins, of the rebel
navy, was shot near Gordonsville, while attempting to make his escape from our
advance in that direction.
Very respectfully, your obedient
WISE'S FORK, March 10, 1865. To
The enemy made a heavy attack
upon our centre and left today, but was decisively repulsed, with heavy loss.
His dead and badly wounded were left upon the field. We also took several
hundred prisoners. Our loss is small.
General Couch is only twelve
miles from here tonight, and will be up early in the morning.
We took prisoners from Lee's and
Stuart's corps. They say that two corps are here, and the rest of Johnston's
army is coming. J. M. SCHOFIELD, Major-General.
General Schofield, in a dispatch
dated at Newbern, March 12, states that on the night of the 10th, near Southwest
Creek, Bragg was fairly beaten ; that during the night he retreated across the
Neuse at Kinston, and now holds the north bank of the river at that place.
RUMORED REVERSE TO KILPATRICK.
The following is a dispatch from
General Lee, claiming that a victory was gained by Hampton over Kilpatrick on
the 10th. The locality of the battle is not given:
HEADQUARTERS, ETC., March 10,
1865. Hon. John C. Breekinridge, Secretary of War:
General Hampton attacked
Kilpatrick at day light this morning, and drove him from the camp, taking his
guns, wagons, many horses, several hundred prisoners, and relieving a great
number of our men who had been captured. The guns and wagons could not be
brought off for want of horses. Many of the enemy were killed and wounded. Our
loss is not heavy. Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. King was killed. Brigadier-General
Hume, Colonels Kagan and Morrison, and Majors Davis and Ferguson, and others,
R. E. LEE, General.
SOUTHERN SLAVE CONSCRIPTION.
The bill to arm slaves and place
them in the ranks of the Confederate army passed the rebel Senate March 7 by a
majority of two. Mr. Hunter voted for the bill, which thus becomes a law; but he
made a speech directly contrary to this vote. He said that to arm the slave was
to abandon the principles upon which the war was undertaken. Who is to answer,
then," he asks, " for the hundreds of thousands of men who had been slain in the
war? Who was to answer for them before the bar of Heaven? Not those who had
entered into the contest upon principle and adhere to the principle, but those
who had abandoned the principle. Not for all the gold in California would he
have put his name to such a measure as this, unless obliged to do so by
instructions. As long as he was free to vote from his own convictions nothing
could have extorted it from him. Mr. Hunter then argued the necessity of freeing
the negroes if they were made soldiers. There was something in the human heart
and head that tells us it must be so; when they come out scarred from this
conflict they must be free."
The following is a copy of the
A Bill to Increase the Military
Forces of the Confederate States. The Congress of the Confederate States of
America do enact that in order to provide additional forces to repel the
invasion, maintain the rightful possession of the Confederate States, secure
their independence, and preserve their institutions, the President be and is
hereby authorized to ask for and accept from the owners of slaves the services
of such number of able bodied negro men as he may deem expedient for and during
the war, to perform military service in whatever capacity he may direct.
Sec. 2. That the General-in-Chief
be authorized to organize the said slaves into companies, battalions, regiments,
and brigades, under such rules and regulations as the Secretary of War may
prescribe, and to be commanded by such officers as the President may appoint.
Sec. 3. That while employed in
the service the said troops shall receive the same rations, clothing, and
compensation as are allowed to other troops in the same branch of the service.
Sec. 4. That if, under the
previous section of this act, the President shall not be able to raise a
sufficient number of troops to prosecute the war successfully and maintain the
sovereignty of the States and the independence of the Confederate States, then
he is hereby authorized to call on each State, whenever he thinks it expedient,
for her quota of three hundred thousand troops in addition to those subject to
military service under existing laws, or
so many thereof as the President
may deem necessary to be raised from such classes of the population,
irrespective of color, in each State, as the proper authorities thereof may
determine. Provided, that not more than twenty five per cent. of the male slaves
between the ages of eighteen and forty five in any State shall be called for
under the provisions of this act.
Sec. 5. That nothing in this act
shall be construed to authorize a change in the relation of the said slaves.
PRESENTATION OF A GOLD MEDAL TO
On the 11th there was a review of
the troops on Grant's left, which was graced with the presence of the
Lieutenant-General's wife and the wife of his Chief of Staff, General Rawlins.
In the evening the General and his party returned to City Point, where, in the
presence of a large number of officers and distinguished civilians, he was
presented with the gold medal voted him by a joint resolution December 17, 1863.
The medal was accompanied by a copy of the resolution engrossed on parchment.
The ceremony took place in the upper cabin of the Mary Martin. Hon. E. B.
Washburne presented the medal, with an appropriate speech, in the course of
which he read the following letter addressed to the Lieutenant-General by the
"EXECUTIVE MANSION, WASHINGTON,
March 7, 1865]
" LIEUTENANT-GENERAL GRANT,-In
accordance with a joint resolution of Congress, approved December 16, 1863, I
now have the honor of transmitting and presenting to you, in the name of the
people of the United States of America, a copy of said resolution, engrossed on
parchment, together with the gold medal therein ordered and directed.
Please accept for yourself and
all under your command the renewed expression of my gratitude for your and their
arduous and well performed public service.
" Your obedient servant, A.
The General replied: "I accept
the medal and joint resolution of Congress which the President has commissioned
you to deliver to me. I will do myself the honor at an early day to acknowledge
the receipt of the letter of the President accompanying them, end to communicate
in orders to the officers and soldiers who served under my command, prior to the
passage of the resolution, the thanks so generously tendered to them by the
Congress of the United States."
The cost of the medal was about
$6000. The Congressional resolution was beautifully engrossed, and encased in a
A report from Newborn, N. C.,
says that the remaining Union prisoners at Salisbury, N. C., have been released
by Union troops, whether of Sherman's or some other force is not stated.
New Orleans advices of the 7th
inst. state that large bodies of troops were then leaving there for the vicinity
of Mobile. General Bailey's expedition from Baton Rouge into the interior of
Louisiana had reached Clinton. His force consists of three thousand cavalry and
On the 11th the obsequies of
Major-General Whiting, who died on Governor's island of the wounds he received
in the assault on Fort Fisher, took place at Trinity Church before a large
congregation. The Rev. Drs. Dix and Ogilby officiated, and the remains were
subsequently interred in Greenwood Cemetery.
Governor Vance, of North
Carolina, makes an urgent appeal to the people, saying Lee's army must, for
three or four months to come, depend for food upon portions of Virginia and
North Carolina. He himself has donated half his stock of provisions to the rebel
Government, placing his own family and dependents upon half rations, and
recommends that other citizens follow his example.
Sherman's new base of supplies is
at Wilmington. His Chief Quarter master has arrived there, and all transport,
and other vessels laden with supplies have been ordered from both Charleston and
Savannah, with orders to ren dezvous at New Inlet.
A gentleman who left the Army of
the Potomac on the 11th, and who has been spending several days at the front,
states that the Army is in most perfect condition. Large accessions are being
made to it daily; and the order, neatness, drill, and discipline are complete;
the parades and reviews are perfect, and are the special admiration of the
British Major-General who has been for a time the guest of General Meade. There
are nearly twenty miles of lines closely covered with Union troops. Our troops
continue close on to Petersburg, and as near as ever to Richmond, They are most
abundantly fed and clothed.
LORD LYONS has resigned the
office of British Minister to Washington. Sir Frederick Bruce, English Minister
to China, has been appointed to succeed Lord Lyons.
Queen Isabella of Spain, it is
reported, is about to sacrifice her private estate in aid of the National
Treasury. The royal palaces and their contents, Buen Retiro, Aranjuez, the
Escurial, and ten more, the Museum of Art, the Alhambra, and some other property
are to be entailed forever on the Crown ; and when so much has been put aside to
serve for the perpetual lustre of majesty the rest of the patrimony, hereditary
possessions, and other estates enjoyed by the Queen are to be sold. Three
fourths of the proceeds are to be paid into the Treasury, and the remaining
fourth to herself.