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Robert E. Lee Portrait
BRIG.-GEN. S. D. STURGIS.
will be found a portrait (from a photograph sent us by our Western artist) of
this distinguished officer, who has lately been promoted from the rank of Major
in the First Cavalry to a Brigadier-Generalship, and is now actively engaged in
suppressing rebellion in Northern Missouri.
was born in Pennsylvania in 1822, was appointed a Cadet at West Point in 1842,
graduated in the same class with
General McClellan in 1846, and immediately
proceeded to join the army under General Taylor in Mexico the same year. He was
taken prisoner on the 20th of February, 1847, two days before the
Buena Vista, while reconnoitring the enemy with but one man. To this act of
daring is attributed much of the success of the battle of Buena Vista, as it was
the first reliable information General Taylor had of the exact whereabouts of
the enemy, and caused him to fall back and take the strong position which saved
him the battle. After the
Mexican War Lieutenant Sturgis accompanied Major
Graham's command to California, and was constantly in active service there. He
was promoted First Lieutenant First Dragoons in 1853, and in 1855 he was
promoted to Captaincy in the First Cavalry for distinguished gallantry in a
fight with the Mescalara Indians, for which he also received a vote of thanks
from the Legislature of New Mexico. He was in the battle of Ojo Caliente, under
Colonel Cooke, in 1854 ; also in the battle against the Cheyennes, under Colonel
Sumner, in 1857. He led a column of six companies of cavalry against the Kiowas
and Comanches in 1860, overtaking them after a long and tedious march through
the sand in the hottest of weather for weeks, and completely routing a large
force. Returning from the Plains, he suppressed the difficulties upon the
Cherokee neutral lands. When lately in command of Fort Smith, all of his
officers having resigned and gone South, with a garrison of two small companies
of cavalry, no cannon or fortifications, he thwarted a well-contrived plan of
the citizens of the city, in conjunction with the Governor of the State, to take
the post, without having previously had any positive information of their
intentions. He got his small force ready, and about half an hour before the
Governor's forces arrived from
Little Rock with ten pieces of artillery, he
withdrew his command, taking all that was valuable, including twenty-five
wagons, commissary stores, etc., retreating 170 miles to Fort Washita. For this
he received a letter of thanks from Colonel Emory. He was promoted to the rank
of Major First Cavalry, May, 1861. He commanded the column which moved down from
Fort Leavenworth and joined
General Lyon on Grande River, July 7, 1861. At
battle of Springfield, General Lyon, seeming to
have a presentiment that all would not go well with him, told Major Sturgis to
keep near him. When the General fell Major Sturgis assumed the command, and for
three hours after that desperate fight continued, his little command holding out
against about seven times their number. After forcing the enemy to fall back,
repulsing all their desperate charges, he found his little army too much
crippled to follow them without almost a certainty of losing every thing. He
therefore withdrew his force to Springfield, and afterward succeeded in reaching
Rolla with the entire command and a train of commissary stores valued at over
one million of dollars.
THE REBEL GENERAL PRICE.
WE publish on
a portrait of the REBEL
GENERAL PRICE, who has just taken Lexington,
Missouri—from a photograph sent us by our artist in the West.
is a native of Virginia, and resided for some time in Prince William County in
that State. From thence he removed to Missouri, where he has resided for the
last twenty years. He is by profession a lawyer, has occupied several important
positions in the State service, and has also represented it in Congress. He was
Governor before Robert Stewart. During the Mexican war he served in the
Volunteers and rose to the rank of Colonel of Cavalry, and subsequently to that
of Brigadier-General of Volunteers. When the Rebellion broke out he avowed
himself a traitor, and was appointed by ex-Governor Claiborne Jackson
Major-General of the State Militia of Missouri.
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 12, 1861.
OPERATIONS IN THE GULF.
IT is generally understood that
the Government has chartered the
Atlantic, some or all of Vanderbilt's steam
fleet, and other steamships now lying in the port of New York. The event
indicates the early departure of one or more of the expeditions to which we
alluded in our last number but one. Common rumor asserts that two of these
expeditions are to be fused together, and that a body of 15,000 men, with not
less than 300 guns, will operate against a single point on the Southern coast.
Speculation is naturally rife on
the subject of the point to be assailed. Not a few would be glad to hear that
Charleston had been attacked and reduced. Our
present troubles have arisen in great degree from the spite and malevolence of
the people of Charleston. Unwilling to accept their own decline and fall as an
inevitable fact, the people of South Carolina, in the vain hope of saving
themselves, have involved the whole continent in bloodshed, and it would
be only a righteous retribution
if Charleston were bombarded and its harbor forever closed. An attack upon
Savannah is recommended by the fact that there is a large Union party in
Georgia, which would become active in the event of a landing being effected by
our troops. Mobile, Pensacola, and
New Orleans all invite attack. The occupation
of any one of the three would probably reopen the cotton trade. Pensacola could
be occupied under cover of the guns of
Fort Pickens without difficulty and with
a small force. Mobile and New Orleans would require more men and a more
elaborate expedition. But the force now being fitted out in the Northern ports
would suffice. A much smaller force would be adequate to seize Beaufort, North
Carolina, or Port Royal, South Carolina, or Brunswick, Georgia, or any port in
Florida or Texas.
Letters from the Gulf state that
we have already occupied Mississippi City, and cut off the communication between
New Orleans and Mobile. Various points at the mouth of
the Mississippi have
likewise been occupied by men detached from our ships of war. These landings,
considered in connection with the preparations of
General Fremont in the West,
would seem to indicate the mouth of the Mississippi as the probable destination
of the great expedition which is expected to sail southward ; though of course
nothing is known on the subject, and it is quite likely that the Government may
have encouraged the belief that an attack was intended to be made at New
Orleans, when, in reality, Charleston, or Savannah, or
Pensacola, or Mobile were
the points in view.
The importance of the capture and
occupation of one or more
Southern ports entirely depends on the nature of the
occupation. Merely to hold Charleston, or Mobile, or New Orleans, and there
administer the laws of the State of South Carolina, or Alabama, or Louisiana,
would not inconvenience the rebels, and would not tend to bring the rebellion to
a close. All the rebels who could would leave for the interior ; the others
would submit under protest, and, while trying to make as much money as they
could out of our army, and devolving upon us the duty of doing their police duty
at our expense, would hold themselves prepared to assist the rebels of the
interior in expelling us as soon as it was safe to do so. In this country the
interior does not follow the dominion of the sea-board. During the revolutionary
war, Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston were generally in
the hands of the British, and yet, from first to last, their cause was
desperate. If we are to gain any substantial advantage by the occupation of
Southern ports, that occupation must involve intolerable inconveniences and
dangers to the Southern people; then they will begin to weigh the policy of
submission to the Government ; and overtures for reconciliation by the surrender
of their ring-leaders and the return of the people to their allegiance may
fairly be expected.
THE public are reminded that
Messrs. Harper & Brothers employ no TRAVELING AGENTS. Parties who desire to
subscribe to Harper's Magazine or Harper's Weekly had better remit direct to the
Publishers, or pay their subscription to some Postmaster or General Agent with
whom they are acquainted, and of whose responsibility they are assured.
The OLD POSTAGE STAMPS being no
longer available at the Post-office, Messrs. Harper & Brothers can no longer
receive them in payment of subscriptions or copies of the Weekly or Magazine.
THE POST OF DUTY.
THERE seems at length to be a
real effort to call men who are not mercenary politicians into the public
service. Of course it is an incident of the war, nor is it likely to last
forever. Yet we shall have had a sharp lesson, and it will be remembered for a
generation at least.
The names of well-known citizens
are mentioned as probable candidates for the Assembly, the Senate, etc. The
nomination will be a test of patriotism. Men of large and various relations in
life can not easily go to
Albany. Merchants, bankers, lawyers, manufacturers of
immense business, can only go there at a sore sacrifice of time, money, and
But is not that the very
sacrifice which the times demand ? Can they show more plainly their hearty
devotion to the great cause, or their clear perception of its peculiar wants at
the moment, than by accepting the offices that may be offered them?
It has always been our national
reproach that our best and wisest men abstained from active interest in public
affairs. The political constitution of other countries compels the cooperation
of the great proprietors, and invites, by every prize that can allure ambition,
the efforts of gifted and sagacious men. But with us political service, while it
may readily be prostituted to venal ends, offers but an elusive prize to
ambition. We must serve for duty's sake. It is the tax we must pay. And who
loves to pay taxes ?
Gentlemen who may be called upon
to serve, and who recoil from the hard service, let your friends and
constituents see, in your ready acceptance, that the great system we are all
trying to save is fully worth saving,
IN PEACE PREPARE FOR WAR.
THE University of Michigan is the
most amply endowed college in the West, and one of the most completely equipped
in the country. It is situated delightfully at Ann Arbor, two or three hours
west of Detroit, upon the Michigan Central Railroad. The head of the university
is Dr. Tappan, an eminent scholar, a man of the most enlarged views, who has
already impressed himself upon the history of education in this country. Dr.
Brunnow, one of the younger astronomers who have made a name, fills the chair of
astronomy. He was called to the Dudley Observatory upon the retirement of Dr.
Gould ; but he is a man who goes for work rather than show, and the somewhat
ornamental position at Albany was less agreeable to him than the post of labor
at Ann Arbor, where he was not expected to discover a new comet every month.
Andrew D. White is Professor of History and Belles Lettres : an ardent and
elegant scholar, a devoted and beloved teacher, a generous and noble man.
Professor Frieze is the accomplished teacher of Latin, and the body of
instructors are animated by the most intelligent interest in their pursuit. The
situation of their University, the pioneer of letters upon the prairies, binds
this band of scholars peculiarly close. The State of Michigan, with a liberality
which is no less sagacious than patriotic, has not withheld its hand ; and no
seminary in the country seems to the observer so full of life and energy as the
University of Michigan.
The life of the students is
necessarily simple. They are drawn to the college by an earnest love of
knowledge, and they willingly work their passage. They have a manly, robust
quality which does not belong to all collegians, and which makes the impression
of the university a little different from that of all our Eastern colleges.
At an early period of the war the
military spirit showed itself among the students. They were carefully drilled,
and very many of them are already at the war. Their patriotic feeling was
carefully fostered, and their manly discipline promoted by the teachers. And
now, when it is evident to all of us that all our schools must henceforth be, in
some degree, military schools, the Board of Regents are considering a resolution
to establish a permanent military department in the university, " under the
conviction that this work" [of military training] "can be more economically
performed for the State in this university, where civil engineering, the higher
mathematics, the modern languages, the natural sciences, and other studies
connected with a military education are now taught, than any where else in the
The plan is so admirable that it
can hardly fail to be adopted in other colleges also. That we are still men,
although republicans—that Governments must be defended from traitors as well as
foreign enemies—and that we have entirely disregarded the warning to prepare in
peace for war, are points that will no longer be doubted or discussed. How to
prepare for war in peace is now the practical question: and the University of
Michigan leads the way in the practical answer.
A ZONE OF FLOWERS.
ONE of the most delightful sights
to a stranger in Paris is the flower market by the Madeleine. In the sunny
spring mornings, as you stroll among the plants and look up at the church, you
might easily fancy yourself in that ideal world which the poet Claude Lorraine
loved to paint. But Paris is never contented with what it has accomplished. It
must go on and fulfill its destiny of being the most magnificent metropolis and
the most beautiful city in the world.
Monsieur Reydenouarde proposes
now to gird Paris with a zone of flowers, without taking an inch of ground from
any citizen or drawing upon the State treasury. The projector is a famous
botanist and horticulturist, and has been for some years at the head of a
Government commission of floral and rural science exploring in South America.
His plan, as briefly stated in the London Press, is as follows :
"He proposes to the State to
transform the fortifications and the earth-works facing the city, both of which
are now so much unproductive waste ground, into a great pepiniere d'acclimation,
or a nursery for exotics of every possible kind, whether from cold or hot
countries, according to the aspects of the ditch, wall, and earth-works. The
administration of this garden, which he guarantees to form with a given capital
for the commencement of operations, would pay to the State a certain rate per
hectare, undertake to cultivate no species of parasitical fruit or flower that
would be injurious to the wall or difficult to remove in case an enemy were
expected, to sell at a low market price the produce of the fortifications, and
in the space of two years and a half clear all expenses that the society may
incur in carrying out the project."
His friends, the Parisian savans
who have a right to opinions in such matters, declare that the hygienic effects
of a vast zone of flowers around the walls would be most beneficial, by
absorbing the noxious gases which are bred by the city. Moreover the Emperor
approves, and has opened the matter to the Council of State, which, in turn, has
whispered it to the Prefect of the Seine. Still a name was wanting. The "
project of M. Reydenouarde" would never do. Luckily Lamartine has a cottage near
the fortifications at Antent. The projector wrote to him, describing the plan.
The poet replied, thanking him, and saying that Le Jardin de Ceinture—which may
be rendered the Flower Zone of the City—would become the crowning pride of the
New York could not well have a
flower zone, because she has no zone of forts ; but when are we to have a flower
market ? We have beautiful flower shows, especially in Brooklyn ; and New York
is girdled with gardens. At the various markets, too, there is a goodly
collection of plants and flowers at certain seasons. But if there were a special
place to which all flowers could be brought and to which all buyers could
resort, it would be one of the most beautiful spots in the city. It should be
accessible from all sides, and in a pleasant situation.
Union Square would be
and attractive for such a purpose
; or Stuyvesan Square, in front of St. George's. The concentration of the whole
business in one spot would increase both the trade and the taste for flowers.
When Mayor Wood came in, it was
upon a distinct promise, made by his own signature in lithograph, that he would
keep a single eye to the public good. Has that eye seen flowers? Ought it not to
see flowers if it looks straight at what is truly good for the public? The
Emperor favors the flower zone of Paris. Why should not the Mayor favor the
flower market of New York?
"A STRANGE STORY."
THE popularity of
Bulwer as a
story-teller is only less than that of Dickens. His adroit talent, his tact, his
consummate skill in all the details of author-craft, are conspicuous among all
late English novelists. When you reflect also, that he is the oldest of
them—that Bulwer was famous when Dickens began and Thackeray was unheard of—that
Charlotte Bronte's career began and ended a mere episode in Bulwer's—that
Charles Reade, and Kingsley, and Trollope, and Jack Sheppard Ainsworth himself,
all began since Bulwer had a name—you can not help recurring to the days of
Waverley, of whose great author Bulwer was the immediate successor. The author
of "Pelham," which our fathers read with delight, as became gentlemen educated
upon Byron, is also the author of "A Strange Story," which follows " Great
Expectations," from week to week in these columns.
Now the fashion of a novel
changes as absolutely as that of a coat. " It is permitted to a gentleman under
certain conditions," says Pelham, " to wear a white waistcoat." The law which
governs the character of novels may be as whimsical ; it is certainly no better
understood. Bulwer has the most sensitive apprehension of a change in the
fashion of a novel. He is reputed to have the same in regard to clothes.
Speaking figuratively, he never ties his cravat in a bow, when brilliant scarfs
are de rigueur. Other novelists get old-fashioned. Mrs. Gore, for instance,
persisted in writing the old style of " society novel" to the end ; and
Ainsworth can scarcely escape his medieval old clo' shop. James, too, the most
amiable of men and the most classically commonplace of novelists, was never at
his ease in any period later than the sixteenth or seventeenth century.
But the excellent ladies who "
opened" their "fall styles" last week would as soon be guilty of offering Madame
a last year's " hat" as Bulwer any other novel than one strictly a la mode. This
last one upon which he is now engaged is as fresh as if he bad never written a
novel before, yet it is so well done that you feel it to be the work of a
long-practiced hand. For whatever may be granted or denied to Bulwer, there is
an undeniable mellowness of tone in all he does. In his last story printed in
the Weekly—" What will he do with it ?" —there were passages so softly penciled
and delicately hued that the mind recurs to them with curious pleasure. Such
were some parts of the opening and of the river-life.
In "A Strange Story" Bulwer
strikes the key of "Zanoni," which was one of his most powerful and popular
tales. He loves erudition and mystery. He loves a hero who is a learned man,
because if the hero be a learned man, or seems to be, he must, of course, derive
his learning from—well, the illustrious author of his being. Then, in addition
to his learning, if there be no positive ghostliness, as there seems to be in
the present novel, the hero must have a mystery, a gloomy mystery, a tragical
mystery, which clouds in the gayest circles his high pale brow, and causes him
to support his intellectual head upon the delicate patrician hand upon whose
third finger a ring, ruby-red, seems to glow more intensely at such moments,
like a flaming blush of guilt and woe and secrecy* * * !
Of course it is all clap-trap ;
but the interest and skill are undeniable. You don't suppose that the
Prestidigitator does actually jump into his own pocket, or pull his legs off and
use them for telescopes, however he may seem to do so. It is a capital
performance, and extremely cheap for twenty-five cents. No novel reader can have
read the few numbers of "A Strange Story" which have thus far been published
without agreeing that it is admirably done, with all the old Bulwerian skill,
the sprightly knowledge of the world, the romantic sentiment, the constructive
talent, and the undeniable charm of interest which, displayed in so many works
of so varied but equal excellence, and for so long a period, make Bulwer, or
Sir Bulwer Lytton, one of the phenomena of English literature.
THERE is not often a Sunday so
solemn as the late fast-day. The streets were peculiarly staid. The churches
were full of earnest hearers. The pulpits were fervid with earnest speakers. And
who can doubt that the praying and the preaching came nearer to the hearts of
the great multitude than is the habit of the usual religious service?
Whoever reads the sketches of the
sermons must be impressed with their reality. They were not formal. They were
not cold. They were not cautious and apologetic. No : for we have reached a time
which none of us in this generation ever saw, in which men are free to say what
they think upon every great question that stirs us, and are welcomed for the
frankest word they can speak.
The effort to serve the rebellion
which is made by him who tries by a brisk rattling of old party slang and
watch-words to distract, if not to divide, patriots, recoils inevitably upon the
head of him who makes it. The man who flattered rebellion in March is very
likely to be the man to do its dirty work now, if he can only screen himself.
But the great body of the people who are helping to save the nation from peril
ask only that a man sincerely works at that task. We all have our own views of
the causes and consequences of this rebellion. We all know what the future will
inevitably bring. (Next Page)