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Civil War Harper's Weekly, January 4, 1862

This is an original Harper's Weekly newspaper published during the Civil War. It has a variety of wood cut illustrations created by eye-witnesses to the events, and in depth news and analysis of the War.

(Scroll Down to See Entire Page, or Newspaper Thumbnails below will take you to a specific page of interest)




Ship Island

Ship Island

Charleston Fire

Charleston Fire

Building Green River Bridge

Green River Bridge


Jeff Davis as the Devil

Ship Island

Ship Island

Savannah Map

Map of Savannah River

Burnside Expedition

General Burnside's Expedition



JANUARY 4, 1862.]



(Previous Page) feeling from this country, and the imminent danger of a collision, there is no good reason for supposing that the collision may not be avoided. A century, however, will not repair the mischief worked by the jealousy of England at this time. We may be ceremonious acquaintances, punctiliously careful upon every point of etiquette, but we shall not for many a generation be the friends that we ought to be now, and that so many believed we already were. Nor can any just judge declare that the reason is to be found in any tariff system that we may have adopted. No such purely superficial question explains so deep a difference. It is to be found in the eagerness and evident joy with which England hailed the prospect of our national ruin.


THE letter of the Hon. Isaac N. Arnold, of Chicago, representative from Illinois, to the President—the appointment of Mr. Kellogg, of the same State, upon the Committee for the establishment of a Western Armory, and the memorial of the citizens of Chicago to the Government setting forth the claims of that city as the proper site, all show that the Northwest is thoroughly alive to the importance of securing that armory for the great capital of that region.

The case of Chicago is a very strong one, and its chief points are the following :

That the arsenal should be somewhere in the Northwest is generally admitted. There are three on the eastern side of the Alleghany—namely, Watervliet, West Point, and Springfield ; but the Northwest, whose population exceeds that of all the loyal Eastern States, has none. The western and northwestern frontiers are the points where arms will be required for the next century; and at the beginning of the present war there were no arms of any importance in the whole region. In Illinois there was the greatest difficulty in getting even a few thousand, and the troops when posted as sentries were for a long time compelled to do duty with clubs instead of muskets.

The great security of the works at Chicago is another consideration strongly urged. From the seat of domestic rebellion Chicago is separated by hundreds of miles of territory filled with a brave and loyal people. From foreign attack she is vulnerable only through the Straits of Mackinaw. The small expense of a fortification there, as Mr. Arnold shows, would make the lake inaccessible. The immense commerce of the lakes, exceeding in the whole the entire foreign commerce of the country, could, in case of need, be sheltered in Lake Michigan, and by means of an arsenal the merchant marine be rapidly converted into a navy.

The economical view is not less strongly presented. The iron, copper, lead, and lumber could be furnished, according to estimates, more cheaply in Chicago than elsewhere. Provisions are cheap. Mechanical labor abundant. Thirteen trunk lines of railway, counting, with their connections, more than five thousand miles, centre in Chicago. The futility of reliance upon one line of road has been shown painfully enough in the Baltimore and Ohio and Baltimore and Washington roads. But besides the railroads, the water communication by the great lakes and the Illinois canal and rivers, all improvable at an expense entirely disproportioned to the value of the results, is unsurpassed in the West.

Pittsburg is the rival claimant with Chicago. But in regard of building material, lumber, iron, copper, lead, coal for smelting, provisions, transportation, and security, the advantages seem to lean to Chicago. In skilled labor the two places are fully equal. The advantage of Pittsburg appears to be in motive power, in the cost of bituminous coal. But Chicago pluckily claims that this difference in the cost of coal for one purpose is more than counterbalanced by the other important considerations suggested. And as the Government owns ground at Pittsburg on which the armory might be built, Chicago will willingly furnish ground free of cost.

Mr. Arnold's letter contains some very curious and interesting statements. "Millions," he says, "are very properly expended annually in protecting and fostering the foreign commerce of the nation. The expense to the national treasury of the enormous trade on the great lakes is merely nominal; a few light-houses and a single revenue-cutter armed with a single gun." Again he says : "A line drawn north and south through Pittsburg will show a majority of the loyal people of the Union west of that line. Yet this vast country, furnishing fully one-half of the soldiers now in the field, is entirely dependent upon eastern armories for the manufacture of arms. A national armory at Chicago during the last year would have saved the Government millions of money, the lives of many gallant men, and would. have materially shortened the war."

Every year of our history will confirm one striking remark of Mr. Arnold's : "The provincial history of the Northwest terminated with the census of 1860."


A FRIEND, who says that Harper's Weekly circulates twenty thousand or more copies in Boston and its neighborhood, suggests that the paper might wisely give a few more illustrations from that region. The suggestion is good ; and we do not need Boston authority for believing that city to be a metropolis. But our friend should remember that a paper which circulates a hundred and twenty thousand copies has a very various and extended diocese. In Maryland and the District of Columbia twenty thousand are also taken; and as that region is the seat of present public interest, we naturally find the most attractive subjects there. If our friend has any suggestions of particular subjects to make, Harper's Weekly will be always very glad to receive them. Meanwhile we may observe that since the war broke out Harper's Weekly has illustrated Faneuil Hall, Fort Warren, and other Boston " lions."


FRAMLEY PARSONAGE.—A critic says : "There is a certain manner and style about it that pleases all." That certain manor is doubtless the parsonage itself, and the stile is the stile that leads to it.

A wounded Irishman wrote home from the hospital, and finished up by saying, "I've fought for this country, I've bled for it, and I shall soon be able to say I've died for it."


Break, break, break,

Let the world thy rottenness see;

And I would that my hand could grasp again

The money I lent to thee.

Oh! weep for the orphan boy,

That his little is lost to-day;

Oh! weep for the holder of stock,

That his savings are swept away.

And the city banks go on,

And pay their depositors still;

But oh! for a touch of my vanished gold,

That has gone from the Pall Mall till.

Break, break, break,

Let the world thy rottenness see;

But the hard-earned gold that has fled

Will never come back to me.

A century ago, the lady of one of the "City" knights wrote a note once to an old acquaintance, verbatim, as follows: "Lady— precents compelments to Mrs.—, and beggs she'll abstane from calling on her, as she sees now nobody but folks of fashion since her Ladyship and Sir — has been nighted by his Majesty."

In a discussion with a temperance lecturer, a toper asked, "If water rots your boots, what effect must it have on the coats of your stomach?"

At an election dinner a voter said he had never received a bribe to the extent of a farthing. " Oh, Mr. Smith, how can you say so," observed another voter, "when I know Mr. Wilks sent you a hare?" "Ay, that's true enough; but it was full of maggots." "Well, then," was the re-joinder, "if it were not bribery, it was corruption."

"Now, children, who loves all men?" asked a school-inspector. The question was hardly put before a little girl, not four years old, answered quickly, "All women!"

An old man, when dangerously sick, was urged to take advice of a doctor, but objected, saying, "I wish to die a natural death."

Can a man with wooden legs be considered a foot passenger?

An old maid, speaking of marriage, says it is like any other disease—while there's life there's hope.

"So you are going to keep a school!" said a young lady to her aunt. " Well, for my part, sooner than do that, I would marry a widower with nine children." " I should prefer that myself," was the quiet reply ; "but where is the widower?"

An eminent and witty prelate was once asked if he did not think such a one followed his conscience. "Yes," said his grace, " I think he follows it as a man does a horse in a gig—he drives it first."

A DIFFERENCE OF OPINION.—A short man became attached to a tall woman, and somebody said that he had fallen in love with her. " Do you call it falling in love?" said the suitor. "It's more like climbing up to it."

A QUALIFICATION.—A merchant, lately advertising for a clerk "who could bear confinement," received an answer from one who had been seven years in jail."'

Can a man be said to be in a stew when you make his blood boil?

A late lecturer remarked that it wouldn't be a very violent stretch of the imagination to believe "that a thoughtful Massachusetts baby, six months old, sits in his mother's lap eying his own cradle, to see if he could not invent a better ; or at least suggest some improvement."

A learned young lady defines a thimble as a diminutive, argenteous, truncated cone, convex on it summit, and semi-perforated with symmetrical indentations.

A milkman was awoke by a wag in the night with the announcement that his best cow was choking. He forthwith jumped up to save the life of his animal, when, lo! he found a turnip stuck in the mouth of the pump.

A truly rural young lady is about to publish a work on "Tire Rise, Growth, Culture, and Progress of the Hen, as an Element of Civilization."

TEST OF CHRISTIAN CHARACTER.—"Well, doctor," said a barrister to a witness, "what is the character of this defendant?" "He is a Christian, Sir." "A Christian?" "Yes, Sir; a good Christian; a most exemplary Christian." "Well, how do you know this?" "I know it, Sir, because I attended him through a fit of the gout, and never once heard him swear." The testimony was considered satisfactory.

Lady Yarmouth asked Garrick one day why Love was always represented as a child? He replied, "Because Love never reaches the age of wisdom and experience."

"Don't touch me, or I'll scream!" as the engine-whistle said to the stoker.

"Did you ever go to a military ball?" asked a lisping maid of an old veteran. "No, my dear," growled the old soldier; "in those days I once had a military ball come to me, and what do you think ?—it took my leg off!"

People who cross the ocean for mere pleasure generally conclude, before finishing the voyage, that they were retched fools.

The story is told of a certain New Zealand chief, that a young missionary landed at his island, to succeed a sacred teacher deceased some time before. At an interview with the chief, the young minister asked: "Did you know my departed brother?" "Oh yes! Me deacon in his church." "Ah, then, you knew him well; and was he not a good and tender-hearted man?" "Yes," replied the pious deacon with much gusto, "he very good and very tender. Me eat a piece of him!"

A gentleman traveling across Salisbury Plain saw an old man sitting at time door of a cabin, weeping bitterly. "My friend," inquired the gentleman, "what is the matter with you?" "Why," replied the man, "daddy jist gave me an awful licking 'cause I wouldn't rock grand-daddy to sleep!" The gentleman rode off, fully satisfied with the salubrity and healthiness of the Plain to produce such unparalleled instances of longevity.


ON Tuesday, December 17, in the Senate, several petitions were presented for emancipating the slaves of rebels. A bill was reported to increase the number of cadets at West Point. Senator Lane in a speech criticised the action of the Government in the conduct of the war, and was replied to by Senator Carlile. The Chair appointed Senators Wade of Ohio, Chandler of Michigan, and Johnson of Tennessee, as the committee to investigate the general

conduct of the war. The House resolution for an adjournment until January 6 was laid on the table. An executive session was held, and the Senate adjourned.—ln the House, Mr. Bingham, from the Judiciary Committee, reported back the joint resolutions requiring the Provost Court at Alexandria, Virginia, to hold the property of rebels until Congress take further action on the subject. The resolution then passed. The resolutions of Mr. Eliot, for the emancipation of slaves, being the special order, were then resumed. On motion of Mr. Kellogg, the resolutions, and all others relating to the subject in the same special order, were referred to the Judiciary Committee by a vote of 77 against 57. A bill was reported from the Foreign Affairs Committee appropriating one thousand dollars to pay the owners of the British ship Perthshire for losses incurred in consequence of detention by our blockading fleet off Mobile, in June last, our naval officer, at the time acting on a misunderstanding of the circumstances. The bill was finally passed, but not until after it had given rise to a somewhat lengthy and discursive debate. A bill was reported from the Naval Committee to authorize the Secretary of the Navy to construct twenty iron-clad steam gun-boats, at a cost of from five hundred thousand to six hundred thousand dollars each, which, after a brief debate, was laid over for further consideration, and the House adjourned.

On Wednesday, December 18, in the Senate, petitions for the emancipation of slaves, and for the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Law, were presented by Senators Doolittle and Sumner, respectively. Senator Sumner offered a resolution that Trusten Polk, now a traitor to the United States, be expelled from the Senate. It was referred to the Judiciary Committee. Senator Sumner's resolution that the army shall not be used to surrender fugitive slaves was taken up and adopted. After an executive session the Senate adjourned.   In the House, the Committee on Elections reported adversely to the claim of Charles Henry Foster to represent either the First or Second Congressional District of North Carolina, and the report was adopted. A bill appropriating one million dollars for gun-boats on the Western waters was passed. The Pension Appropriation Bill was taken up, amended so that no pension shall be paid to rebels, and then passed. The bill authorizing the payment of troops mustered into service in Missouri was passed. This provides for the pay of the forces under General Fremont, as well as those under other generals. The Contract Investigating Committee was requested to inquire into the policy of abolishing sutlership:, or regulating them so as to prevent impositions upon soldiers.

On Thursday, December 19, In the Senate, Senator Sumner presented a number of numerously signed petitions in favor of the emancipation of slaves, with compensation to loyal masters. Senator Willey, of Virginia, offered a resolution to the effect that the existing war was forced upon the country by the rebellious States without provocation, and with the design to destroy the Union and the Constitution, and repudiate the fundamental principles of republican government. The Senate discussed the resolution of the House to adjourn till the 6th of January, in order to participate in the Christmas holidays, but adjourned without arriving at a determination on the subject. —In the House, the bill providing for the construction of twenty iron-clad steam gun-boats, to be built by contract or otherwise, as the Secretary of the Navy may deem best for the public interest, was debated and passed. The Consular and Diplomatic Appropriation bill was passed. A bill abolishing the franking privilege was introduced by Mr. Colfax, and the second Tuesday of January assigned for its consideration.

On Friday, December 20, in the Senate, petitions for the emancipation of the slaves of rebels, for an armory at Rock Island, for the establishment of a system to exchange prisoners of war, and for the expulsion of Senator Bright, of Indiana, were presented and appropriately referred. A bill appropriating one thousand dollars to the owners of the British ship Perthshire, as indemnity for damages by reason of illegal detention by the blockading squadron, was reported by the Committee on Foreign Affairs and laid on the table. The Judiciary Committee were discharged from further consideration of the subject of the abolition and reconstruction of the Supreme Court. Senator Saulsbury's resolution, calling for a copy of General Phelps's proclamation to the loyal citizens of the Southwest, and by what authority it was made, was taken up, briefly discussed, and laid out the table. Senator Willey, of Virginia, then resumed and concluded his speech on national affairs.—In the House, a bill appropriating $150,000 to complete the defenses of Washington was passed. Resolutions of the Kentucky Legislature in favor of relief to Ireland, in view of a probable famine there, were referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. A resolution that the Committee on the Judiciary be instructed to report a bill so amending the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 as to forbid the recapture or return of any fugitive from labor without satisfactory proof first being made that the claimant of such fugitive was loyal to the Government was adopted by a vote of 78 to 39. Mr. Lovejoy, of Illinois, offered a resolution instructing the Judiciary Committee to report a bill providing for the confiscation of all the property of all rebels, and their aiders and abettors, and the unconditional liberation of their slaves, and protection of said slaves from recapture by their masters. The proposition was laid on the table by two majority. Mr. Wilson, of Indiana, offered a resolution directing the Military Committee to report an additional article of war, prohibiting officers of the army from employing the force under their command to return fugitive slaves to their owners, and providing for the punishment of such officers by dismissal from service. No action was taken on the subject.

Both Houses adjourned till Monday.

On Monday, December 23, in the Senate, Senator Davis, the new Senator from Kentucky, appeared and took his seat. A memorial was presented from citizens of Boston, representing that the freedom of the press had been abridged, and asking relief. The bill making an appropriation of $1,500,000 for the construction of gun-boats for operations on the Western rivers was reported from the Committee on Finance, and passed. Senator King, of New York, offered a resolution, which was laid over, requesting the President to institute law proceedings against persons held in custody by Executive authority. Senator Wilson, of Massachusetts, introduced a bill providing against the return of fugitive slaves by the army, and for the punishment of any officer ordering it. The bill to increase the number of cadets at West Point from 170 to 350 was taken up and debated at considerable length, but was not definitely acted upon.—In the House, Mr. Vallandigham introduced a bill to enforce the writ of habeas corpus. It was referred to the Judiciary Committee. A resolution introduced by Mr. Wilson, of Iowa, on Friday, requesting the Military Committee to prepare a new article of war for the punishment of all officers using any forces under their command for the return of fugitive slaves was considered, and finally adopted. The bill to increase the duties on tea, coffee, and sugar was reported from the Committee on Ways and Means, and passed after some debate, 77 to 29. It was immediately sent to the Senate, and passed that body also. The resolution introduced by Mr. Morehead, of Pennsylvania, requesting the Judiciary Committee to report a bill debarring forever any rebel from holding office under the Constitution and laws of the United States, was passed.


The papers publish an interesting statement made by Lieutenant Hurd, of the Second Maine Regiment, who was wounded and taken prisoner at Bull Run, and has recently been released. He, together with Colonel Corcoran and some three hundred others were confined in the Charleston Jail at the time of the great conflagration there, and they only escaped from the jail, which was burned, by leaping from a window, no effort being made to save them by the Charlestonians. Colonel Corcoran, Lieutenant Hurd believes, escaped during the confusion, as he expressed his determination to try to reach Beaufort or the North, and has not since been heard of. According to Lieutenant Hurd's representations, the National prisoners now in the South are treated in the most brutal and unjustifiable manner.


A brisk and successful conflict took place last week on the lines in front of Washington. General McCall's brigade went out one morning on a foraging expedition toward Dranesville. His advance force, commanded by General Ord, consisted of four regiments of infantry, a regiment of Pennsylvania rifles, and Easton's battery. Near Dranesville a fire was opened on them by the rebels, under Colonel Forney, numbering four regiments of infantry

and one of cavalry, who were concealed in the bushes. The fire was returned from our rifles and the battery, and after an hour's fighting the rebels fled toward Fairfax Court house, leaving 150 killed and wounded behind them, together with two caissons of ammunition and a quantity of clothing and stores. General M'Call had ordered up General Reynolds to a point on the Leesburg turnpike to support General Ord, in anticipation of an attack ; but before Generals Reynolds and M'Call reached the field of action the rebels had been defeated by Easton's battery and the rifles of Colonel Kane's Pennsylvania regiment. Our loss was about six killed and twenty-seven wounded.


Dispatches received from General Pope state that on Wednesday he got between the enemy encamped in two bodies, one at a point near Chilhowee and another in Clinton and Henry counties; that they retreated upon his arrival toward Rose hill, leaving all their baggage and valuables in his possession. General Pope followed them up, but at Johnson, Bates County, they scattered in all directions. With a strong cavalry reconnoissance General Pope captured 150 rebels near Osceola, and at different other points about as many more. The whole country between Rose Hill and Grand River is now clear of rebels. Meanwhile another portion of his force, under Colonel Davis, surprised a second rebel camp, on the evening of the 18th, near Milford. The rebels, who were thirteen hundred strong, surrendered upon finding themselves surrounded. Among the prisoners were three colonels, seventeen captains, 1000 stand of arms, 1000 horses, sixty-five wagons, and a large quantity of supplies, tents, and baggage. The loss of the enemy is not known, but the Union loss was but two killed and eight wounded.


The rebels of General Price's army, in Missouri, made another raid upon the railroads on Friday night, destroying the track, water-tanks, wood-piles, and bridges on the North Missouri railroad for a distance of a hundred miles, commencing at a point eight miles south of Hudson, and continuing to destroy the rails and telegraph lines as far as Warrentown. It appears to have been a preconcerted movement, in which the inhabitants of that district participated, as no single party could have accomplished so disastrous a work in the short space of time which it took to complete the extensive damage.


The report of General Barnard, Chief Engineer of the Army, which has just been submitted to Congress by Secretary Cameron, shows that the defenses around Washington consist of forty-eight works, mounting three hundred guns; that the whole defensive perimeter occupied is about thirty-five miles—exceeding by several miles the famous field-works of Torres Vedras, the most extensive fortification of this kind known in modern times. General Barnard asks the appropriation of $150,000 front Congress for the completion of these works, as many of them were thrown up in the face of the enemy, and therefore require considerable labor to make them perfect. Secretary Cameron has also submitted to Congress a report in favor of the appropriation of $4,710,000 for putting our coast defenses in order, from the lakes round to San Francisco, a large portion of which is to be devoted to defenses of New York harbor.


The exchange of rebel prisoners has commenced. The bark Island City left Boston last week for Fortress Monroe with two hundred and fifty of the rebels captured at Hatteras, who have been released from captivity at Fort Warren by the Government.


Somewhat fuller particulars of the great fire in Charleston have reached us by way of Fortress Monroe. The Courier, published on the 14th, gives a list of between two and three hundred sufferers (property owners) by the fire, and estimates the loss at seven millions of dollars ; and the Mercury of the same date gives a list of five hundred and seventy-six buildings, which were totally destroyed on Wednesday alone. Five churches were burned, and various prominent public buildings used for secular purposes. The Richmond papers state that a Message was sent to the Confederate Congress, on Friday, by Jeff Davis, in which he recommended relief for the sufferers, and two hundred and fifty thousand dollars were accordingly voted the next day—an advance upon the claims of South Carolina upon the rebel Government.


It is not in the least improbable that the fate of Charleston may be shared before long by other Southern cities. The Montgomery (Alabama) Advertiser says that no less than seven attempts were made to set fire to that city within two days, and that two of them were partially successful.


The Atlantic, from Port Royal, brought the first installment of Sea Island cotton-150,000 pounds—and the intelligence that 400,000 pounds have already been secured by General Sherman. The expedition which was expected to leave for some point further South, under command of General Viele, has been abandoned for the present, the military and naval authorities having come to the conclusion that the force could be used to more advantage in the vicinity of Port Royal.


The New Orleans Delta of November 25 says that 1800 families were supplied at the free market on the preceding day—an increase of one hundred families during a single week.



THE consort of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, expired at noon of Sunday, 15th ult., his disease being gastric fever.


The Earl of Derby is said to have been consulted by the British Government, relative to the Trent affair. He is said to approve of its war policy, and to have counseled ship-owners to instruct outward-bound vessels to signalize any English vessels that war with America is probable.


The excitement in England continues unabated, as far as the expression of newspaper opinion and public speeches are concerned. The war preparations of the British Government show no signs of diminution. Transports were still fitting out, and troops were being ordered in increased numbers to Canada. The Black Prince and Chanticleer, the steamships Persia and Australasia, with 11,000 men, artillery, and stores, were under orders to sail on the 11th December. The Hero, carrying 80 guns, sailed on the 8th. The Sutlej, 51 guns, was ordered to start for Canada as soon as possible. The Fifth Dragoon Guards and the Grenadier Guards have received orders to proceed at once to Canada. The Admiralty Agent, Captain Williams, who was on board the Trent when Mason and Slidell were taken off, received a letter from the British Government approving of his conduct in protesting against the capture of the rebel emissaries.



General Scott, previous to embarking in the Arago, had an interview with Prince Napoleon, at which it is reported that the Prince stated that the Emperor had expressed a desire to bring about a pacific solution of the impending difficulty between England and America.



The Austrian papers are fearful that a war between England and America would remove the only obstacle in Europe to French ambition, and that France would begin war against Germany.




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