Civil War Overview
Civil War 1861
Civil War 1862
Civil War 1863
Civil War 1864
Civil War 1865
Civil War Battles
Robert E. Lee
Civil War Medicine
Civil War Links
Civil War Art
Republic of Texas
Civil War Gifts
Robert E. Lee Portrait
Page) who have looked death in the face
too often to despond now." Even the foot-pads of Hounslow Heath used to ride
gayly to the gallows with a nosegay in their button-holes. But they had merely
eased travelers of their purses, This man who speaks at Macon has headed an
insurrection which has saturated the land with innocent blood.
This is the man and this is the
cause to which the Chicago Convention invites the American people to surrender,
by voting for General MACPENDLETON. Let us stop fighting him, says the
Convention. Let us exhaust the resources of statemanship, says General MACP.
Let us put down the rebellion!
the American people will thunder on the 8th of November.
GENERAL DIX AND THE CHICAGO CONVENTION.
GENERAL Dix has written a letter
to a Union meeting in Philadelphia. It speaks very plainly of men and things,
and shows in the clearest light his own patriotic fidelity. He says that there
is but one question before the country—the steady prosecution of the war, or an
immediate cessation of hostilities. The latter course General Dix believes, in
common with all thoughtful men, would lead to a direct recognition of the
independence of the insurgent States. The General does not say, what, however,
he doubtless knows, that this is the intention of the movement for an armistice.
He adds, with inexorable logic:
"General McCLELLAN, the candidate
of the Chicago Convention, by force of his position, must he deemed to approve
all the declarations with which he was presented to the country, unless he
distinctly disavows them. Unfortunately, he is silent on the only question in
regard to which the people cared that he should speak. He does not say whether
he is in favor of a cessation of hostilities —the measure announced by those who
nominated him as the basis for action in case of his election—or whether he is
opposed to it. He does not meet the question with manly frankness, as I am
confident he would have done if he had taken counsel of his own instincts
instead of yielding to the subtle suggestions of politicians. The Chicago
Convention presented a distinct issue to the people. As the nominee of the
Convention he was bound to accept or repudiate it. He has done neither; and
whatever inference may be drawn from his silence, either the War Democrats or
the Peace Democrats must be deceived."
General Dix says in the plainest
words that the Chicago nomination was a juggle. For he knows, as we all do, that
the nomination of Mr. PENDLETON, and the fact that McCLELLAN stands with him and
by him, without a word of dissent from his known views and position, determines
perfectly the character of the ticket and the intentions of those who nominated
it. With the natural regret of a
Democrat who remembers other days in which, as
it seems to him, the party was true and not false to the national honor. he says
of its Chicago platform and nominations : "In this injustice to the country, and
to a great party identified with all that is honorable in our history, I can
have no part. I can only mourn over the reproach which has been brought upon it
by its leaders, "
There are thousands and thousands
of Conservative men like General Dix who did not vote for
Mr. LINCOLN in 1860,
and who, like him, can not vote for Mr. LINCOLN'S opponent in 1864. They believe
with him, and mark his concluding words:
" The only hope left to us lies
in the patriotism and disinterestedness of the great body of the people of all
parties, who are facing the enemies of their country on the battle-field, with a
heroism unsurpassed in any age, or who at home, amidst the prevailing tumult and
disorder, are working out, in the quiet pursuit of their varied occupations, the
momentous problem of the public prosperity and safety. When they shall send out
fresh from their own ranks new men to consult together for the salvation of all
that is most precious in government and society, there will be cause for hope
and faith in our redemption from impending evils and dangers; bearing, in the
mean time, as well as we can, the heavy burdens which have been cast upon us by
a quarter of a century of political mismanagement and public misrule."
GENERAL JOHN A. LOGAN.
JOHN A. LOGAN, the intimate
personal friend of Senator DOUGLAS, was a Democratic member of Congress in the
secession winter of 1860-'61. When his political friends from the South began to
talk of dividing the Union, LOGAN began to talk of maintaining it. When they
said they should set up for themselves, he answered, "If you resist the
Government of the United States the people of the Northwest will hew their way
through the Mississippi Valley to the Gulf." The Southern leaders began the war,
and JOHN A. LOGAN, like his fellow-Democrats, JOHN A. DIX and
BUTLER, went immediately into the service, and in the army, he, like them, has
made a most enviable name. In all
SHERMAN'S operations in Georgia there has been
no more gallant and victorious soldier than JOHN A. LOGAN.
Lately a MACPENDLETON committee
asked him to approve the Chicago platform. He wrote upon the back of his last
order congratulating his troops upon the Union victories the words " Excuse me,"
and sent it by mail. General LOGAN says that at Atlanta he heard but one officer
declare for MACPENDLETON; and that the private soldiers do not favor the
election of a man who, according to the London Times, first discovered that his
countrymen were whipped. The General is now stumping Illi-
nois for Mr. LINCOLN. He makes
the most eloquent and generous appeals to his old political friends. He save to
them, and to all Americans who love the honor of their country :
" There are now only two
parties—those who support and encourage the rebels, and those who oppose them.
Honest men may be deluded with the Opposition, but the tendency of supporting
the Chicago nominations is to strengthen the rebellion."
And again this patriot, who shows
his faith by his works, says
" I would as soon vote for JEFF
DAVIS as PENDLETON ; and I could net hesitate a moment as between candidates
pledged to the Union, the Constitution, and unrelenting war while armed
rebellion confronts the Government, and candidates who demand an immediate
cessation of hostilities and peace at any price."
Is General MACPENDELTON a better
Democrat than General JOHN A. LOGAN ?
IF there has been a more faithful
servant of the rebellion any where than Mr. LAZARUS M. POWELL, Senator from
Kentucky—in Washington, not in Richmond—we have not known him. This is the
gentleman who accused the Administration of arbitrarily suppressing free speech;
who grew pathetic over the terrible despotism that had gagged American citizens,
and, in fact, fiercely vituperated the Government which had exercised unusual,
but not unconstitutional, powers in the midst of civil war. When he sat down Mr.
HARLAN read from the journal of the Senate six years ago the record of a vote,
by which it appeared that this gentleman, so very sensitive to the suppression
of free speech in the midst of civil war intended to aid the enemy, deliberately
voted against a proposition to secure free speech, in time of profound peace, to
citizens of the United States!
This gentleman, of course,
shudders at the enormous crimes of the Administration, and supports the Chicago
principles and candidates. Mr. POWELL says, with the same frankness with which
Mr. PENDLETON declares that he is a disunionist, and has never voted a, man or
dollar for this abolition war :
" As a peace man who has opposed
this war from the beginning, never having voted a man or a dollar to carry it
on, I never will occupy the petition of one approving of the war or of the
unjust nets connected with it; but I believe that General McCLELLAN, as the
nominee of this Convention, should receive my support, and he will have it--my
scene, hearty, zealous support."
MR. CHARLES DICKENS has been
noted for a fatal foreboding faculty in his writings. The catastrophe of a
falling house in one of his novels ran so closely on an actual calamity of the
sort in London that carping critics declared he owed his inspiration to the
"accident" columns of the papers. His disavowal on that occasion will find
confirmation strong in the minds of the readers of the September number of " Our
Mutual Friend." The very words which he puts into the mouth of the old woman who
dreads the workhouse so strongly, so fiercely, find a living presentiment in the
subsequently reported case of the unfortunate Miss Jeffreys, whose inquest has
lately, we feel sure, struck a pang to the hearts of its readers. Fact is not
stranger or stronger than fiction here—they are curiously at all-fours with each
other, and point to the present poor-law as a blot on England in the sight of
God and man.
IN the Norwegiau mines a singular
and striking custom is observed in paying the weekly wages of the men there
employed. They all present themselves on the Saturday evening to the inspector,
who hears from each man the number of hours he has worked on the successive days
of , the week past, compares the total given with his own notes on the subject,
and having settled the amount, calls the miner, bids him turn round, and writes
in white chalk upon his black back the sum due to him. Thus mysteriously
numbered, the man has to go to the cashier, who also turns him round to look it
the figures, and pays him without his having a word to say.
The method is an expeditions
one—two or three strokes of chalk settle the matter; it is prudent, for the
miner has no chance of altering a figure in his own favor; and economical, for a
brush removes all trace of the inscription, and the same black jacket is ready
for the next Saturday.
GENERAL BANKS was once a poor boy
among the lofty mountains of New England. He was a common workman in a factory.
He tells us that one morning, as the factory was lighted up before light in the
early dawn, and just as objects could be seen out of the door, he was looking
out of the window, and saw an object moving along slowly on the ice that covered
the river. While watching it, suddenly the ice broke, and the dark object went
down. In an instant he thought it must be a man. So, calling a companion, he ran
down the stairs and out toward the object. He had the forethought to snatch up a
plank, which he carried on his shoulder. When they had reached the place they
found it was a colored man who had broken through the ice and was struggling for
his life. They thrust out the plank. The poor fellow seized it with both hands.
" Now hold on, Tim, and we'll
pull you out."
So they palled and got him almost
out when of he slipped and went down again!
On his coming up they pushed the
end of the plank to him again, and cried,
" Now, Tim, hold on with all your
"Indeed I will, Sir,"
Again they pulled, and up he
came, almost out, when off he slipped, and down he went. They felt that the
third time must be the turning point. It was now life or death. Poor Tim looked
as it he thought so too, For the third time the plank was pushed out, when the
negro cried cut-
"For God's sake, gentlemen, give
me the wooden end of the plank!" They saw instantly that they had been giving
him the end covered all over with ice, and no wonder he could not cling to it:
They now gave him what he called the " wooden end," and drew him out in safety.
THE reason the dying never weep
is because the manufactures of life have stopped forever; every gland of the
system has ceased its functions. In almost all diseases the liver is the first
that stops work; one by one the others follow, and all the fountains of life are
at length dried up—there is no secretion any where. So the eye in death weeps
not—not that all affection is dead to the heart—because there is not a tear-drop
in it any more than there is moisture on the lip. It is a striking
characteristic of that terrible disease, the cholera, that the patient, however
suddenly seized, never sheds a tear, even though surrounded by weeping friends.
The feature of the diseases
is the suspension of the
secretion of the system and the most active excretory work, by which the body is
drained of its fluids.
THE DOGS OF ST. BERNARD-- One of
the most remarkable of these noble dogs was Barry, who is known to have saved
the lives of forty individuals. Besides his cask around his neck he carried a
warm garment on his back; and if he failed to arouse the traveler into some
sense of life by his warm tongue and breath he would race back to the house and
bring somebody to the rescue. One day Barry found a poor boy asleep and almost
frozen to death in the celebrated glacier of Belsore. Barry warmed the boy,
licked him, woke him up, gave him something to drink, and carried him on his
back to the monastery. The joy of the poor parents who can describe ? After a
life of service Barry was sent down the mountains to a warm and comfortable
home, where he passed the rest of his days in honorable quiet. At his death his
body was carefully buried, and his skin was stuffed, and there he may he seen in
the Museum of Berne standing as large as life, with his collar and bottle round
his neck, ready to start on his labors of love.
The dogs are short-lived. Many
die from disease of the lungs, and others are lost in the falling of avalanches
and other accidents. Neither men nor dogs can long stand the severe climate and
thin air of so great a height. Both are often obliged to go down into the valley
below and recruit amidst milder scenes. The leader of the pack now to named
Plato, a brace, big creature, doing deeds of usefulness and valor which might
put to blush the life of many a one of human understanding who never risked a
thought, much less a deed, to help his fellow men.
FAMILLAR and simple as singing,
or music in general, seems to be, it is, if we analyze it, one of the most
wonderful phenomena. What we hear when listening to a chorus or a symphony is a
commotion of elastic air, of which the wildest sea would give a very inadequate
image. The lowest tone which the ear perceives is due to about thirty vibrations
in one second, the highest to about four thousand. Consider then what happens in
a presto, when thousands of voices and instruments are simultaneously producing
waves of air, each wave crossing the other, not only like the surface waves of
the water, but like spherical bodies, and, as it would seem, without any
perceptible disturbance. Consider that each
tone is accompanied by secondary tones; that each instrument has its peculiar
timbre, due to secondary vibrations ; and lastly, let us remember that all this
cross fire of waves, all this whirlpool of sound, is moderated by laws which
determine what we call harmony, and by certain traditions or habits which
determine what we call melody—both these elements being absent in the songs of
birds. That all this must be reflected, like a microscopic photograph, on the
two small organs of bearing, end there excite, not only perception, but
perception followed by a new feeling even more mysterious, which we call either
pleasure or pain, and it will be clear that we are surrounded on all sides by
miracles, transcending all that we are accustomed to call miraculous, and yet
disclosing, to the genius of a Euler or a Newton laws which admit of the most
minute mathematical determination.
IN digging at the city of Modena,
in Italy, and about four miles around it, when the workmen arrive at the depth
of sixty-three feet they come to a bed of chalk, which they bore with an anger
five feet deep. They then with draw from the pit before the anger is removed,
and upon its extraction the water bursts up through the aperture with great
violence, and quickly fills this new made well, which continues full, and is
affected neither by rain nor droughts. But that which to most remarkable is,
that at the depth of fourteen feet are found the remains of an ancient city
paved streets, houses, floors, and different pieces of mosaic. Underneath is a
soft earth made up chiefly of vegetable matters ; and at twenty-six feet deep
large trees entire, such as walnut trees, with the walnuts still on the stein,
and the leaves and branches in a perfect state of preservation. At twenty-eight
feet a soft chalk is found, mixed with a vast quantity of shells ; and this bed
is eleven feet hick. Under it vegetables are found again with leaves and
branches of trees, as before.
THE " west shaft" at the Hoosac
tunnel is now sunk about 320 feet, and the temperature at the bottom during the
warmest day is 35 degrees. The depth of water in the mountain is about nine
feet, and the engine employed at the shaft removes 25 gallons each revolution.
The engine also works a fan by which the men are supplied with air. The number
of men employed on the west side of the mountain is 350.
A SINGULAR trial lately took
place at Madrid. A soldier was cited before the Police Court for having stolen a
gold cup of considerable value which had been placed as a votive offering on one
of the numerous altars dedicated in that city to the Virgin. The soldier at once
explained that he and his family being in great distress, he had appealed to the
Holy Mother for assistance, and that while engaged in prayer and contemplation
of the four millions' worth of jewels displayed on her brocaded petticoat, she
stooped, and, with a charming smile, handed him the golden cup. This explanation
was received by the Court in profound silence, and the ease handed over to the
Ecclesiastical Commission, to whom it at once occurred that, however
inconvenient the admission of the miracle might be, it would he highly impolitic
to dispute its possibility. They therefore gave the cup to the soldier, at the
same time solemnly warning him for the future against similar favors from images
of any kind, and impressing him with the conviction that the Virgin required
profound silence from him as a proof of his gratitude.
A NEW attraction has been added
to the London Crystal Palace in the form of a " Pneumatic Railway." The
application of atmospheric gravity in a substitute for steam has long been a
problem which speculative men of science have regarded as desirable for
solution, and many plans have been tried which have been more or less
successful. In the grounds of the Crystal Palace a tunnel has been constructed
six hundred yards in length, and along this a train of carriages is hurled by
the mere force of atmospheric pressure. A description of the mechanical details
would be prolix, and perhaps, If it were attempted, might not be satisfactory.
Suffice it to say, that in this tunnel or tube, six hundred yards in length, a
heavy train can be blown Along at a good speed, and sucked back at a similar
speed, and that the experiment is very interesting, and may be very valuable.
Whether the result will be the supercession of steam by atmospheric pressure is
a problem which time alone will show.
ROMISH miracles continue to
multiply: the following is the latest: A farmer of the district of
Piancastagnaio, near Florence, having openly declared that the cure of his arm
from long standing disease was attributable to the miraculous influence of the
Madonna, who, he asserted, had
appeared to him bodily on the
window panes of his own abode, the rumor of this "miracle" attracted crowds of
devout worshipers to the spot. There, facing the small dwelling, with foreheads
bared to the stun, the prostrate pilgrims did not fail to see the vision of the
Madonna, angels, saints, and even the Almighty himself. The police thought to
dispel attention by removing the panes from the windows and substituting instead
a couple of deal boards. But the visionaries saw the same sights and described
the same personages even after the planks had been put up.
THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST RICHMOND.
THE positions gained by Butler's
and Meade's armies on the right and left flanks have been substantially
maintained. The enemy has been compelled to assume the offensive, but in none of
his attacks has he succeeded in gaining any advantage, while his loss has been
greater than ours. The actions since Grant began to move may be summed up as
Thursday, September 29, the Tenth
and Eighteenth Corps attacked and carried the outermost intrenchments of
Richmond, near Chapin's Farm and at New Market Heights. Considerable loss
attended the engagements, especially in the unsuccessful attempt to carry Fort
Gilmer and Laurel Hill.
0n the same day Kautz moving
around to the right
and up the Darbytown or Central
Road, made an important reconnoissance, which disclosed the remarkable fact that
the enemy had on that road no formidable defenses until within four miles of
Richmond. Indeed, Kautz, in his reconnoissance, passed even this line without
resistance, and reached the toll gate only two or three miles south-east of
Richmond. Terry's (First) division of the Tenth Corps was sent, while the fight
at Laurel hill was going on, to the support of Kautz. At sunset this advanced
column fell back again, the cavalry maintaining its position near the Central
Road, on the extreme right. The extreme left also was refused, as the rebel gun
boats on the dames commanded the advanced position in that direction; but all
the fortifications taken were held and strengthened.
On Friday, the 30th, the enemy,
strongly reinforced, attacked the position and attempted to break the Federal
lines where the Tenth and Eighteenth Corps joined. Two assaults were made and
repulsed. Here the rebel lose was large--not less than 1000 men. 200 rebels,
including 20 officers, were captured.
On Saturday it rained, and the
state of the roads prevented any operations with infantry. But Terry and Kautz,
on the right, pushed out to and up the Darbytown Road on another reconnoissance—a
movement which was necessary to guard against a flank movement of the enemy.
It was evident that
next attack on our extreme right, and so it proved. Two divisions confronting
Butler's left at Chapin's Farm were transferred to the Darbytown Road. On
Friday, October 7, an attack was made at this point early in the morning, and
Kautz, opposed to a force of four to five thousand men, and having less than two
thousand, was compelled to fall back. In retiring he passed through swampy
ground, and left behind him eight rifled guns. His loss was about 300 men. The
rebels pursued, and attacked
Birney's line. On the right of this line was
Terry's division, two brigades of which were advanced a short distance to the
right of their breast-works, where they awaited the enemy. A deliberate fire put Hoke and Field's lines in confusion, but they reformed again and made a fresh
attack, and were a second time repulsed. Throwing up some intrenchments the
rebels moved further round, as if to flank Birney's right. At this juncture
Terry advanced upon their rear, and flanking them out of their position drove
them from the field. The rebel loss, according to Butler's estimate, was 1200.
The Federal loss was 400, and the eight guns. The position which had been
yielded was more strongly held after the battle. The rebel papers admit the loss
of General Gregg, of Texas, killed; and Brigadier-General Bratton severely
Meade advanced, September 30,
and carried a fortified position at Peebles's Farm, some distance west of the
Weldon Road. The enemy then fell back on his intrenchments covering the
Southside Railroad. The Ninth Corps had the advance as Meade followed the enemy
up to his works. An attack was made, which proved unsuccessful; and the rebels,
making it counter-charge, penetrated between the Fifth and Ninth Carps, and
captured a large number of prisoners.
On Saturday, October 1, an attack
was made by the enemy on Ayres's division of the Fifth Corps. The rebels were
severely repulsed. On the afternoon Hampton's rebel
cavalry attacked Gregg, and
was driven back with great less.
THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY.
Not driven back by any reverse,
but in subserviency to
General Grant's plans against Richmond, Sheridan is
returning down the Valley. On the 7th his command had reached Woodstock. Before
retiring he had destroyed the grain and forage in the vicinity ; and he says
that, "In moving back to that point [Woodstock] the whole country from the Blue
ridge to the North Mountain has been made entirely untenable for a rebel army."
We make the following extracts from his dispatch:
"I have destroyed over two
thousand barns filled with wheat and hay and farming implements, over seventy
mills filled with flour and wheat ; have driven in front of the army over four
thousand head of stock, and have killed and issued to the troops not less than
three thousand sheep.
" This destruction embraces the
Luray Valley and Little Fort Valley, as well as the main Valley.
" A large number of horses have
been obtained, a proper estimate of which I can not now make.
" Lieutenant John R. Meigs, my
engineer officer, was murdered beyond Harrisonburg, near Dayton. For this
atrocious act all the houses within an area of five miles were burned.
" Since I came into the Valley
from Harper's Ferry every train, every small party, and every straggler, has
been bushwhacked by the people, many of whom have protection-passes from
commanders who have been hitherto in that Valley.
" The people here are getting
sick of the war. Hereto-fore they have had no reason to complain, because they
have been living in great abundance."
A later dispatch, dated October
9, at Strasburg, gives information of an important victory over the enemy's
cavalry on the 8th. Says Sheridan :
" In coming back to this point I
was not followed up until late yesterday, when a large force of cavalry appeared
in my rear. I then halted my command to offer battle by attacking the enemy. I
became satisfied that it was only all the rebel cavalry of the Valley, commanded
by Rosser, and directed Torbert to attack at daylight this morning, and finish
this ' savior of the Valley.' The attack was handsomely made.
the Third Cavalry Division, charged on the back road, and Merritt, commanding
the First, Cavalry Division, on the Strasburg pike. Merritt captured five pieces
of artillery. Custer captured six pieces of artillery with caissons, battery
forge, etc. The two divisions captured forty-seven wagons, ambulances, etc.
Among the wagons captured are the head-quarters wagons of Rosser, Lomax, Wickman,
and Colonel Pollard. The number of prisoners will he about 330.
"The enemy after being charged by
our gallant cavalry were broken and ran. They were followed by our men on the
jump 26 miles through Mount Jackson, and across the north fork of the
General Hood having dispatched a
large force to make a detour across the Chattahoochee and on
Sherman's rear, the
latter sent General Thomas to attend to Forrest, taking upon himself the
responsibility of attending to Hood's flank movements. Forrest has been
compelled to recross the Tennessee; and an important victory was gained by
Sherman over the rebels in his rear at Allatoons. The following is General
" I reached the Kenesaw Mountain
October 6, just in time to witness at a distance the attack on Allatoona. I had
anticipated this attack, and had ordered from Rome General Corse with
reinforcements. The attack was met and repulsed, the enemy losing some 200 dead,
and more then 1000 wounded and prisoners. Our loss was about 700 in the
aggregate. The enemy captured the small garrisons at Big Shanty and Ackworth,
and burned about seven miles of our railroad; but we have at Allatoona and
Atlanta an abundance of provisions. Hood, observing our approach, has moved
rapidly back to Dallas and Van Wert, and I am watching him in case he tries to
reach Kingston or Rome. Atlanta is perfectly secure to us, and this army is
better off than in camp."
THE INVASION OF MISSOURI.
Brigadier-General Ewing has
arrived at Rolla. We are able to give a detailed account of his defense of Pilot
Knob. He reached that post September 25, and with a garrison of 1000 men
undertook to hold his ground against Price's far superior force. The position is
entirely indefensible, as it is surrounded on all sides by elevations which
command it. General Price attempted an advance into the valley, and was terribly
beaten, but gaining the mountain sides, he compelled Ewing to evacuate. On the
way to Rolla Ewing was surrounded, and came near being captured. He escaped,
however, by the aid of forces sent to his assistance. On the 7th the rebels made
a demonstration against Jefferson City, but this proved only a feint to occupy
our forces while they crossed the Osage River. During the night they pressed
westward. Price's army is estimated at 20,000 strong, with from 16 to 25 cannon.
On the morning of the 8th General Pleasanton arrived, and assuming command
followed the rebels with about 8000 cavalry.