Sherman's Atlanta Campaign

 

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Civil War Harper's Weekly, October 1, 1864

This site features our extensive collection of original Harper's Weekly newspapers from the Civil War. These newspapers contain incredible descriptions of the important events of the war, and illustrations of the battles created by war correspondents embedded with the troops.

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General Warren's Lines

General Warren's Lines

Discussion of 1864 Presidential Election

Sherman's Atlanta Campaign

Sherman's Atlanta Campaign

American Flag

American Flag

Douglas Monument

Senator Douglas Monument

Sherman Burning Georgia Railroads

Sherman Burning Georgia Railroads

Sherman's March Georgia

Sherman's Georgia March

Sherman Atlanta

Sherman's Attack of Atlanta

Halt

The Halt

Prisoners

Prisoners

cartoon

Political Cartoon

 

 

 

 

 

OCTOBER 1, 1864.]

HARPER'S WEEKLY.

627

(Previous Page) been conspicuous for resisting every measure necessary for carrying on the war loudly electioneers for him. The presumption therefore is, that the rebels would not feel very sore or greatly aggrieved by his nomination. And, despite the assurance of Mr. BELMONT, they do not. Speaking of Mr. LINCOLN'S possible defeat the Richmond Examiner says :

" A new party will succeed to power, which will sheathe the sword and hold out the olive branch."

Again :

"If the Administration fails the war will fail....because a war administration, employing the full resources and power of its country, when its finances were unimpaired and its resources unexhausted, will have failed to subdue the South ; and because the inference will be irresistible that what could not be accomplished by a war administration in the full vigor of Federal resources, can not be by a peace administration succeeding to power after those resources had been materially reduced."

Again :

" The Democratic party would have been forever obliged to General HOOD if he had managed to hold Atlanta for another fortnight."

The Atlanta Register, speaking of the Chicago party several months since, says :

" Meanwhile if they will use the ballot-box against Mr. LINCOLN, while we use the cartridge-box, each side will be a helper to the other."

Even before the Chicago Convention had declared for submission to the rebellion the Richmond Examiner said :

" A Democratic victory at the North would be a subject of much gratification."

Again :

" In one way, and one way only, can we influence the result, but that is a most potential method, it is by striking some quick and fierce blows now, both by land and see."

In other words, national defeat and humiliation insures the success of the Chicago party. An army letter in the New York Herald says :

"Mr. BARROWS while working outside the stockade had frequent conversations with rebel officers   The prevailing belief is that the Democrats will elect a President that will help us.'"

The Examiner of the 8th September says :

" Every defeat of LINCOLN'S forces. . . .inures to the advantage of McCLELLAN   The influence of the South,
more powerful in the shock of battle than when throwing her minority vote in an electoral college, will be cast in favor of McCLELLAN by this indirect yet efficacious means."

These are but a few of the words of the Southern leaders. Do such expressions show, as Mr. BELMONT declares, that those leaders " fear and dread" the success of the Chicago candidates ? " Here and there are to be found," says a leading rebel journal, " one PIERCE, one VALLANDIGHAM, one WOOD, and two SEYMOURS like the five just men in Sodom." Well, these five just men earnestly support PENDLETON and McCLELLAN, and the sixth just man, Mr. BELMONT, gravely says that the rebels "fear and dread" their success. But if the success of PENDLETON, VALLANDIGHAM, WOOD, McCLELLAN, and the SEYMOURS, inspires " fear and dread" among the rebels, what will be their emotions at that of LINCOLN, GRANT, JOHNSON, SHERIDAN, FARRAGUT, and SHERMAN?

SHERIDAN AND THE SHENANDOAH.

GENERAL PHILIP SHERIDAN and his gallant officers and men do not seem. anxious for "an immediate cessation of hostilities." They are of the opinion of General Dix, that if any man pull down the American flag, or resists with arms the American Government, he is to be shot upon the spot, and is not to be blarneyed with under the shade of olive branches. We can assure the brave boys in the Shenandoah Valley that they made a whole country happy on Tuesday the 20th September, when the news of their victory came a whole country except those who, two years ago, invoked the interference of England, and who now, in company with the British aristocracy, are in despair over our national successes.

But the great multitude of loyal American citizens hail with delight the triumph of SHERIDAN and the Army of the Shenandoah, while they and their children will forever hold in sacred remembrance and honor the heroic RUSSELL and his companions, who have fought their last fight, and have died that their country may live. Peace to the soldiers' memory! A regenerated nation shall be their monument.

The importance of the Shenandoah victory will be soon perceived. It shuts up the Richmond granary. It disposes of the force LEE was able to send to protect it. He must, therefore, either send another force to dispute SHERIDAN'S advance to Lynchburg—or he must come out and give GRANT battle—or he must evacuate Virginia. The genius of GRANT is once more illustrated by his chosen General, and we hope that SHERIDAN will do with Winchester what SHERMAN is doing with Atlanta, make it a fortified base of operations.

There is no need of pointing the moral of this victory. Every body felt it when the news came. There is a party and there are candidates whose chances of success were diminished by it, and will be further diminished by every victory of our arms ; a party and candidates whose chances would be increased if news came that FARRAGUT had been forced away from before Mobile, and SHERMAN from Atlanta, and SHERIDAN from Winchester, and that GRANT

had been driven to the James. Are those the party and the candidates which the American people will delight to honor ? They will answer for themselves on the 8th of November

THE TWO DROMIOS.

ON Saturday, September 17, the Honorable ROBERT C. WINTHROP of Boston, who has always refused to associate with Senator WILSON of Massachusetts, came all the way to New York to strike hands and sit upon the same platform with the Honorable FERNANDO WOOD and Captain ISAIAH RENDERS of New York. Mr. WINTHROP made a speech for McCLELLAN and PENDLETON, and kicked at the Chicago Platform. Mr. WOOD made a speech for McCLELLAN and PENDLETON, and kicked at the letter of acceptance. Mr. WINTHROP and Mr. WOOD will vote together for McCLELLAN and PENDLETON. Which is which, and who is who ? Is it Mr. WINTHROP or Mr. WOOD who would determine the policy of their candidates if they could be elected?

How can Mr. WINTHROP seriously believe that he serves the Union better by voting for Mr. PENDLETON, an avowed disunionist and State sovereignty advocate, than his friend Mr. EDWARD EVERETT serves it by voting for ANDREW JOHNSON ? Mr. WINTHROP by his present course deliberately deserts DANIEL WEBSTER for JOHN C. CALHOUN.

" PEACE."

WE invite thoughtful citizens to ponder these words of Mr. JOHN McKEON, an ardent "peace" supporter of the PENDLETON-McCLELLAN nomination. " So sure as ABE LINCOLN is re-elected there will be a bloody revolution North and West."

Who will make it ? The friends of the successful candidates, or the friends of " peace" who import carbines and pistols to resist the Government, who regret that they can not send arms to be used against loyal citizens, and who vote for McCLELLAN and PENDLETON ?

We are, then, to understand, from past experience and from present threats, that if the Chicago party does not elect its candidates, it will take up arms. The Chicago party thus proclaims itself to be the Mexican party. Is that the platform which honest citizens wish to stand upon ? Mr. JOHN McKEON forgets that the days of Plantation rule are past. The American people, citizens and soldiers, are not to be scared into voting for submission to JEFFERSON DAVIS, WIGFALL, & Co. by any such crack of the whip as this. YANCEY frayed out the snapper of that whip when he made his last speech in New York four years ago.

CAMPAIGN PICTURES.

THE large picture in this paper of the soldiers and sailors rallying around the flag in the hands of the Constitutional standard-bearer is an argument which no man can escape. What better illustration of the simple issue of this election could any Union Club hang upon its walls ? What more inspiring document could any Committee circulate?

And so with Mr. NAST'S " Compromise with the South," published in the Weekly of September 3. It has already attracted universal attention, for it shows at a glance exactly what the Chicago party believes to be the condition of the country. It is the most complete commentary upon the principles which the Chicago candidates represent, and which, we believe, the people will repel with as overwhelming and just an indignation as they did the rebel shot at Sumter.

DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE.

SHERIDAN'S VICTORY.

GENERAL GRANT'S visit to Sheridan was of no small importance, being the prelude to me of the most important and decisive victories of the war. Sheridan for the past few weeks, keeping hold of the railroad from Harper's Ferry to Winchester, has held a position the advantage of which would become immediately apparent the moment Early should make his expected movement toward Martinsburg. At the latter point on Sunday, the 18th, Averill's command was situated, and was there attacked by Gordon's division of Early's army. Gordon was driven back a short distance to Darkesville. Sheridan's opportunity had now offered ; he immediately broke camp and determined the next morning to cross the Opequan, on the Winchester and Berryville pike, with his entire command, including the Army of Western Virginia under Crook, which was to march from its encampment near Summit Point and effect a junction with the main column before crossing. At daylight, on the 19th, Wilson's cavalry crossed in advance and gained a position for the infantry on the Winchester side. The Sixth Corps was the first across and waited two hours for the Nineteenth, which was delayed. This delay gave Early time to get Gordon's command from Bunker Hill, a little south of Darkesville, and bring it up to support Breckinridge, Rhodes, and Ramseur. On the arrival of the Nineteenth the two corps advanced up to the enemy's lines, which had been formed in a position to resist Sheridan's advance. At first the rebel army, already formed and with artillery in position, had a great advantage, and the advanced line of the Federal army suffered considerable losses, and was driven back a short distance and in some confusion. Order was soon restored, however; the lines reformed and the artillery got in position, and after an obstinate fight the lost position was regained. Crook's army, which had been held in reserve, was now brought up on the right, and the two armies of the Shenandoah now confronted each other in full strength, as Averill's command, with Torbert's, having been engaged all day at a point some distance north of the main attack, now came up on the right. It was 3 o'clock P.M. General Crook had formed on Sheridan's right and rear. The Federal line, three miles long, then advanced under cover of a tremendous artillery fire ; and shortly after this advance the cavalry on the right were led by their masterly leaders is an impetuous charge which broke the ranks of

the rebel army. In this charge between seven and eight hundred prisoners were taken.

The enemy routed and in confusion fled toward Winchester, through which and beyond they were pursued by the victorious cavalry. The rebel loss is roughly estimated at between 4000 and 5000 killed and wounded, and 5000 captured. The rebel Generals Rhodes and Wharton are reported killed, and Generals Bradley T. Johnson, Gordon, York, and Godman wounded. Fifteen battle-flags were captured and five guns. The Federal loss is estimated at 2000; among the killed is General David Russell, First Division, Sixth Corps. General M'Intosh, First Brigade, Third Cavalry Division, was wounded, also General Upton of Sixth Corps.

THE VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN.

From the armies of the James there is little to record. On the 16th the rebels captured about 2500 head of cattle near Harrison's Landing. These were intended for the army on the north bank of the James. Gregg's cavalry was sent in pursuit, but was unable to recover the stolen property.

GENERAL SHERMAN.

Sherman's army is concentrated at Atlanta. This city is to he made a grand military post. All the inhabitants, loyal and disloyal, are ordered to leave, and a truce of ten days, commencing September 14, has been established to carry out the order. The following is Sherman's congratulatory order, issued to his troops September 8:

HEAD-QUARTERS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI,

IN THE FIELD, ATLANTA, GA., Sept. 8, 1864.

Special Field-orders, No. 68:

The officers and soldiers of the armies of the Cumberland, Ohio, and Tennessee have already received the thanks of the Nation through its President and Commander-in-Chief; and now it remains only for him who has been with you from the beginning, and who intends to stay all the time, to thank the officers and men for their intelligence, fidelity, and courage displayed in the campaign of Atlanta.

On the first of May our armies were lying in garrison, seemingly quiet from Knoxville, and our enemy lay behind his rocky-faced barrier at Dalton, proud, defiant, and exulting. He had had time since Christmas to recover from his discomfiture on the Mission Ridge, with his ranks filled, and a new Commander-in-Chief, second to none of the Confederacy in reputation for skill, sagacity, and extreme popularity. All at once our armies assumed life and action, and appeared before Dalton. Threatening Rocky Face, we threw ourselves upon Resaca, and the rebel army only escaped by the rapidity of its retreat, aided by the numerous roads with which he was familiar, and which were strange to us. Again be took post in Allatoona, but we gave him no rest, and by a circuit toward Dallas and subsequent movement to Ackworth, we gained the Allatoona Pass. Then followed the eventful battles about Kenesaw, and the escape of the enemy across Chattahoochee River.

The crossing of the Chattahoochee and breaking of the Augusta Road was most handsomely executed by us, and will be studied as an example in the art of war. At this stage of our game our enemies became dissatisfied with their old and skillful commander, and selected one more bold and rash. New tactics were adopted. Hood first boldly and rapidly, on the 20th of July, fell on our right at Peachtree Creek, and lost. Again, on the 22d, he struck our extreme left, and was severely punished ; and finally again, on the 28th, he repeated the attempt on our right, and that time must have been satisfied, for since that date he has remained on the defensive. We slowly and gradually drew our lines from Atlanta, feeling for the railroads which supplied the Rebel army and made Atlanta a place of importance. We must concede to our enemy that he met these efforts patiently and skillfully, but at last he made the mistake we had waited for so long, and sent his cavalry to our rear, far beyond the reach of recall. Instantly our cavalry was on his only remaining road, and we followed quickly with our principal army, and Atlanta fell into our possession as the fruit of well-concerted measures, backed by a brave and confident army. This completed the grand task which had been assigned us by our Government, and your General again repeats his personal and official thanks to all the officers and men composing this army, for the indomitable courage and perseverance which alone could give success.

We have beaten our enemy on every ground he has chosen, and have wrested from him his own Gate City, where were located his foundries, arsenals, and workshops, deemed secure on account of their distance from our base, and the seemingly impregnable obstacles supervening. Nothing is impossible to an army like this, determined to vindicate a Government which has rights wherever our flag has once floated, and is resolved to maintain them at any and all costs.

In our campaign many, yea, very many of our noble and gallant comrades have preceded us to our common destination, the grave; but they have left the memory of deeds on which a nation can build a proud history. McPherson, Harker, McCook, and others dear to us all, are now the binding links in our minds that should attach more closely together the living, who have to complete the task which still lies before no in the dim future. I ask all to continue, as they have so well begun, the cultivation of the soldierly virtues that have ennobled our own and other countries. Courage, patience, obedience to the laws and constituted authorities of our Government; fidelity to our trusts and good feeling among each other; each trying to excel the other in the presence of those high qualities, and it will then require no prophet to fore-tell that our country will in time emerge from this war, purified by the fires of war, and worthy of its great founder—Washington.   IV. T. W. T. SHERMAN,

Major-General Commanding. The following dispatch was sent by General Grant to General Sherman in answer to the latter's dispatch announcing the capture of Atlanta:

CITY POINT, VA., Sept. 4, 1864—9 P.M. Major-General Sherman:

I have just received your dispatch announcing the capture of Atlanta. In honor of your great victory I have just ordered a salute to be fired with shotted guns from every battery bearing upon the enemy. The salute will be fired within an hour amidst great rejoicing.

U. S. GRANT, Lieutenant-General.

THE MEXICANS AT BROWNSVILLE.

A somewhat remarkable episode of the war took place lately on the Rio Grande. September 6 the Imperialists moved upon Matamoras. They were met at White Ranche by General Cortinas and severely repulsed. The French fell back and Cortinas pursued. Brownsville is just opposite Matamoras in Texas, and was held by a Confederate force under Ford, who sent troops across the river to operate against Cortinas in the rear. Cortinas, disposing of the French army in his front, turned upon the Confederates and drove them to Brownsville: pursuing them across the river, he occupied Brownsville and erected the United States colors.

THE DEMOCRATIC STATE CONVENTION.

The Democratic State Convention met September 15 at Albany and nominated Horatio Seymour for Governor, and D. R. Floyd Jones for Lieutenant-Governor. The resolutions strongly indorsed the Chicago platform and the candidates of the Chicago Convention.

FOREIGN NEWS.

SOUTH AMERICA.

THE revolutionary movements in Ecuador against the Government of President Garcia, Morino, and General Flores, still continued at the latest advises. Several of the provinces were in full revolt. The fact that the Spanish Government intends to hold the Chincha Islands till Peru has complied with her demands in relation to the Palambo affair, and disavowed its complicity in the alleged attempt to poison and rob its Minister of his dispatches had caused among all classes in Peru the highest indignation. The Peruvian Secretary of State rejects the propositions of Spain, in a circular to its diplomatic agents abroad, but there are indications that his Government will, in the end, be compelled to yield. A plan had been matured to blow up the Spanish flag-ship.

INTERESTING ITEMS.

IN the October number of Harper's New Monthly Magazine, just published, Miss Harriet Prescott has contributed one of her most powerful stories, "Mrs. Gisborn's Way." It has unusual dramatic force; the painting is, as it always should be, made subordinate to the movement of the story. It is possible that some of our readers will think the severe sufferings of Mrs. Considine and her little ones overdrawn. But this will not seem so to those who remember the severity of last winter in the West. The following episode in connection with the storm which occurred on Saturday, January 2, in its features outdoes Miss Prescott's picture. What we are about to relate occurred during the night, in a house just outside the northern boundary of the city of Chicago. A poor woman, whose husband was killed in the war, lived there with her two boys, one aged five years and the other aged two. The woman went into the city on Saturday to make purchases, leaving her two little boys at home. About four o'clock in the afternoon she was met by a policeman, who, knowing her, and perceiving that she was under the influence of liquor, advised her to go home. Promising to do so, she started off in that direction. Late in the evening, however, she was found in the street, insensible from cold and intoxication. She was taken in by some benevolent individual, and cared for during the whole of that terrible night. Toward daylight on Sunday she recovered sufficiently to be able, in company with her preserver, to return home. When they both reached the humble dwelling, about seven o'clock, they found it full of smoke. On the floor lay the youngest child on a heap of snow, and frozen stiff. The eldest boy lay on the bed: he, too, was dead, but not then quite cold. During the night the storm must have blown the door open. The younger boy, suffering from cold, had probably risen to close it, or to seek warmth at the black and cold fireplace. Overpowered by the frost, he died without rousing his brother. When the elder brother awoke he found the room filled with snow, and his little brother dead. Perishing with cold he closed the door, and built a fire against the side of a trunk that stood near, and lay down benumbed. The fire had kindled and burned a hole in the trunk, another in the floor, and had also set a portion of the bed clothes on fire. The mother and the stranger arrived in time to save the house, but too late to save life.

M. DELISLE once observed a fly only as large as a grain of sand, which ran three inches in half a second, and in that space made the enormous number of five hundred and forty steps. If a man were to be able to run as fast in proportion to his size, supposing his step to measure two feet, he would in the course of a minute have run upward of twenty miles—a task far surpassing our express railroad engines, or the famous " Seven League Boots" in the nursery fable. In leaping, also, insects far excel man, or any other animal whatever. The flea can leap two hundred times its own length ; so also can the locust. Some spiders can leap a couple of feet upon their prey.

Some years ago a marriage was arranged between Hans Steinman and Marguerite Blubme. There was no disparity in their condition ; Hans was a hunter, and Marguerite's father a laborer. Unhappily the latter, from imprudence or misfortune, became the debtor of a man named Dreihahn, who, being unable to get the money due to him, and having taken a great liking for Marguerite, proposed to cancel the debt, provided the girl's father would break off the marriage with Hans, and give his daughter to him. The bargain was agreed to with the consent of the girl, who probably thought a rich husband was better than a poor one. On the wedding day Hans forced his way into the house where the festivities were going forward, and invited the bride to dance with him. She was too frightened to consent or refuse, and looked to her husband to know what he wished her to do. He got up and appealed to the company to drive out the intruder, who thereupon raised his gun, and with the butt knocked him down, and then snatched the wreath from the bride's head, and walked away. The marriage, however, was far from being a happy one.

Dreihahn, from motives of jealousy, treated his wife very badly for upward of five years, when a catastrophe occurred which removed her from his power. One Sunday evening, as she was returning from Murzsteg, where she had been to hear mass, she was met by a man at the entrance of a road which wound round the mountain, who remarked to her that she must be very careful, as the rail which guarded the path had been broken away for several yards ; this, so far as is known, was the last time she was seen alive. Her husband, finding she did not return home, went to seek her, and, supposing that some accident must be the cause, he requested several of his neighbors to go with him. The search lasted two days, until, at last, her body was discovered lying at the foot of a precipice, partly covered with plants, and on her head her wedding wreath of rosemary, now all crushed and withered. Lying near her was the body of a man, who held the muzzle of a gun in his left hand, and in his right the end of a string, the other end being fastened to the trigger: he had been shot through the heart.

Though greatly changed by time, and more, probably, by mental anxiety, Dreihahn, who had never seen Hans since his wedding day, had no difficulty in recognizing in the dead man, as he lay before him, weltering in his blood, his wife's young lover.

DR. CHALMER'S eldest brother James was a very excellent person, but of a morose and eccentric temper. Among his crotchets, one was that Scotchmen in London were the greatest bores in life, always coming about one, and speaking about Scotland, and expecting what they called hospitality. When the Doctor was in London, in 1817, and the commotion about his preaching was naturally greatest among his own countrymen, this was all the more reason with James for keeping clear of the concern. Rather than be plunged into the Scottish element, he kept by himself the whole time, and never once went to hear his brother preach. He could not escape, however, hearing much about him, for the stir had penetrated even into his daily haunt, the Jerusalem Coffee house.

"Well," said one of his merchant friends to him one day, wholly ignorant of the relationship, " have you heard this wonderful countryman and namesake of yours?"

"Yes," said James, somewhat dryly, "I have heard him."

"And what did you think of him?"

"Very little indeed," was the reply.

"Dear me !" said the astonished inquirer; "when did you hear him?"

"About half an hour after he was born."

IT is a remarkable fact that persons losing themselves in the forest, or in a snow storm, manifest invariably a tendency to turn round gradually to the left, to the extent even of eventually moving in a circle. The explanation of this is found probably in the fact that the limbs and muscles of the right side are generally better developed than those of the left side. Shoemakers say that, as a general thing, the right foot is somewhat larger than the left, and that the right boot wears out first. Under the excitement felt when one is lost, and in the absence of any guiding line, the superior energy of the right limbs throws the pedestrian insensibly round on the left. It may also be remarked that in the ancient religious ceremonies of every country circular or choric dances were a prevalent custom.

THE grand total of the amounts expended by Great Britain on her new iron-plated ships for the year ending March 31, 1864, was $4,744,324, which is equivalent in greenbacks to about fifty millions of dollars. This expense, incurred by England in a time of peace, is more than double the suet which our Government has expended on the Monitors in time of war.

THE Lewiston (Maine) Journal says there are a couple of spinsters in Green—monomaniacs in their way who have been trying to see how many cats could be multiplied from one pair. They began with one pair when the rebellion broke out, and as the kittens have grown and multiplied, their number now reaches to the alarming sum of 440 cats and kittens.

KING JAMES, once listening to a Presbyterian preacher who was inveighing furiously against him and his policy, cried out,

"For any sake, come down, man I or else speak sense." "I tell thee, O king," was the reply, "I will not come down; neither will I speak sense."


 

 

  

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