Civil War Overview
Civil War 1861
Civil War 1862
Civil War 1863
Civil War 1864
Civil War 1865
Civil War Battles
Robert E. Lee
Civil War Medicine
Civil War Links
Civil War Art
Republic of Texas
Civil War Gifts
Robert E. Lee Portrait
Page) to make a proposition embracing the integrity of the Union and
the abandonment of slavery will be heard. There is no bar in this, no limit. He
does not say that no other proposition upon the same authority will be heard.
But to end all mousing diplomacy and intrigue he frankly states the terms upon
which, in his estimation, the American people can have peace.
peace is always at the
discretion of the rebels. When they lay down their arms and return to obedience
to the laws the rebellion ends. Of course the Government must decide when it is
satisfied that the
rebels have laid down their arms, and it will take good care
not to be betrayed by any false pretenses. But it can not fight without an
enemy. And when the rebels leave the constitutionality of the executive acts
where the President leaves it, to the
Supreme Court, there will be peace, which
will be long or short as the Court sustains or annuls the Proclamation.
But the purpose of the rebel
leaders is much more earnest than Copperhead doctors believe; and they will
yield when they are conquered, not before.
A SLANDER EXPOSED.
NEWSPAPERS have a bad habit of
reporting what they wish to have believed as upon unquestionable authority, and
it is often impossible to correct the most injurious and false statements made
in this way. But General "BALDY" SMITH has lately effectually exposed this
trick, and in a manner which is of the greatest service. One of the stalest and
most hackneyed charges against the President is the assertion that he constantly
interferes with military movements, and is the moving cause of all mishaps and
disasters in the field. Before
General GRANT'S campaign began we were gravely
informed that if he succeeded it would be on account of his own skill, but if he
failed it would be because the President had meddled with his plans. When
General BUTLER'S movements were apparently less vigorous than the public,
knowing nothing of the intentions of the campaign, thought they ought to be, we
were told that such were the consequences of the President's insisting upon
retaining civilians in military commands.
" In order to damage the Union
cause a story of this kind was lately told, in which the name of General SMITH
was used. The General immediately wrote a letter, in which he says:
" In your issue of the 24th is a
statement from Washington which demands notice from me, especially as it is
prefaced by the remark that it is given upon 'authority which may be regarded
beyond contradiction.' The writer states that upon my return to the front I
called upon General GRANT, reporting for duty, and then proceeds to say:
" Upon this General GRANT
produced an order or letter of instructions from the President for the
reinstatement of General BUTLER in full field command, from which he had been
relieved by order of the Secretary of War,
Mr. LINCOLN adding to General GRANT
substantially as follows: 'Having reinstated General BUTLER in his former
command as it was before the Secretary of War's late order, you will oblige me,
personally, by exerting yourself to avoid all cause of difference or irritation
with Major-General BUTLER, at least until after next election.'
" I had two interviews with
General GRANT after my return, at which no one was present but ourselves. At
these interviews no order or letter of instructions of any description from the
President was produced by General GRANT, nor did he state or intimate that he
had received such an order."
The General proceeds to correct
some other misrepresentations of his conduct and that of General GRANT at the
This unqualified refutation of an
incessant slander disposes of all the brood.
VISIT TO THE PRESIDENT.
THE Grant County Herald, a
Wisconsin paper, contains the following letter from Judge JOHN J. MILLS, giving
an account of a recent interview with
President LINCOLN, at the Soldiers'
Retreat near Washington :
"We" [Ex-Governor RANDALL and
Judge MILLS] " entered a neat, plainly-furnished room. A marble table was in the
centre. Directly appeared from an adjoining apartment a tall, gaunt-looking
figure, shoulders inclined forward, his gait astride, rapid, and shuffling,
ample understandings with large slippers, and Brierian arms, with a face radiant
with intelligence and humor.
"The Governor addressed him: '
Mr. President, this is my friend and your friend MILLS, from Wisconsin.'
"'I am glad to see my friends
from Wisconsin; they are the hearty friends of the Union.'
"' I could not leave the city,
Mr. President, without hearing words of cheer from your own lips. Upon you, as
the representative of the loyal people, depend, as we believe, the existence of
our Government and the future of America.' This introduced political topics.
," Mr. President,' said Governor
RANDALL, ' why can't you seek seclusion, and play hermit for a fortnight? it
would reinvigorate you.'
" 'Ah,' said the President, 'two
or three weeks would do me no good. I can not fly from my thoughts—my solicitude
for this great country follows me wherever I go. I don't think it is personal
vanity or ambition, though I am not free from these infirmities, but I can not
but feel that the weal or woe of this great nation will be decided in November.
There is no programme offered by any wing of the
Democratic party but that must
result in the permanent destruction of the Union.'
"But, Mr. President,
General McCLELLAN is in favor of crushing the rebellion by force. He will be the Chicago
" Sir,' said the President, the
slightest knowledge of arithmetic will prove to any man that the rebel armies
can not be destroyed with Democratic strategy. It would sacrifice all the white
men of the North to do it. There are now in the service of the United States
near two hundred thousand able bodied colored men, most of them under arms
defending and acquiring Union territory. The Democratic strategy demands that
these forces be disbanded, and that the masters be conciliated by restoring them
to slavery. The black men who now assist
Union prisoners to escape, are to be
converted into our enemies in the vain hope of gaining the good will of their
masters. We shall have to fight two nations instead of one.
"'You can not conciliate the
South if you guarantee to them ultimate success; and the experience of the
present war proves their success is inevitable if you fling the compulsory labor
of millions of black men into their side of the scale. Will you give our enemies
such military advantages as insure success, and then depend on coaxing,
flattery, and concession to get them back into the Union? Abandon all the posts
now garrisoned by black men; take 200,000 men from our side and put them in the
battle-field or corn-field against us, and we would be compelled to abandon the
war in three weeks.
" We have to hold territory in
inclement and sickly places; where are the Democrats to do this? It was a free
fight, and the field was open to the war Democrats to put down this rebellion by
fighting against both master and slave long before the present policy was
There have been men base enough
to propose to me to return to slavery the black warriors of
Port Hudson and
Olustee, and thus win the respect of the masters they fought. Should I do so I
should deserve to be damned in time and eternity. Come what will, I will keep my
faith with friend and foe. My enemies pretend I am now carrying on this war for
the sole purpose of abolition. So long as I am President it shall be carried on
for the sole purpose of restoring the Union. But no human power can subdue this
rebellion without the use of the
emancipation policy, and every other policy
calculated to weaken the moral and physical forces of the rebellion.
"'Freedom has given us two
hundred thousand men raised on Southern soil. It will give us more yet. Just so
much it has abstracted from the enemy, and instead of alienating the South,
there are now evidences of a fraternal feeling growing up between our men and
the rank and file of the rebel soldiers. Let my enemies prove to the country
that the destruction of slavery is not necessary to the restoration of the
Union. I will abide the issue.'"
"I saw that the President was not
a mere joker, but a man of deep convictions, of abiding faith in justice, truth,
and Providence. His voice was pleasant, his manner earnest and emphatic. As he
warmed with his theme his mind grew to the magnitude of his body. I felt I was
in the presence of the great guiding intellect of the age, and that those 'huge
Atlantean shoulders were fit to bear the weight of mightiest monarchies.' His
transparent honesty, republican simplicity, his gushing sympathy for those who
offered their lives for their country, his utter forgetfulness of self in his
concern for its welfare, could not but inspire use with confidence that he was
Heaven's instrument to conduct his people through this sea of blood to a Canaan
of peace and freedom. J. T. MILLS."
" PEACE MEN."
"WHY do you fret, O cowardly
North ! When we are your masters still ?
We'll count the roll of our
slaves ere long
On the summit of Bunker Hill."
For three long years have we met
We drive them before us still;
Yet they do claim slaves up in
the North, Though not upon Bunker Hill.
We've talked of the black men
'Neath the iron heel of might;
But oh ! (shame on the dastard
These Northern slaves are white.
Their Southern brothers of darker hue
The lash and the chain controls,
But these step under their
And freely offer their souls.
You may seek on the battle-field
For these white slaves of the
They dare not follow our brave boys there
So near to the cannon's mouth !
They dare not share in such noble
toil, Bidding treason's utterance cease,
So they cover themselves with the
Quaker garb, And lustily cry for peace.
When the roll of honor that Fame
Is held to the proud world's
And men shall read the glorious deeds
Of the heroes of these great
We shall see the record of
As the pages we unfold,
Traced with the lasting pen of
truth In letters of purest gold.
And Fame has another book in
For the world to read some day,
Of those who their country's
And ran from their flag away
Of those who would aid a
To deluge the land with gore---
They sought for peace with their
And peace shall be theirs no more
THE interest in the Virginia
Campaign this week centres upon
General Sheridan. His army has an important
mission to accomplish, which includes something more than a conflict with Early's army. The rebels are aware of this, and it is for this reason that a
strong Confederate force is still kept in the valley. It was thought a few days
ago that Early was retreating upon
Richmond. But Sheridan's advance develops the
enemy in full force north of Winchester. On Saturday, September 3, Crook's
command, together with the Nineteenth and Sixth Corps advanced to Berryville.
That afternoon a severe battle occurred between the Twenty-third and
Thirty-sixth Ohio, in the advance, and a large body of rebels. The latter were
CAPTURE OF ATLANTA.
A dispatch was received,
September 4, by the War Department from
General Sherman, dated September 3,
twenty-six miles south of
Atlanta. Sherman had removed his army from Atlanta
during the last week of August, and transferred it to a position on the West
Point Road, from which an advance was made upon the Macon Road in three
columns—one under Howard, who was to strike the road near Jonesborough on the
right ; another under
Schofield, whose goal was Rough and Ready on the left ;
while the third column, under Thomas, pushed up to the road at Conches in the
centre. A part of Hood's army occupying Jonesborough was thus cut off from the
main force at Atlanta. This detachment attacked Howard, who had intrenched
himself on the road north of Jonesborough, but were easily repulsed. The whole
army advanced upon the road, and destroyed it between Jonesborough and Rough and
Ready ; and on the 1st of September Jefferson C. Davis, commanding the
Fourteenth Corps, attacked and carried the rebel works at Jonesborough,
capturing 10 guns and 1000 prisoners. The defeated rebels moved south to
Lovejoy's Station, and were pursued. In the mean time Hood blew up his magazines
at Atlanta, and evacuated that important position by night. Atlanta was
immediately occupied by
General Slocum, commanding the Twentieth Corps. General
Sherman gives his loss as not more than 1200, and says, "We have possession of
over 300 rebel dead, 250 wounded, and over 1500 well."
A later dispatch from General
Slocum states that the enemy destroyed seven locomotives and eighty-one cars
leaded with ammunition, small-arms and stores, and left fourteen pieces of
artillery, most of them uninjured, and a large number of small-arms. A large
number of deserters were coming into our lines.
The defeat of McCook and the
Stoneman considerably weakened Sherman's cavalry force, and taking
advantage of this weakness, Wheeler, Forrest, and Morgan appear to have formed a
junction for the purpose of destroying the railroad between Chattanooga and
Nashville. Rousseau, however, is confident in his ability to take care of these
raiders, who will only be able to effect a temporary damage.
DEFEAT AND DEATH OF
General Gillem, commanding a body of Union troops in East Tennessee, gained a
complete victory over John Morgan and his guerrillas on the 4th inst. Morgan's
camp at Greenville was surprised, Morgan was killed, his staff and one piece of
artillery captured, and his force dispersed, with a loss in killed alone of 15
CAPTURE OF FORT MORGAN.
Fort Morgan surrendered August 23
with a garrison of six hundred men, including General Paige and two Colonels.
Sixty guns were taken, but these had been spiked by the rebels.
and General Granger arranged their vessels and batteries so as to invest the
fort on three sides, enveloping it with a raking fire so terrible that it was
impossible for the enemy to work his guns. The bombardment commenced on the
morning of the 22d and continued all day. In the evening a shell exploded in the
citadel and set it on fire. The next day at 2 p.m. the fort surrendered.
On Wednesday, August 31, the
Chicago Convention nominated General George B. McClellan as the Democratic
candidate for President, and the Hon. George H. Pendleton for Vice-President.
The former received 202 1/2 votes. Guthrie stood ahead of Pendleton on the first
ballot, receiving 65 1/2 votes, while Pendleton received 54 1/2. On the next
ballot all the other candidates were withdrawn, and Pendleton's nomination, on
the motion of Mr. Vallandigham, was made unanimous. The Convention resolved
itself into a permanent body.
Governor Seymour was appointed chairman of the
Committee to tender the nomination to General McClellan.
DRAFT IN NEW YORK CITY.
The War Department has credited
New York city with 18,448 men enlisted in the navy from April 15, 1861, to
February 24, 1864. There was a surplus over the last draft of 1137. This
surplus, together with the naval enlistments and 1616 recruits enlisted under
the last call, amounts to 22,010. The quota of the city is 23,124, leaving a
balance in favor of the Government of 1114 men. There will therefore be no draft
in this city.
CAPTURE OF THE "GEORGIA."
By a telegram dated London,
August 25, we learn that the United States frigate Niagara had captured the
rebel privateer Georgia twenty miles off Lisbon. At the time of her capture she
was sailing under the British flag:
Vermont, in her election on the
6th inst., carried the Union ticket by a largely-increased majority as compared
with that of 1863.
The Spanish Government has issued
more stringent regulations in regard to vessels entering within the
jurisdictional waters off Forts Tarifa and Isla Verde. These vessels are now
required to hoist their flags. Her Catholic Majesty's Minister of Foreign
Affairs, says the Queen, in bringing the preceding dispositions to the knowledge
of our Government, flatters herself that the Cabinet at Washington will find in
the measures adopted a fresh proof of the sentiments of deference which her
Government entertains for the American nation.
The chief topic of interest in
England is the Belfast riots. The ceremony of laying a corner-stone for a
monument of O'Connell, in Dublin, has excited the indignation of the Belfast
Orangemen, who have broken out in the most outrageous manner against the
Catholics. The riot commenced in burning O'Connell in effigy, and proceeded
immediately to more violent disturbances, and became so powerful at length that
it required a military force to put it down.
The Ernie Zeitioig of Berlin
discusses in a very elated humor the friendship which has suddenly sprung up
between Prussia and Austria. It exclaims: " No more Ollmutz, no more Villafranca,
so long as the Prussian and Austrian flags shall float side by side. The
alliance of the Western Powers, which has so long threatened the peace and
public right of Europe, has become so silent and mute that one might say that
the representatives of civilization are completely routed. It is not at London
or at Paris, but at Vienna and at Berlin, that the destinies of Europe are now
AN instance of the danger of too
hasty interments lately occurred at Vienna. A few days since, in the
establishment of the Brothers of Charity in that capital, the bell of the
dead-room was heard to ring violently, and on one of the attendants proceeding
to the place to ascertain the cause he was surprised at seeing one of the
supposed dead men pulling the bell-rope. He was removed immediately
to another room, and hopes are entertained of his recovery.
Dr. HUNTER'S friends had long
been desirous to engage him to sit to Sir Joshua Reynolds for his picture, but
he had always hitherto declined to do so, not choosing that it should be done at
the expense of others, and thinking the price too high for himself to pay. He
was, however, at length induced to comply, chiefly to oblige Shape, the eminent
engraver, who had received much notice from Hunter, and was very anxious to be
permitted to make an engraving from Sir Joshua's picture. Reynolds found Hunter
a bad sitter, and had not been able to satisfy himself with the likeness, when
one day, after the picture was far advanced, Hunter fell into a train of thought
in the attitude in which he is represented in the present portrait. Reynolds,
without saying a word, turned the canvas upside down, made a fresh sketch with
the head between the legs of the former figure, and so proceeded to lay on over
the former painting the colors of that which now graces the walls of the Council
Chamber of the Royal College of Surgeons.
The practice of eating at certain
conventional periods of the day is never attended by any bad consequences, and
is actually necessary in the present state of society. Habit exercises the
greatest influence in the matter, and the man who has been in the practice of
taking food at a certain hour of the day, will always, while in good health,
feel hungry at that hour. Indeed, it sometimes happens that the stomach will
only work at these hours to which it has been long accustomed, and infirmity has
frequently been traced to a change in the hour of taking a meal, more especially
dinner, which, with most people, is the chief meal of the day.
THE phalansterian school,
Fourier's disciples, are the most precise and positive in their opinions. They
hold that violet is analogous to friendship, blue to love, as suggested by blue
eyes and the azure sky. A bunch of violets would, therefore, tell a lady's
suitor that friendship is all he has a right to expect. Yellow is paternity or
maternity ; it is the yellow ray of the spectrum which causes the germ to shoot.
Red figures ambition; indigo, the spirit of rivalry ; green, the love of change,
fickleness, but also work; orange, enthusiasm; white, unity; black, favoritism,
the influence exerted by an individual. Besides the seven primitive colors, gray
indicates poverty; brown, prudery; pink, modesty; silver-gray (semi-white),
feeble love ; lilac (semi violet), feeble friendship ; pale-pink, false shame,
THE custom of placing the wedding
ring on the fourth finger is explained by some in this way. It was in ancient
times the duty of the man to place the ring on the top of the thumb, and on the
top of the second and third fingers of the woman successively, and lastly to
leave it on her fourth finger, thus—he takes the ring and repeats after the
priest, " With this ring I thee wed, with my body I thee worship, with all my
worldly goods I thee endow; in the name of the Father (thumb), and of the Son
(second or index finger), and of the Holy Ghost (third finger), Amen (fourth
finger)." There is also a legend that the fourth finger was selected because a
vein runs thence directly to the heart. But all veins run to the heart. The vein
reason would apply to any finger, or to the toes. The simplest explanation is
that the Greek custom of wearing rings of all kinds on the ring or fourth finger
has remained to the present day in the case of that most important of rings—the
WHEN Archbishop Whately was
engaged one day in his gardening operations, a companion referred, among other
matters, to the great revolution in the medical treatment of lunatics introduced
by Pinel, who, instead of the strait waistcoat and other maddening goads,
awarded to each patient healthful and agreeable occupation, including
agriculture and gardening. "I think gardening would be a dangerous indulgence
for lunatics," observed Dr. Whately. "How so?" said his friend, surprised. "
Because they might grow madder," was the rejoinder.
WE once heard a story anent the
qualifications which induced a certain Lord Lientenant of Ireland to promote a
curate to be Dean of St. Patrick's. His Excellency was visiting a country
district in the Emerald Isle, partaking of the hospitality of the landed gentry
in his rounds. One gentleman, who had been promised the honor of a visit from
the Viceroy, was sorely perplexed as to the means of properly receiving the
great guest. His house was ample, his menage perfect, his guests
unexceptionable,. with only one drawback—none of them could stand as many
bottles of wine as his Excellency. What was to be done? It was necessary to find
some one who could drink bottle for bottle with the representative of the
Sovereign. A happy idea occurred to the host. There was a poor curate in a
neighboring parish who could compete with his Excellency in bibbing. He was
implored to come, and come he did. When all the other diners, including the
host, had sunk under the table, as was our forefathers' custom in the afternoon,
his sober Excellency became conscious of the fact that there was only one
guest—a curate, too—who kept him in countenance. Fellow feeling rose in his
breast for his companion. He inquired into the curate's condition, heard of his
poverty, and took a note of his ability. Some time after the Deanery of St.
Parick's fell vacant, and the Lord Lieutenant promoted the poor curate to the
SOON after the introduction of
the convict system to Ireland a gentleman, known and respected as an ardent
advocate of reformatories, boasted to a friend who occupied a responsible office
in the Irish government, that he held the system in such high estimation that he
employed no servants in his house but those who had passed some time in a
reformatory. The party so addressed was much struck by the information and its
significance, and, with suitable impressiveness, be communicated both to
Arch-bishop Whately. His Grace list.ed attentively to the recital, and at length
quietly observed, "Your friend will waken some fine morning, and find himself
the only spoon left in the house."
AT Paris, lately, an autograph of
Tasso was sold, written by the poet of the Gerusalemme Liberata, in the
twenty-sixth year of his age. It is worded as follows : " I, the undersigned,
hereby acknowledge to have received from Abraham Levi 25 lire, for which he
holds in pledge a sword of my father's, 6 shirts, 4 sheets, and 2 table covers.
March 2, 1570. Torquato Tasso."
IT is claimed in Paris that
eleven millions of dollars' worth of silks has been exported to this country the
ARCHBISHOP WHATELY when
preaching, has been known in the height of his argument to get his leg over the
pulpit. He was an inveterate smoker, was usually accompanied by three favorite
dogs, whom he had taught various tricks, and was a thorough believer in
clairvoyance and Mesmerism.
THE men of Coventry, hearing that
Queen Elizabeth liked poetry, welcomed her to their town :
" We men of Coventry Are very
glad to see Your gracious Majesty; Good Lord, how fair ye be !"
The royal reply was equally
"Here gracious Majesty
Is very glad to see
The men of Coventry;
Good lack, what fools ye be!"
THERE lately died in Buenos Ayres
an old man of seventy-eight years, whose will contained a clause leaving ten
thousand cigars for these who might attend his funeral. This eccentric testator
also expressed his desire that his friends should not leave the house of
mourning without drinking to his memory all the wine left in his cellar.
COFFEE was first introduced into
Arabia from Abyssinia, where it originally grew, about the year 1450. It was
certainly known in England before either chocolate or tea. It is said to have
been first brought there about the year 1652, by a Turkey merchant named
Edwards, whose Greek servant made the first dish of coffee ever drunk in
En-gland. This caused several coffee-houses to be opened shortly afterward, both
in the metropolis and various other towns throughout the country. These were
visited periodically by the excise officers, and a duty of four pence per gallon
was imposed until 1689.
THE following statistics are
given of the senior class just graduated at Bowdoin " Whole number, 43 ; oldest
man, 29; youngest, 19; average age at graduation, 23; prospective lawyers, 14;
ministers, 4; physicians. 2 ; mineralogist, 1; soldiers, 3; loafer, 1;
undecided, 5; republicans, 21 ; abolitionists, 2; copperheads, 6 ; orthodox, 12;
Baptist, 5 ; Unitarian, 4 ; Episcopal, 2 ; home Baptist 3; Shaker, 1; Mormons, 2
; professors of religion, 7; divinely inspired, 1 ; drink whisky, 0;
occasionally take it for medicinal purposes, 15; play cards, 16; anti-players,
7; smoke regularly, 15; incessantly, 1."
BARRAGE, in his recently
published book, gives the fol. lowing anecdote of the Duke of Wellington : "At a
very small dinner-party the characters of the French marshals became the subject
of conversation. The Duke, being appealed to, pointed out freely their various
qualities and assigned to each his peculiar excellence. One question, the most
highly interesting of all, naturally present,' it self to our minds. I was
speculating how I could, without impropriety, suggest it, when, to my great
relief, one of the party, addressing the Duke, said: 'Well, Sir, how was it
that, with such various great qualities, you licked them all, one after
another?' The Duke was evidently taken by surprise. He paused for a moment or
two, and then said : ' Well, I don't know exactly how it was ; but I think that
if any unexpected circumstance occurred in the midst of a battle which deranged
its whole plan, I could perhaps organize another plan more quickly than most of
IF a woman has a heart, she
should never suffer it to lie in her bosom as dead capital ; it ought to
circulate and pay interest.
CUVIER considers it probable that
whales sometimes live to the age of one thousand years. The dolphin and porpoise
attain the age of thirty. An eagle died in Vienna at the age of one hundred and
four. Ravens frequently mach the age of one hundred. Swans have been known to
live three hundred and sixty years. Pelicans are long lived. When Alexander the
Great had conquered Phorus, King of India, he took a great elephant which had
fought vary valiantly for the king, named him Ajax and dedicated him to the sun,
and let him go, with this inscription: "Alexander, the son of Jupiter, hath
dedicated Ajax to the sun." This elephant was found, with this inscription,
three hundred and fifty-six years after. Camels often live to the age of one