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Page) " History was ransacked for instances of adventurers who, by
the help of mercenary troops, had subjugated free nations or deposed legitimate
princes ; and such instances were easily found." "What was the Lacedemonian
phalanx in the best days of Lacedemon ? What was the Roman legion in the best
days of Rome? What were the armies which conquered at Cressy, at Poitiers, at
Agincourt, at Halidon, at Flodden ? What was that mighty array which Elizabeth
reviewed at Tilbury ? In the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries,
Englishmen who did not live by the trade of war had made war with success and
glory. Were the English of the seventeenth century so degenerate that they could
not be trusted to play the men for their own homesteads and parish churches ?"
To this argument the reply of
Somers and the army party was very brief and cogent. If the spirit of the
English people was such that, almost without training, they could successfully
withstand the oldest soldiers, was it not absurd to suppose that such a people
could be easily reduced to
slavery by their own countrymen ?
Somers himself wrote a little
treatise upon the text that. much was to be said on both sides, and showed the
advantages and disadvantages of a standing army in the Balancing Letter.
The result of the discussion was
that the peace establishment was reduced to about ten thousand men.
Macaulay was a Whig, but he was
always favorable to what is called a strong government, which means simply a
military government. But the true and final strength of a government lies at
last in the people. Only ideas are permanently strong. Now mercenary soldiers
are machines. They do not think. They are not to reason, but to obey. And for
that very reason they may be turned against you. The mill grinds. But it will
grind the miller equally with the grist. A man thinks, and when he is willing to
give his life for a cause he is more terrible than any machine. The true
strength of a government lies, therefore, in men who seriously believe in the
government and are willing to die for it. Such men are not soldiers who can be
bought, and when they fall there are a hundred to stand in the place of each one
A militia of such men is, if
properly commanded, a hundred times more effective than mercenary troops. And
one of the great and lasting lessons that we are likely to learn from this
rebellion is that our militia must be military ; that our population must be, as
the people of Germany and France are, always prepared to use arms intelligently.
If every man who marches now to the field were an accomplished soldier, how
irresistible the army would be ! Hereafter, let every citizen pay that homage at
least to his country that he will understand how to handle a musket in her
THE SCHUYLKILL BOYS.
IN speaking recently of the
heroes who first fell, the Lounger said that the
Massachusetts men were " first in the field."
His attention has been called to his forgetfulness of the Pennsylvania line,
which was actually first upon the ground. It is a heroic emulation, and the
Lounger most cheerfully corrects his statement by the following explanation from
Schuylkill County. The name of the newspaper in which it appears was not sent to
" On Thursday, the 18th day of
April, five hundred Pennsylvanians marched through Baltimore on their way to
defend the National Capital, exactly twenty-four hours before the
Massachusetts regiment so bravely celebrated
the battle of Lexington in the streets of that delectable city. Over 230 of
these volunteers started from the borough of Pottsville on Wednesday afternoon,
April 17, and of these the National Light Infantry, commanded by Captain E.
M'Donald, were the very first whose services were offered to and accepted by the
Secretary of War. If the volunteers from Pennsylvania did not present the
handsome appearance that their brethren from the land of steady habits presented
upon their appearance in Washington, they at least should not be deprived of the
credit of having arrived there first. It is Schuylkill County that
asks that kind of justice at the
hands of the newspapers of the country, and Schuylkill County has today more
than two thousand men in the field. Will Harper's Weekly please make a note of
HUMORS OF THE DAY.
A MAN and his wife were seated by
the fire. He was intently occupied in reading—she in some domestic cares. At
length he raised his eyes from his book, and said,
"It is here stated that Lot's
wife looked back, and was converted into a pillar of salt, because she coveted
something she had left behind ;" and added, "I never thought it was for that
His wife very quietly asked,
" What do you suppose induced her
to look back, if it was not covetousness ?"
" I always imagined it was
curiosity." And after sitting a moment, he said, It seems to me that I should
have wanted to look back if I had been in her place, should not you?"
" Yes," she replied, "I think I
should, especially if I had been told not to do it."
AN IRISH FEMALE TENANT.
"I'll trouble you for my month's
rent, Madam," said a landlord last Monday to one of his tenants.
"Is it yer rint ye ax for now?"
" Yes, Ma'am, two rooms at two
shillings per week each." "Ah, now, can't ye wait a little time? Sure the likes
of ye must have plenty of money," replied the woman, looking at the thin, bent
form of the landlord with great contempt.
" But, my dear woman, the money
is due, and—"
"Oh, murther ! is it dearing me
ye are ? an honest, married woman, and blessed mother of siven boys, each big
enough to lick the life out of ye. Out of my house, ye monster !" and, unable to
give vent to her indignation in words, she seized his coat-collar, and fairly
threw him into the street.
The owner intends to let his
agent collect the rent of that house in future.
A DIALOGUE.—We overheard
the following dialogue in the street the other day between an old lady and a
" Mike," said the lady, " how's
your mother today ?" "A good deal better, I guess," answered Mike ; "she's being
ateing some soup sitting up on her elbow this morning."
Should think she was a good deal
better. Eating soup, and at the same time sitting on one's elbow, is a tolerably
smart gymnastic feat for an invalid.
A young bachelor, who had been
appointed deputy-sheriff, was called upon to serve an attachment against a
beautiful young widow. He accordingly called upon her, and said,
" Madam, I have an attachment for
The widow blushed, and said she
was happy to inform him his attachment was reciprocated.
"You do not understand me : you
must proceed to court."
"I know it is leap-year, Sir, but
I prefer you would do the courting."
" Mrs. P—, this is no time for
trifling; the justice is waiting."
"The justice! why, I should
prefer a parson."
"Mr. Brown, you say the witness
was honest and intelligent. What makes you think so? Are you acquainted with
" No, Sir, I have never seen
" Why, then, do you come to such
a conclusion?" "'Cause he takes ten newspapers, and pays for them all in
Gentlemen who smoke allege that
it makes them calm and complacent. They tell us that the more they fume the less
DONALD'S DEFINITION OF
SLANDER.-"Donald,' said a Scotch dame, looking up from the Catechism to her
son, "what's a slander?"—"A slander, gude mither?" quoth young Donald, twisting
the corner of his plaid. " Aweel, I hardly ken, unless it be an ower true tale
which one gude woman tells of anither."
A writer in one of our local
papers speaks of a friend of his who has always been accustomed to the pen. Is
the friend an author or a pig?
ladies with new bonnets on rainy Sundays, and dresses playing dip, dip at every
step. A witness in a bribery case. A smoking nephew on a visit to an
anti-smoking aunt. A young doctor who has just cured his first patient and has
no prospect of another. A star actress with her name in small type on the bill.
"I like to hear a child cry,"
jocosely said the Abbe Morold. " Why ?" "Because then there is some hope of his
being sent away."
Housewifery.—An ancient art, said
to have been fashionable among girls and wives; now out of use, or practiced
only by the lower orders.
Wealth.—The most respectable
quality of man. Friend.—A person who will not assist you, because he knows your
love will excuse him.
Wedded Bliss.—A term used by
Bargain.—A ludicrous transaction,
in which each party thinks he has cheated the other.
Doctor.—A man who kills you
today, to save you from dying to-morrow.
Tragedian.—A fellow with a tin
pot on his head, who stalks about the stage, and gets into a violent passion for
so much a night.
Critic.—A large dog that goes
unchained, and barks at every thing he does not comprehend.
"Doctor," said a man to
Abernethy, "my daughter had a fit, and continued for half an hour without sense
"Oh," replied the doctor, "never
mind that; many people continue so all their lives."
" What dogs are these?" inquired
a gentleman of a lad who was drawing a couple of terriers along.
"I dinna ken, Sir," replied the
boy; "they cam' wi' the railway, and they ate the direction, and dinna ken where
There are as good horses drawing
in carts as in coaches; and as good men are engaged in humble employments as in
A San Francisco merchant takes a
white cur, and with stencil-plate and black ink fixes his business card upon
each side of the dog, and sends him forth, a locomotive advertisement—a
dogerrotype of the fast people of a fast country.
He who thinks he can do without
others is mistaken; he who thinks others can not do without him is still more
When you feel pity for the poor,
you do not make the most appropriate gesture by putting your hand upon your
heart, but into your pocket.
"I think I have seen you before,
Sir ; are you not Owen Smith?" "Oh yes, I'm owin' Smith, and owin' Jones, and
owin' Brown, and owin' every body."
MILITARY OCCUPATION OF BALTIMORE.
A DISPATCH, dated Baltimore, May
13, says : "About eight o'clock this evening a large train, filled with troops,
arrived at the outer depot from the Relay House, containing one thousand troops,
taken from each of the regiments stationed at the Relay House.
"The Sixth Massachusetts and
Eighth New York regiments, with a battery of artillery, marched through South
Federal Hill, a high point of ground on the south side of the
harbor, directly overlooking the city, and one mile west of
" The sudden appearance of the
troops took the citizens by surprise. They were greeted with every demonstration
of approbation, and immense crowds eagerly gathered, cheering at every step,
ladies waving their handkerchiefs, and many brought lamps and candles to the
windows. Prominent citizens accompanied the troops to the hill, and assisted the
officers in taking the best route thither, and procuring quarters for the troops
until tents could arrive.
" The troops seemed to be highly
pleased with their reception, and all expressed surprise and delight at the
commanding position and fine prospect, with the whole city and country spread
out before them."
REOPENING OF RAILWAY
The railroad through Baltimore is open, the route clear, and the
bridges all secure and well guarded. The first train from Perryville, consisting
of three passenger cars well filled, arrived there on 13th. The streets through
which the train passed were thronged with people, men, women, and children, and
no attempt was made to interfere with it, nor was there any disturbance on the
road. When the steamer Maryland left the dock at Perryville, with the train of
cars on deck, the American flag was hoisted and saluted by the troops. Crowds
lined the river at both sides and cheered vehemently. The same scene occurred at
Havre de Grace and all along the route.
WAR IN MISSOURI.
A dispatch dated
St. Louis, May
10, says : " General Frost's brigade of Missouri militia, encamped at Camp
Jackson, on the western outskirts of the city, surrendered unconditionally this
afternoon, on demand of Captain Lyon, commander of the United States forces of
Captain Lyon marched on Camp Jackson with some six thousand
volunteers, surrounded it, and planted eight field-pieces on the adjoining
THE SUMMONS TO SURRENDER.
The following letter was sent
from Captain Lyon to General Frost:
" HEAD-QUARTERS UNITED STATES
TROOPS, ST. Louis, May 10, 1861.
"To General D. M. Frost:
" SIR,—Your command is regarded
as evidently hostile toward the Government of the United States. It is, for the
most part, made up of those secessionists who have openly avowed their hostility
to the General Government, and have been plotting at the seizure of its property
and the overthrow of its authority. You are openly in communication with the
so-called Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with the United States, and
you are receiving at your camp from the said Confederacy, under its flag, large
supplies of material of war, most of which is known to be the property of the
United States. These extraordinary preparations plainly indicate none other than
the well-known purpose of the Governor of this State, under whose orders you are
acting, and whose purpose, recently communicated to the Legislature, has just
been responded to by that body in the most unparalleled legislation, having in
direct view hostilities to the General Government, and co-operating with the
enemy. In view of these considerations, and your failure to disperse in
obedience to the proclamation of the President, and of the eminent necessity of
State policy, and the welfare and obligations imposed upon me by instructions
from Washington, it is my duty to demand, and I do hereby demand of you, an
immediate surrender of your command, with no other conditions than that all
persons surrendering under this demand shall be humanely and kindly treated.
Believing myself prepared to enforce the demand, one half hour's time before
doing so will be allowed for your compliance therewith. N. LYON,
"Captain Second Infantry,
AN ATTACK ON THE TROOPS.
Just before the troops left for
the city, and while the State forces were drawn up between the two lines of
volunteers, several rocks were thrown at the volunteers, and a few pistol-shots
fired by excited parties in the surrounding crowd, which was composed of a large
number of citizens, including many women and children. One shot took effect in
the leg of Captain Blautowski, and as he fell he gave word to fire, which was
obeyed by some two or three companies, resulting in the death of upward of
twenty persons, including two women and several children, and badly wounding
The following are the only names
of those killed that can be ascertained : Messrs. Walter M'Donald, Thomas A.
Havens, Nicholas Kurblach, Emily Summers.
The following are fatally
wounded: Claiborne Wilson and Trueman Wright.
A SECOND TRAGEDY.
The City of St. Louis was the scene of another terrible
tragedy on Saturday night. The Home Guard, while
marching through the streets, was hooted at and reviled
by a large crowd of excited citizens, and finally a pistol-shot was fired into the ranks by, it is said, a boy. The
troops wheeled and fired upon the crowd, discharging
several volleys. Owing to a lack
of discipline, they broke up their ranks and fired at random, killing and
wounding some of their own men, as well as many citizens.
STATE OF AFFAIRS AT HARPER'S
A special Government agent has
Harper's Ferry, and ascertained the exact condition of affairs
there. From the nature of his statements it is evident that the Government has
not so much to fear from a sudden descent from that quarter as has been
apprehended. The number of troops concentrated there he puts down at 6000, of
whom 200 are Kentuckians and one company South Carolinians. Only about
three-fourths of the 6000 have arms, but that number is well armed. They lack
provisions, however—only one day's supply being on hand at the time the agent
left. Their supplies from Western Virginia had been cut off by the Union men
there, and they must soon exhaust all that could be procured from the
surrounding country. In the face of this scarcity a retreat was imperative
unless provisions could be sent to them. The reports relative to the number who
have crossed over to the Maryland side of the Potomac appear to have been
exaggerated. Only 600 had crossed, and these had erected no batteries, and it
was considered doubtful whether they would do so. The guns recovered from the
ruins of the armory buildings do not number over 1000, and many of those are in
ALEXANDRIA COOLING DOWN.
The rebel troops at Alexandria
appear to be fluctuating from point to point. It is said that there are not now
more than one hundred and fifty men there. The steamer Pawnee, however, was
moored in front of the city on 13th, with her guns (rifle cannon) and mortars so
commanding it that they can bombard it with hot shot, grape, and shell, as well
as any camp that may be located in the vicinity.
CAPTURE OF GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN
We have received details of late
and interesting news from Texas, giving a full account of the recent capture of
about four hundred government troops, and one hundred women and children, who
were en route for the North, by about eight hundred Confederates, who were on
board three armed steamers, well lined with cotton bales to keep the men from
SECESSION OF ARKANSAS.
The State of Arkansas seceded on
Monday by a nearly unanimous vote of her Convention. This makes the ninth State
that has openly rebelled.
UNION CONVENTION IN VIRGINIA.
The delegate to the Convention of
Western and North-Western Virginia, called to deliberate upon the best means of
opposing the policy of Secession, adopted by the late Convention at Richmond,
assembled on 13th at Wheeling, and proceeded to business. A committee of one
from each county was appointed, to whom was referred the subject of
representation, and the duty of reporting officers for a permanent organization,
when a short recess was taken. The subsequent proceedings consisted mainly of
discussions as to the proper course to be pursued. The greatest enthusiasm
MILITARY PREPARATIONS AT
Montgomery we learn that the Confederate Congress, in secret
session, were making arrangements for a vigorous prosecution of the war, and for
putting the South in a state of complete defense. It is boasted that they have
ordnance, small-arms, and ammunition to employ in the field 150,000 men for one
PANIC IN VIRGINIA.
The Richmond Examiner howls as
follows : " The Southern States are both traitors and cowards if they do not
come at once to the front. All their available forces should be brought to the
banks of the Potomac with the least loss of time. Especially should
Davis give Virginia the advantage of his presence. It would be worth an army of
fifty thousand men. It would give confidence and authority to all the State's
movement. Why do the wheels of the chariot tarry?"
THE SOUTHERN BLOCKADE.
The blockade of the
ports on the Atlantic coast is now probably complete, including
the Savannah River, and those of the Gulf will soon be in the same condition, if
they are not already so. The destination of the
Niagara, which left this port
several days ago, is understood to be
New Orleans. The Secretaries of War and
the Navy have been assiduous in their endeavors to perfect the blockade, and for
this purpose, in addition to the national vessels, about twenty armed steamers
from New York, Boston, and Philadelphia have been and are being put in
readiness. The Virginia waters are now completely invested by Federal vessels,
and Captain Prendergast, the officer in command of the fleet there, has given
the necessary fifteen days' notice to all vessels to leave the ports of that
State, either with or without cargoes. An extension of time has been asked in
several cases, but invariably refused.
NORTHERN CONTRIBUTIONS FOR THE
The contributions for the war have now reached the enormous amount of
twenty-seven millions of dollars, being the free gift offerings of the patriotic
people of the North, who are determined that the
flag of our country shall never
be brought down. These contributions, it must be borne in mind, are exclusive of
sums that are less in amount than one thousand dollars, and also of private
gifts to individuals in the shape of money, horses, swords,
pistols, clothing, camp equipage, and other articles " contraband of war." A
great many towns, too, have voted to pay the family expenses of soldiers during
their absence, without appropriating any specified sum for that object.
ARRIVAL OF THE "GREAT EASTERN."
The steamship Great Eastern
arrived up at this port on Monday morning, and anchored in the stream opposite
Hammond Street. It is understood that she is to be offered for sale to our
Government, or will accept a charter as a transport.
The country will be glad to learn
Major Anderson has been promoted to a colonelcy, a reward justly due to his
services and not less to his fidelity.
Commandant at West Point, has been promoted to be a Brigadier-General, U. S.
Army. It seems that Wigfal announces that there are one hundred thousand
Southerners on their way to Washington, that
Mr. Lincoln and his Cabinet will be captured
unless they retreat before the middle of June, and that as for Wigfall
he intends to winter in Philadelphia. There is a private in the Rhode Island
regiment at Washington who is worth half a million of dollars. Our Washington
correspondent states that he saw him mopping the floor of the barracks.
The formation of still another
new Military Department has been rendered necessary by the exigencies of the
times —that of Ohio; to consist of the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois,
and to be subdivided into various smaller departments—the whole under the
General McClellan, of the
Ohio Volunteers, with the head-quarters at
THE quarrel between Garibaldi,
Cavour, and Cialdini had been adjusted through the offices of the King. From
Naples we have reports of further disturbances, and of the flight of large
numbers of the people into the Papal territory to escape the conscription. The
French troops at Rome were being relieved, and General Dumont, the successor of
General Guyon, had been received cordially by his Holiness.
The Paris Temps says: "We learn
from a reliable source that Turkey has proposed that 1000 French soldiers should
be left at Beyrout until the reforms which have been decided upon by the
European Commission have been completely carried out.'