Martial Law Declared in Missouri


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Civil War Harper's Weekly, September 14, 1861

This 1861 Harper's Weekly newspaper contains a variety of important news of Civil War. The paper contains original woodcut illustrations created by eye-witnesses to these historic events. These pages allow you to see the events of the Civil War unfold, just as the people of the day saw them.

(Scroll Down to See entire page, Newspaper Thumbnails will take you to the page of interest)


Fort Hatteras

Fort Hatteras

Slave Proclamation

Fremont's Slave Proclamation

Martial Law

Martial Law in Missouri

General Rosecrans

General Rosecrans

Indiana Volunteers

22nd Indiana Volunteers

Southern Family Escaping North

Escaping Southern Family

French Regiment

101st French Regiment


Civil War Marines

Rebel Naval Battery

Rebel Naval Battery

Butler's Expedition

Butler's Southern Expedition


Civil War Cannons


Battle of Summersville

Abe Lincoln

Abe Lincoln Cartoon




SEPTEMBER 14, 1861.]



(Previous Page) generally heard in advance the roar of the coming storm of popular indignation, and have hastened to postpone the gathering sine die. When they have persevered, the people in overpowering numbers have taken the matter in hand. The neighborhood has cleaned up its own dirt. Mr. Davis's agents have been permitted to depart with a hiss of contempt from the people they would betray into the enemy's hands. The other day, in Middletown, New Jersey, however, one of these men was saved from sharp popular punishment only by the aid of the United States Marshal. The little meeting of traitors he expected to address suddenly turned into a vast concourse of patriots. Instead of resolving that Jeff Davis, or any body else who chose, was justified in firing upon the national flag and the citizens defending it, whenever he pleased, these sons of noble sires in Monmouth, one of the most sacred of revolutionary names,

" Resolved, That we, the people of Middletown, in this great crisis of our nation do not recognize any political parties.

" Resolved, That we consider this war a traitorous rebellion against constitutional government; and

" Resolved, That we are ready to support the Administration in carrying on this war, to the extent of our means in both men and money."

So say you, Gentlemen of Monmouth; so say all loyal citizens in the land.


A FRIEND "in the country" extenuates the action of the Democratic Committee in this State, in its effort to maintain a separate party organization in the face of the enemy, on the ground that at a time like this there is peculiar need of "watchful opposition" against the possible negligence or corruption in the management of affairs.

But party organization defeats that very end. Party organization looks only for flaws, seeks only to embarrass, and treats the defense of the Government as the policy of a party. That is precisely the political hope of " party" in this State to-day. It aims to represent the action of the Administration as an effort to maintain the Chicago platform. Its speakers and papers, where they are not hushed, denounce the Administration as undermining or transcending the Constitution. The " party" action in this State follows the lead of Breckinridge and Vallandigham in Congress ; and complacently shuts its eyes to the treason of Davis, while it opens them wide with horror at what is called the unconstitutional or extra-constitutional policy of the President.

This Government is to be defended and saved by this Administration, or not at all. The whole body of loyal citizens in the country, therefore, are those who are most interested in detecting and denouncing the corruption or delay of the Administration. To endeavor to maintain an ancient party organization for that purpose is palpably to aid the enemy.

The personal and private characters of gentlemen in the position of chairmen of political committees are, of course, not discussed in these columns. But their political character and actions are ; at least in these times when the interest of public affairs absorbs all other. We have no hesitation then in saying that the course of Mr. Dean Richmond and his sympathizers is a purely partisan and not a patriotic course ; that it looks to the dominance of their party, and not to the unconditional maintenance of the Government ; nor can any sensible. man forget that the leaders of the rebellion, both in the late Administration and at the South, were fellow-partisans of the managers who are now trying to manipulate the demand of unconditional, into conditional, surrender of the rebels.

Mr. Richmond insists, in his call, that the vigorous prosecution of the war shall be accompanied with " the most liberal proffers of peace." What does that mean? The Government is suppressing an insurrection. When the rebels surrender, peace is of course restored. Does Mr. Richmond mean that they are to have peace before they surrender ? He insinuates that the Government have some unfair ulterior purpose. Is that called patriotism "in the country ?"

He invites all " who seek the restoration of the Union by extending equal justice to all the States" to come to his convention. He means by that that the Government intends unequal justice to some States, or the remark would be nonsense. Is that called patriotism at this time " in the country ?"

He says that those who think sectionalism at the North, etc., has caused the war, may come to his convention. But is there any body in the land who does not know that this war springs from the defeat of the effort of Southern politicians to extend the dominion of slavery throughout the country? And could there be a more absolute Southern sectionalism ? Does such a call tend to unite public opinion heartily, and is that also called patriotism "in the country ?"


THANKS to their bravery and endurance, and thanks also to the warm Irish heart and loud Irish tongue, the " Sixty-Ninth" have justly received a full mare of the laurels which fall to those who fought well, even if at last defeated, at Bull Run. The return of the regiment was a festival. The unflagging ardor of the soldiers sends almost all of them, and still other regiments of their countrymen,

back to the field. They have fought well. They always fought well. Wellington knew it and said it in Spain. They have well served the country they have so wisely chosen, and of whose eclectic nationality their race will form a part.

They have had a festival of their own for the relief of the widows and orphans of the Sixty-Ninth, at Jones's Wood. The day was beautiful: the place was charming : the crowd was immense. There are said to have been seventy thousand persons on the grounds. Captain Thomas Francis Meagher was the orator, and his words fell upon the huge mass of people like sparks upon tinder. The crowd blazed with enthusiasm. The orator was never more florid, fiery, and felicitous : and of all the speeches he has made in this country none is so truly direct and sensible as the one he poured into the open ears, and eyes, and mouths, and hearts of the great assembly of his countrymen at Jones's Wood.

Mr. Meagher, and doubtless he spoke for the vast majority of his countrymen who are American citizens, took the simplest, most patriotic, and most manly ground. He declared that the National Government has suffered more from its own patience and magnanimity than from the desperation and preparation and ability of the conspiracy. He asserted that "the masked conspirators of the North" are more criminal than the armed rebels of the South. He avowed himself a Democrat, a man who disagreed with the political views of the present Administration, but, for himself, he said, " the honor and glory of the National flag are of infinitely higher value than the Regency at Albany, the Tammany Wigwam, Mozart Hall, or the Pewter Mug." He said that all American citizens who hail from Ireland had taken an oath of loyalty not to New York, nor to Alabama, nor to Massachusetts, nor to Florida or Kansas, not to any State, but to all the States. He did not spare the aristocracy of England, whose enmity to our Government he thought ought to be reason enough for every Irishman to defend it to the last ; and Captain Meagher retired amidst tremendous and enthusiastic cheering.


A SCOTCH cattle dealer, at Clones fair, was asked by a countryman to do him a favor. " You see that woman," said he, "on the sidewalk. Well, I've offered her five pound ten for her cow, but she won't sell. Now if you, a stranger, should offer her five pound fifteen, she would sell, but would not sell to me for that. Will you be kind enough to take this half-crown and bind the bargain with it; and I will then pay the money and take the cow." The good-natured cattle dealer effected the purchase as requested, and then turned to find the countryman ; but the latter was gone. He was forced to take the cow himself and pay for her, though she was not worth half the money he had thus bid to oblige the missing countryman. It was afterward ascertained that the woman was the countryman's wife, and they had thus managed to sell their cow to good advantage.

A Frenchman, near the Canada line, in Vermont, sold a horse to his Yankee neighbor, which he recommended as being a very sound, serviceable animal, in spite of his unprepossessing appearance. To every inquiry of the buyer respecting the qualities of the horse the Frenchman gave a favorable reply; but always commenced his commendation with the deprecatory remark, "He's not look ver good." The Yankee, caring little for the looks of the horse, of which he could judge for himself without the seller's assistance, and being fully persuaded, after minute examination, that the beast was worth the moderate sum asked for him, made his purchase and took him. A few days afterward he returned to the seller in high dudgeon, and declared that he had been cheated in the quality of the horse. " Vat is de mattaire ?" said the Frenchman. "Matter!" said the Yankee, "matter enough—the horse can't see! He is as blind as a bat!" "Ah," said the Frenchman, " vat I vas tell you? I vas tell you he vas not look ver good—be gar, I don't know if he look at all !"

"I say, Samba, can you answer dis conunderfum : suppose I gib you a bottle of whisky shut wid a cork; how would you get the whisky out without pullin' de cork or breakin' de bottle?" "I gives dat up." " Why, push de cork in. Yah, yah !"


My first denotes company, My second shuns company, My third assembles company, My whole amuses company.

Co-nun-drum (conundrum).

My first a baby does when you pinch it,

My second a lady says when she does not mean it, My third exists and no one e'er has seen it, My whole contains the world's best half within it.

Cri-no-line (crinoline).

Why are dogs and cats like schoolmasters and their


Because one is of the canine (caning), and the other of the feline (feeling) species.

If a pig had to build himself a house, how would he do it?

He would tie a knot in his tail, and then he would have a pigsty (pig's-tie).

What is worse than raining cats and dogs?

Hailing cabs and omnibuses.

What is that which goes from New York to Harlem without moving?

The road.

Why is love like a potato?

Because it shoots front the eyes, and grows less by paring (pairing).

At what place in England, and when, was Napoleon jealous of the Empress?

When he sate her in the Bricklayer's Arms (Station).

My first I hope you are, My second I see you are,

And my whole you always shall be.

Well-come (welcome).

Why is an old hen walking toward Whitehall like the Gunpowder Plot?

Because it is a foul (fowl) proceeding toward Parliament.

My first the men will sometimes take Entirely for my second's sake,

My whole they vainly all declare Is more than mortal man can bear.

Miss-fortune (misfortune).

Among novelties why is a dog's tail the greatest ?

Did you ever see it before?

Which would you soonest have, a five-pound note or five sovereigns?

A five-pound note, for when you put it in your pocket you double it, and when you take it out you see it in creases.

Why is a wainscoted room like a reprieve?

Because it saves hanging.

Why are parish churches like ladies?

Because there is no living without them?

Why are pioneers sent before an army?

To ax (ask) the way.


(To be read only by lisping young Ladies and Gentlemen.) Some sweet simple spinsters stray'd, scanning some stream (So simple, so sweet, scarcely single should seem). Said Susan—" Sophia! soon some sighing swain Shall sing Sister Sally some sweet-hearting strain, Serenading so sweetly, shall strike some such string, Sister Sally shall skip, Sister Sally shall sing."

He who travels through life in the hope of jumping into the shoes of another mostly goes on a bootless errand.

"Halloo, Sam, so you've got to work again?" "No, Jim—nare a job yet!" replied Sam. "Then what are you doing filing saws?" "Filing saws, Jim? Why, I ain't been filing any thing!" "What was you doing a minute ago as I come in?" " Nothing, only sitting here and singing." " Singing? Was you singing?" " Yes." "Oh, that's it, then," replied Jim, with an innocent air, "I thought you was filing a saw."

A teacher of music was once instructing Mademoiselle Desmatius in the part of Medea; but the latter sung without expression, and infused into her music little of the emotion it called for. In the third act of the opera occurs a passage where Medea, abandoned by her lover, gives way to the expression of her anguish. After several lessons upon this passage, the teacher said to the scholar, "Give way to your feelings ! Put yourself in the place of the betrayed woman! If you were forsaken by a man whom you loved passionately, what would you do ?" "Why, I should get another lover as soon as possible." "If that is the case, we are both losing our time here," answered the teacher.

There are three kinds of men in this world — the "Wills," the " Wonts," and the "Cants." The former effect every thing, the other oppose every thing, and the latter fail in every thing.

A couple of sailors were recently arrested in Plymouth for throwing buckets of tar over each other. It was a pitch-battle.

King Alcohol falls when his advocates attempt to support him, and they fall when he attempts to support them.

"I'm getting fat," as the thief said when he was stealing lard.



THE following Proclamation was issued on 31st ult., at St. Louis:


"ST LOUIS, August 31, 1861.

"Circumstances, in my judgment of sufficient urgency, render it necessary that the Commanding General of this Department should assume the administrative powers of the State. Its disorganized condition, the helplessness of the civil authority, the total insecurity of life, and the devastation of property by bands of murderers and marauders who infest nearly every county in the State and avail themselves of the public misfortunes and the vicinity of a hostile force to gratify private and neighborhood vengeance, and who find an enemy wherever they find plunder, finally demand the severest measures to repress the daily increasing crimes and outrages which are driving off the inhabitants and ruining the State. In this condition the public safety and the success of our arms require unity of purpose, without let or hindrance, to the prompt administration of affairs.

"In order, therefore, to suppress disorders, to maintain as far as now practicable the public peace, and to give security and protection to the persons and property of loyal citizens, I do hereby extend, and declare established, martial law throughout the State of Missouri. The lines of the army of occupation in this State are for the present declared to extend from Leavenworth by way of the posts of Jefferson City, Rolla, and Ironton, to Cape Giradeau on the Mississippi River.

"All persons who shall be taken with arms in their hands within these lines shall be tried by court-martial, and, if found guilty, will be shot. The property, real and personal, of all persons in the State of Missouri who shall take up arms against the United States, and who shall be directly proven to have taken active part with their enemies in the field, is declared to be confiscated to the public use; and their slaves, if any they have, are hereby declared free.

" All persons who shall be proven to have destroyed, after the publication of this order, railroad tracks, bridges, or telegraphs, shall suffer the extreme penalty of the law.

" All persons engaged in treasonable correspondence, in giving or procuring aid to the enemies of the United States, in disturbing the public tranquillity by creating and circulating false reports or incendiary documents, are in their own interest warned that they are exposing themselves.

"All persons who have been led away from their allegiance are required to return to their homes forthwith; any such absence without sufficient cause will be held to be presumptive evidence against them.

"The object of this declaration is to place in the hands of the military authorities the power to give instantaneous effect to existing laws, and to supply such deficiencies as the conditions of war demand. But it is not intended to suspend the ordinary tribunals of the country, where the law will be administered by the civil officers in the usual manner and with their customary authority, while the same can be peaceably exercised.

" The Commanding General will labor vigilantly for the public welfare, and in his efforts for their safety hopes to obtain not only the acquiescence, but the active support of the people of the country.   


" Major-General Commanding."


It is stated positively that Ben McCulloch is marching on Jefferson City with ten thousand men, and warm work is anticipated shortly. It is believed that the Union forces are well disposed to repel such an attack as this is reported to be. There are 12,000 of our forces at Cairo and Bird's Point ; 4000 at Cape Girardeau ; 8000 near Ironton; 5000 at Sulphur Spring ; 5000 at Jefferson City, Lexington, and Kansas City ; 7000 at Rolla; and 20,000 to 30,000 at St. Louis.


Following the declaration of martial law in Missouri by General Fremont, Provost-Marshal M'Kinstry has issued an order forbidding any person passing beyond the limits of St. Louis without a special permit from his office; and railroad, steamboat, ferry, and other agents are prohibited from selling tickets to any one not holding a proper pass. Communication with the enemy is thus rendered somewhat difficult.


The neighborhood of Fortress Monroe appears to be the scene of much naval activity in the absence of important military movements in that direction. A small rebel tugboat, mounted with rifled cannon, ran out from Norfolk the other morning to within two miles and a half of Newport News, and fired twenty-three shots at the United States frigate Savannah without doing any damage. As soon as the guns of the frigate were brought to bear on her she ran out of range, and fired two shells, one at the Seminole, and another in the direction of the Rip-Raps, after which she got under cover at Sewall's Point.


The War Department has received dispatches from General Rosecrans which set at rest all doubts as to his safety. He expresses his confidence in being able to hold his position against any force which the rebel leaders are likely to send against him.


There was great excitement in Wheeling, Virginia, on 2lst. A dispatch was received from Fairmount, Marion County, to the effect that the secessionists in the back country were rising in great numbers and marching upon the town to burn it and tear up the railroad track. Wheeling


was at once in a state of wild activity; drums beat, the Home Guard and volunteer citizens hastily prepared to set out to the aid of their menaced brethren, and in a short time a full train set off. It was feared that the rising would be extensive, and it was thought that it had some connection with the plans of General Lee.


The Treasury and Tax Act passed by the rebel Congress for the purpose of raising funds for the prosecution of the rebellion has just been published in some of the Southern journals, and it is strongly commended by them. The first section authorizes the issue of Treasury notes to the amount of $100,000,000, redeemable six months after peace; and makes them a legal tender in the payment of Government taxes and other duties, except the export tax on cotton. The second section provides for the issue of $100,000,000 of Confederate bonds, payable in twenty years. These bonds are to be sold in effect only for specie or military stores or foreign bills of exchange. They bear 8 per cent. interest, and the interest is payable semi-annually. The third section gives the holders of Treasury notes the option of exchanging said notes for Confederate bonds whenever they may choose thus to invest. The fourth section provides a war tax on all persons owning more than $500, of fifty cents in the hundred dollars. This tax is for the purpose of supporting the Government and of providing for paying the principal and interest of the public debt.


The Herald says: "East Tennessee has at last been forced to succumb to the doctrine of secession, through the influence of threats and banishments. Thomas A. R. Nelson, who was elected by the Union men to the United States Congress, gave in just in time to save his neck from the halter in Richmond; and Parson Brownlow, with his Knoxville Whig, stood out until the bowie-knife was brandished above his head, when he, to save his property and his family, consented to support the rebel Zollicoffer and the traitor Governor Harris. The election on the 1st ult. showed that there were twenty-six thousand two hundred and thirty-two unconditional Union men in that section of the State, being a clear majority of eleven thousand over the secessionists, and we can not think it possible that the sudden change which is reported to have taken place there has any foundation in sincerity."


The business of impressment is carried on in Memphis, and a regular press-gang organized. In many cases, says the Memphis Avalanche, acts of barbarity have been perpetrated, and not unfrequently have farmers, who were in the city on business, been seized, as well as heads of families whose wives and children depended entirely upon them for support. To such an extent has this barbarous practice been carried that the Council of the city have become alarmed, and appointed a committee to confer with the Archbishop, Major-General Polk, upon the subject.


The revenue department of this city displayed an unusual activity on 1st inst., which created no little surprise among the officials, who were suddenly ordered to assemble at a given hour for immediate and mysterious service. It was stated a few days ago that clearances for the port of Matamoras, in Northern Mexico, were no longer to be granted by the Collector of this port, inasmuch as goods and provisions for the rebels were being transported there, and thence transferred across the frontier to the rebel State of Texas. In accordance with this order the Surveyor of the port seized or put under surveillance no less than forty-five vessels at the different wharves, loaded with merchandise, and some of them cleared for Matamoras, while others had obtained clearances for other ports, but are suspected of being destined for Matamoras, and held upon that presumption.


The attempt last week to hold a meeting for Compromise and Peace, was frustrated by the uprising of the indignant communities of Middletown, Keyport, Red Bank, and the region round about, who organized a large mass meeting at Middletown, and passed a series of patriotic resolutions. Mr. Silas B. Dutcher, of this city, was present by invitation, and delivered a stirring speech, which was received with wonderful enthusiasm. Mr. Thomas Dunn English, who had purposed addressing the White-Feather fraternity, was roughly handled by the crowd, and had to be locked up by United States Marshal Deacon to save him from lynching. Not less than 2000 of the most respectable citizens of Monmouth were present, full one-half of whom were of the Democratic party.



THE Government has received dispatches from minister Adams, which set at rest, for the present at least, the question of interference by the British Government in the affairs of the United States. He does not think any change of policy is intended so long as the blockade is continued.


The Secretary of the Cotton Supply Association has given the result of interview with the Viceroy of Egypt, and his impressions as to the productive capacity of that country. He believes that the growth of cotton may be increased to an unlimited extent; and that English capitalists should liberally assist the enterprise. The Nicaraguan Embassador in London offers it free grant of land in Nicaragua to settlers who propose to raise cotton.



The Independence Belge asserts that the French Government had ordered General Goyon not to oppose the entrance of General Cialdini and his troops into the Papal territory should the necessity of war require it.


A letter from Rome, in the London News, says that Miss Harriet Hosmer, of whom America is justly proud, has completed her fine colossal statue of Colonel Benton, to be
erected in bronze at St. Louis, when it shall have been cast by the Munich foundry, to which the mould will soon be consigned. It also says that Miss Hosmer will be nobly represented at the great exhibition in London next year by her statute of the " Captive Queen"-Zenobia.

Hatteras Inlet Map



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