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Robert E. Lee Portrait
Page) party." Whenever a base and disgraceful interpretation is given
to any clause of the National Constitution it is called by the same persons "the
conservative view." Whenever any rigorous and radical means of suppressing this
cruel rebellion are suggested, they are malignantly resisted by the same
"conservative" party and papers. The persistent political allies of the rebels,
like Vallandigham, Powell, Bayard, and Saulsbury, are leaders of this
"conservative" movement. While the newspapers which openly supported the
rebellion until the Government took it in hand, or which from their continued
support of it received a very significant warning, are the organs of the same
The same "Conservatives" during
the last Presidential canvass solemnly warned the country that they could not
allow any body but their own candidates to be elected; and they brought eminent
"Conservatives" from the
Southern States to confirm what they said. The
same "conservative" gentry at the South when the new administration was
constitutionally chosen, took up arms and have maintained a desperate and bloody
war for more than a year. The same "conservative" citizens at the North are now
most anxious to make compromises with their friends who are red to the neck in
the blood of the brave and hardy youth of the loyal part of the land. Peace at
any price, whether of civil order, of national existence, of human rights, of
individual honor, or of common decency, is the heart's prayer of this
"conservatism." If a man shows himself false to our common humanity, or
indifferent to our national unity, they hail him as a "Conservative." If any law
aims to destroy or abridge the equal rights which the Government was founded to
protect, they rally to it as a "conservative" measure. If a man is faithless to
Democratic principle he is "sound." If he
sneers at justice, and manliness, and honor, he is "prudent."
These gamblers are still busy,
but their game is played out. It is transparent. "Conservatism" has been used as
a convenient and alluring name with which to conceal the effort to sustain the
predominance of a single class in this country over all other men and classes.
James M. Mason, famous for fathering the
Fugitive Slave Bill of 1850, and for nothing
else but a futile endeavor to implicate his political enemies with John Brown;
John Slidell, famous for the Plaquemine election frauds, and for nothing else
but the most unscrupulous political intrigue; John B. Floyd, famous for stealing
and running away, and for nothing else; Wigfall, famous for whisky-drinking;
Pryor, famous for not fighting with Potter; Cobb, famous for emptying the
Treasury and imperiling the credit of the country;
Toombs, famous for idiotic bellowing in the
United States Senate;
Jefferson Davis—these, and an endless string
more, are the representative "Conservatives" of the present epoch in our
history, and their "conservatism" consisted and consists in the effort to
destroy all the safeguards which our Constitution throws around the rights of
all men; and, baffled in that, in the fierce and furious armed attempt to
overthrow that Constitution and ruin the country.
This game of "Conservatism" is
up. Meanwhile the great and true Conservative party of the country—the party of
all faithful citizens who, to whatever political band they may have hitherto
belonged, are daily learning that national peace can be preserved only by
maintaining, by conserving the cardinal and distinctive principles of our
Government—is engaged in the triumphant suppression of the rebellion instigated
by these pseudo "Conservatives" and their abettors at the North in Congress and
the press; and having preserved the country from the military blows which rebel
treason strikes at its heart, it will equally save it front the political plots
of rebel "Conservatism."
TRUTH VERSUS TWADDLE.
THERE is a lively piece of
twaddle afloat. It is the ineffably and silly assertion that this is a nation of
white men, or a white man's government. Of course it is only one of the mean
appeals to the hate that people always feel for those they have injured. Its
intention is to quench any sympathy for black men. It is the kind of argument
that does duty in bar rooms, and is very effective in the mouths of politicians
whose success depends upon the ignorance and not upon the intelligence of the
The assertion is false in
whatever way you look at it. It is false theoretically and practically. It is
false historically and in current experience. This Government is founded upon
the doctrine of equal human rights. The Declaration of Independence holds it to
be self-evident that "all men are created equal"—not equal, of course, in
capacity, or circumstance, or condition, any more than in the height, or weight,
or the color of their hair and eyes—but equal in the right to a guarantee from
society of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
The men who made the Declaration
said this. Did they mean it, or did they solemnly assert what they thought to be
false? Did they mean that "all" men, or "some men" are created equal? In other
words, did they mean to say that all men are not created equal? No; they meant
what they said; and they said "men." Not white men, nor black men, nor yellow,
red, brown, or motley men; not Americans, nor Englishmen, nor Frenchmen, nor
Germans, nor Irishmen, nor Italians, nor Hindoos, nor Chinese, nor Malays, nor
Africans, nor East or West Indians. Not short men, nor tall men, nor fat, lean,
or dumpy men; not smart men, nor stupid, mean, foolish, good, bad, or
indifferent men. The fathers said what they meant, and meant what they said.
They meant all men, and calling God and the world to witness, they said all men.
Their doctrine may have been false, but they believed it to be true—and acting
upon it they published the Declaration, and upon the principles of the
Declaration the Constitution was founded.
Our National Government,
therefore, is a Government of all men who, living in the country, obey the laws
and behave themselves. The yellow Chinese,
and the olive Spaniard or West
Indian, or the red Turk or Hindoo, or the white Englishman or Irishman, or the
African or Creole of any race, may be a citizen of the United States, subject to
the conditions of the State law. As a matter of fact the paler complexions
predominate among the citizens; but the ballot of the voter of tawny Spanish
New Orleans, or of dusky African descent in
Boston, counts just as much in this Government as the vote of the Honorable Mr.
Cox, for instance, of Ohio.
The glory of this Government is
not in the color of the skins of the citizens, but in the justice with which its
laws are made and the fidelity with which they are executed. If the laws be
unjust, the Government is mean and inglorious and the nation disgraced, although
the face of every citizen were as white as snow.
A HINT TO THE IMPATIENT.
THE following extract from a
letter of an officer at Fort Macon hits off admirably the impatience of the
slowness of military operations which is so constantly felt and expressed by
those who have had no experience of such movements:
"You people that stay at home are
in such a confounded hurry that you think that all is lost if a General has to
besiege a place twenty-four hours. The newspapers say "Great Success! Fort Macon
taken after ten hours' bombardment"—so you all think that General Parke
breakfasted early one morning; took a hand-car; came down from Newbern; crossed
over; put eight mortars and four siege-guns behind a sand-hill; fired away; took
the fort; paroled the prisoners; hoisted the flag; and returned to Newbern to
dinner, getting there five minutes after the dinner-bell rang, and was
reprimanded for being late. Whereas we besieged the place for a good month;
worked like dogs and made half our regiment sick; were on picket duty every
third day, besides furnishing camp guard, fatigue parties to work in trenches,
and patrols. Whenever you hear again that a thing is done in ten hours,
understand that doing the thing is easy work, but getting ready to do it is
confounded hard work. And now, instead of supposing that we are ready to go
somewhere else because we have taken Fort Macon, know that is the very reason
why we are not able to move. We need rest, and the fort needs to be put in
proper condition again."
HUMORS OF THE DAY.
COMMENCING EARLY.—A brutal
teacher whipped a little boy for pressing the hands of a little girl who sat
next to him at school, after which he asked the child "why he squeezed the
girl's hand?" "Because," said the little fellow, "it looked so pretty I couldn't
help it." How very natural!
The bard of Twickenham, hough
very short and deformed, was nevertheless very partial to his person. One day he
asked Dean Swift what people in Ireland thought of him.
"They think," says the Dean,
"that you are a great poet and a very little man."
Pope exclaimed, passionately,
"And, Mr. Dean, the people in England think quite the reverse of you!"
A correspondent with a
mathematical turn sends us the following:
"I heard some one say the other
day that Harper's Weekly has a regular circulation of 130,000 copies. At this
rate it would soon cover the whole land. I amused myself by making a few
calculations as to the progress you are making in this attempt.
"The Weekly measures 46 by 83
inches, and contains 1518 square inches. There are 6,272,640 square inches in an
acre; so that 130,000 papers will carpet a farm of 31 acres and a little more:
the 52 numbers in the year will therefore cover (disregarding fractions) 1612
"Again, the length of the paper
being 46 inches, the. 130,000, laid lengthwise, would reach 94 miles, with 2004
feet to spare; the 52 yearly numbers will then extend to within a few rods of
4910 miles. The circumference of the globe being, in round numbers, 25,000
miles, it would require a little more than five years to 'put a girdle [of
Harper's Weekly] round the globe.'
"Again, I find that 30 numbers of
the Weekly, when folded and pressed, measure an inch in thickness. So that the
whole edition for a single week would make a pile 362 feet high—say one-third
higher than the steeple of Trinity Church."
THE SEX.—A parson, reading the
funeral service at the grave, forgot the sex of the deceased, and asked one of
the mourners, an Emeralder, "Is this a brother or a sister?" "Neither," replied
Pat, "only a cousin."
NOT SO DUSTY.—"Dost thou clean my
furniture, fair handmaiden?" asked X., of the pretty servant who was polishing
his escritoire. "I Dust," replied the hand-maiden.
A mechanic having taken a new
apprentice, awoke him the first morning at a very early hour by calling out that
the family were sitting down to table. "Thank you," said the boy, as he turned
over in bed to adjust himself for a new nap, "thank you, but I never eat any
thing during the night."
A surgeon aboard a ship of war
used to prescribe salt-water for his patients in all disorders. Having sailed
one evening on a party of pleasure, he happened, by some mischance, to be
drowned. The captain, who had heard of the disaster, asked of the tars next day
if he had heard any thing of the doctor. "Yes," answered Jack, after a turn of
his quid, "he was drowned last night in his medicine chest."
In chemistry the best way to
separate two bodies is to introduce a third. The same holds true in other
departments. To increase the distance between a pair of lovers all that's
required is to let Willie walk into the "back parlor" with a lighted candle in
A gentle heart is like ripe
fruit, which bends so low that it is at the mercy of every one who chooses to
pluck it, while the harder fruit keeps out of reach.
When the telegraph poles were
first stationed through the valley, a green 'un drove into a village and tied
his horse to what he supposed was a spruce pole. He was accosted by a precocious
urchin with, 'Mister! mister! what have you done?" "Done," said the fellow;
"what do you mean? I hain't done nothin' as I knows on." "Why, yeth you have,
thir; you have just hitched your horse to the Magnetic Telegraph. and you'll be
in New York in less than two minutes if you don't look out." The man untied his
horse with nervous anxiety, and jumping into his sleigh, drove hastily down the
An Englishman and Yankee being in
a promiscuous company, the latter was so much struck with some bold air sung by
the former, that he asked the name of it. "Oh nothing but the tune the old cow
died on," was the response. The Yankee struck up Yankee Doodle. "What is that?"
asked his companion. "This is the tune old bull died on!" was the prompt reply.
ON Tuesday, June 3, in the
Senate, communications relative to soldiers imprisoned in the District
penitentiary, and transmitting the instructions given to the provisional
Governors of Tennessee and North Carolina, were received. A joint resolution was
adopted allowing hereafter a premium of two dollars for every accepted recruit
to the regular army, and allowing soldiers enlisted as volunteers or in the
regular army to receive their first month's pay in advance. The Tax bill was
then taken up, and occupied the Senate till the adjournment.—In the House, the
motion to reconsider the vote whereby the bill to free from servitude the
of rebels was rejected was taken up, and, after debate, the subject was
recommitted to the Select Committee, with instructions to report a substitute in
effect liberating the slaves of the leading conspirators against the Government.
A bill declaring all persons holding office under the Confederate government
forever ineligible to office under the Government of the United States was
passed. The House then adjourned.
On Wednesday, June 4, in the
Senate, the House bill punishing polygamy in the Territories, with an amendment
of the Senate annulling acts of the Legislature of Utah with regard to the
practice, was passed by a vote of 37 to 2. The consideration of the Tax bill was
then resumed, and continued till the adjournment.—In the House, a petition
asking that Western Virginia be admitted into the Union as a new and independent
State, was referred to the Territorial Committee. The Senate bill recognizing
the independence of Hayti and Liberia and providing for diplomatic relations
with those republics was then passed by a vote of 86 against 37. Mr. Blair
introduced a bill providing for the removal of the
Mint at New Orleans to St.
Louis. A joint resolution that Congress finally adjourn on the 16th inst. was
adopted, and the House adjourned.
On Thursday, June 5, in the
Senate, the bill providing a government for the Territory of Arizona was
discussed. A motion to take up the resolution providing for the expulsion of
Senator Stark, of Oregon, who is charged with disloyalty, was rejected by a vote
of 13 yeas against 29 nays. The consideration of the Tax bill was then resumed.
The plan of the Boston Board of Trade and the substitutes of the Finance
Committee were both rejected. Senator Sumner proposed a tax of two dollars per
head on slaves, the slaves in no case to be sold for said tax, which was adopted
by a vote of 19 against 16. The Senate then adjourned.—In the House, Mr.
Wickliffe asked leave to introduce a resolution inquiring whether
has organized a regiment of blacks and fugitive slaves in South Carolina, but
objection was made, and the subject was therefore not entertained. The bill
appointing a Board of Fortifications for sea-coast and other defenses was
discussed in Committee of the Whole. Mr. Stevens moved to strike out the
enacting clause, which was agreed to. The House subsequently confirmed the
action of the committee, so the bill was lost. The House then adjourned.
On Friday, June 6, in the Senate,
official reports of the operations of the naval forces on the Mississippi, the
capture of New Orleans, etc., were received from the Secretary of the Navy.
Senator Sumner offered a resolution in effect calling for the removal of Edward
Stanly from the post of Military Governor of North Carolina. Objection was made,
and the resolution lies over. Senator Sumner also offered a resolution declaring
the office of Military Governor contrary to the Constitution and laws,
destructive to the civil authority, and contrary to the spirit of our
Institutions. This was likewise objected to, and lies over. Senator Sumner moved
to take up the resolution for the expulsion of Senator Stark, of Oregon, charged
with disloyalty; but the Senate refused, and recommenced the consideration of
the Tax bill. The vote of Thursday levying a tax of two dollars per head on
slaves was, after considerable debate, reconsidered—twenty-two against eighteen.
A proposition to tax slaves under ten and over sixty-five years of age was
defeated—seventeen against twenty-three. The Tax bill was then passed, by a vote
of thirty-seven against one, Senator Powell, of Kentucky, casting the negative
vote.—The session of the House was devoted to the consideration of private bills
and general debate, in which no matters of general interest transpired.
Both Houses adjourned till
On Monday, June 9, the Senate
resolved itself into a High Court of Impeachment for the trial of Judge
Humphreys, of Tennessee, charged with treason and other high crimes.
Proclamation was made, calling on West H. Humphreys to appear and answer to the
charges, and no response being offered, the Court adjourned till the 26th inst.
The Senate then resumed legislative business, and the House bills prohibiting
slavery in the Territories, and prescribing an additional oath to grand and
petit jurors, were passed, the first named by a vote of 28 to 10. The Pacific
Railroad bill and amendments were ordered to be printed, and the subject was
then postponed.—In the House, a memorial asking the admission of Utah into the
Union was presented by the delegate from that Territory. The document, together
with the constitution of Utah, were appropriately referred. The Tax bill and the
Senate's amendments thereto were referred to the Ways and Means committee. A
resolution calling for information as to whether General Hunter has organized a
regiment of negroes in South Carolina, was adopted. Mr. Vallandigham offered a
resolution tendering the thanks of the House to
General Halleck and his army for
the occupation of Corinth without loss of life, and declaring that the House
would rejoice to see the Constitution as it is, and the Union as it was,
maintained and restored every where without any further effusion of fraternal
blood. Mr. Vallandigham demanded the previous question on the resolution, but
objection was made, and the subject was laid over. The resolution appropriating
$35,000 for the purchase, from Gales & Seaton, of sets of Annals of Congress and
Register of Debates, was repealed. Mr. Julian offered a resolution for repeal of
the Fugitive Slave law, which was referred to the Judiciary Committee. A
resolution was offered by Mr. Colfax, instructing the Judiciary Committee to
report a bill modifying the Fugitive Slave law, by giving trial by jury to any
person denying under oath he is a slave, etc. A resolution declaring that the
President should instruct the commanding Generals in the rebel States to issue a
proclamation that the army of the republic will be subsisted, as far as
practicable, upon the property of those in rebellion and those who gave aid and
comfort to the enemies of the U. S., was adopted by a vote of 83 against 39.
The following address was read to
the army on 3d at dress parade, and was received with an outburst of vociferous
cheering from every regiment:
HEAD-QUARTERS, ARMY OF THE
POTOMAC, CAMP NEAR NEW BRIDGE, VIRGINIA,
June 2, 1862.
SOLDIERS OF THE ARMY OF THE
POTOMAC!—I have fulfilled at least a part of my promise to you. You are now face
to face with the rebels, who are held at bay in front of the capital. The final
and decisive battle is at hand. Unless you belie your past history the result
can not be for a moment doubtful. If the troops who labored so faithfully and
fought so gallantly at Yorktown, and who so bravely won the hard fights at
Williamsburg, West Point, Hanover Court House, and
prove worthy of their antecedents, the victory is surely ours. The events of
every day prove your superiority. Wherever you have met the enemy you have
beaten him. Wherever you have used the bayonet he has given way in panic and
disorder. I ask of you now one last crowning effort. The enemy has staked his
all on the issue of the coming battle. Let us meet him and crush him here in the very centre of the
SOLDIERS!—I will be with you in
this battle, and share its dangers with you. Our confidence in each other is now
founded upon the past. Let us strike the blow which is to restore peace and
union to this distracted land. Upon your valor, discipline, and mutual
confidence the result depends. GEO. B. McCLELLAN,
JEFF DAVIS TO HIS SOLDIERS.
We find the following in the
Richmond Inquirer of June 4:
EXECUTIVE OFFICE, June 2, 1862.
TO THE ARMY OF RICHMOND.
I render to you my grateful
acknowledgments for the gallantry and good conduct you displayed in the battles
of the 31st of May and 1st inst.,
and with pride and pleasure recognize the steadiness and intrepidity with which
you attacked the enemy in position, captured his advanced inhrenchments, several
batteries of artillery, and many standards, and every where drove them from the
At a part of your operations it
was my fortune to be present. On no other occasion have I witnessed more of
calmness and good order than you exhibited while advancing into the very jaws of
death, and nothing could exceed the prowess with which you closed upon the enemy
when a sheet of fire was blazing in your faces!
In the renewed struggle in which
you are on the eve of engaging, I ask and can desire but a continuance of the
same conduct which now attracts the admiration and pride of the loved ones you
have left at home.
You are fighting for all that is
dearest to men; and though opposed to a foe who disregards many of the usages of
civilized war, your humanity to the wounded and the prisoners was the fit and
crowning glory to your valor.
Defenders of a just cause, may
God have you in His holy keeping! JEFFERSON DAVIS.
The general will cause the above to be read to the troops under his command.
OUR LOSS AT FAIROAKS.
General McClellan has furnished
to the War Department a statement of the killed, wounded, and missing at the
battle of Fairoaks, which he estimates in the aggregate at 5739, which were
divided among the different corps engaged as follows:
Killed. Wounded. Missing.
General Sumner (second) 183 894
259 980 155
448 1753 921
Total 890 3627 1222
The following dispatch was
received on 4th at the War Department:
HALLECK'S HEAD-QUARTERS, June 4,
E. M. Stanton, Secretary of
General Pope, with 40,000 men, is
thirty miles south of Corinth, pushing the enemy hard. He already reports 10,000
prisoners and deserters from the enemy, and 15,000 stand of arms captured.
Thousands of the enemy are
throwing away their arms. A farmer says that when Beauregard learned that
Colonel Elliott had cut the railroad on his line of retreat he became frantic,
and told his men to save themselves the best way they could.
We have captured nine locomotives
and a number of cars. One of the former is already repaired, and is running
to-day. Several more will be in running order in two or three days.
The result is all I could
H. W. HALLECK,
General Pope telegraphs on 9th
from the advance, that the prisoners who first deserted to be exchanged now want
to take the oath. The rebels drove and carried off every thing for miles around.
The wealthiest families are destitute and starving. Women and children are
crying for food, and all the males are forced into the army.
THE CAPTURE OF MEMPHIS.
The particulars of the capture of
Memphis were received in
Washington on 7th from Commodore Davis, in which he
states that a battle took place between his fleet, aided by Colonel Ellet's ram
flotilla, and the rebel fleet of eight gun-boats and rams. The engagement
commenced at half past five on the morning of the 6th instant, and ended at
seven in a running fight, the end of which was the capture of four vessels of
the rebel fleet, the sinking of two, and the burning of one. One escaped by
superior speed. Colonel Ellet, who is seriously but not dangerously wounded, is
highly complimented for his gallantry and skill.
Memphis was surrendered by the
Mayor immediately after the engagement, and was placed under military authority.
THE BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA.
Dispatches received from General Mitchell, on 7th, dated at Huntsville, Alabama,
state that General Negley, with a portion of the forces under his (Mitchell's)
command had driven the rebels under General Adams from Winchester to
Chattanooga, and at that place had utterly routed them and captured all their
baggage wagons, supplies, and ammunition.
A dispatch from Mobile to the
Petersburg Express states that the Union fleet has passed the lower batteries on
the river and attacked Fort Morgan.
THE MOVEMENT AGAINST CHARLESTON.
Dupont state that the gun-boats have possession of Stono, near
General Stevens, with an expedition, went from Port Royal to Pocotaglio, a
railway station oil the road between Charleston and Savannah, and tore up the
track, thus cutting off communication between those two cities.
Southern papers report that our
troops landed on the 4th instant at James Island, opposite Charleston; that a
battle took place there, and they claim a victory. Later dispatches, dated the
same day, say that our men landed in large force on Battery Island and John
Island, and were then in front of General Gist, the rebel leader, under cover of
our gun-boats. An immediate advance on the city was then considered imminent.
THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY.
The whole Shenandoah valley has
been cleared of the rebels by the combined movements of
General McDowell, from whose force a brigade of cavalry, under
General Bayard, reached Strasburg on 1st, and was ordered by General Fremont to
join in the pursuit of Jackson's army, who made three attempts to maintain a
position at different points, but were driven from each with great loss. The
rebels were attacked at Strasburg by Fremont's forces en the evening of 1st, and
rapidly pursued on Monday morning by the troops of Fremont, Shields, and Bayard.
Their dispersion was complete.
General Fremont reached
Harrisonburg on 7th, and drove Jackson's rear-guard from the place.
ANOTHER UNION MEETING IN
The Union meeting announced to be
held in Shelbyville, Tennessee, has come off. Three thousand people were
present, and the Union sentiment was strongly manifested. Governor Johnson,
Colonel May, and J. L. Scudder addressed the meeting, the latter gentleman
having been a prominent secessionist previously, and an official under the rebel
THE SLAVE-TRADE TREATY.
IN the House of Lords Earl
Russell has laid upon the table the new treaty with the United States for the
suppression of the slave-trade. He briefly explained its objects, and bore
testimony to the efforts of the Government of
President Lincoln to put a stop to
NO REBEL FLAG IN TURKISH WATERS.
As a singular contrast to the
action of the Christian Powers of Europe with regard to the reception given and
aid afforded to rebel vessels in their ports, we have the fact demonstrated, by
recent official communications between
Mr. Seward and the Government of the
Sultan of Turkey, that the latter has refused admission into Turkish ports to
any vessel bearing the
RUMORED REPULSE OF THE FRENCH.
Vera Cruz comes to us
to the 14th ult. Reports were circulating to the effect that the French had met
with a severe repulse at Puebla, losing about twelve hundred men; but many were
slow to believe it; and other rumors say that the invaders occupied Puebla
without any resistance. Preparations for defending the capital were continuing.