Civil War Overview
Civil War 1861
Civil War 1862
Civil War 1863
Civil War 1864
Civil War 1865
Civil War Battles
Robert E. Lee
Civil War Medicine
Civil War Links
Civil War Art
Republic of Texas
Civil War Gifts
Robert E. Lee Portrait
Page) ernment, why does every threat of
resistance to the result of the election proceed from their supporters ?
If they are so zealous for order
and free speech, why are all the disturbers of Union meetings for political
discussion their vehement partisans?
The reply is very simple. They
are not uncompromising Union men. Mr. PENDLETON is of the political school of
JEFFERSON DAVIS by his own confession, and
General McCLELLAN accepts, without a
word of rebuke, the nomination of men who call for an immediate armistice.
In a word, Mr. PENDLETON is an
advocate of supreme State sovereignty, and consequently believes in a "
Confederacy" and not in a Union ; while General McCLELLAN shirks the question,
and tells Mr. VALLANDIGHAM that they probably mean the same thing.
The October elections show that
the great body of the people fully understand what patriotism requires of them,
and that is to vote for candidates who are openly, by their words, by their
acts, and by the characters and acts of their supporters, unconditional Union
JUDGE-ADVOCATE-GENERAL HOLT has
given the country an astounding illustration of the methods of Copperhead
"Conservatism" to secure " peace" by armed insurrection at the North in aid of
the rebels, and to maintain the national honor by forcibly overthrowing the
Government constitutionally elected. The publication of this report is a great
and timely service ; for it is prepared with the utmost care, from a vast mass
of testimony collected during many months and all over the country.
The main points in this
extraordinary and startling revelation are, that there was established a large
secret association, bound by oaths, armed, extending throughout the West and
into the rebel section, with careful forms and principles, for the purpose of
promoting desertions from the Union. armies ; discouraging enlistments and
resisting the draft ; circulating treasonable documents ; giving intelligence to
the enemy; recruiting for the rebels ; furnishing the rebels with arms,
ammunition, etc. ; co-operating in rebel raids and invasions ; destroying
private property; assassinating Union men; and establishing a Northwestern
The head of this conspiracy is
CLEMENT L. VALLANDIGHAM, one of the authors of the
Chicago platform, and the seconder of General McCLELLAN for the Presidency. Every leading member of it is
a supporter of the McCLELLAN-PENDLETON ticket. Every member of it hates
ANDREW JOHNSON as the rebels hate them. That every member
understands the whole scope of its intention is, of course, impossible. That
every member would deliberately resist the result of a constitutional election
we do not believe. But it is managed and officered by men who would, and who
hope to persuade and bully others to follow them.
Thanks to the steady fidelity of
our civil and military officers in every degree, this atrocious secret has been
revealed, and the vast and wicked conspiracy exposed, American citizens will not
fail to remark that the chief conspirator is the chief apostle of"
means simply bloody civil war in the Free States. They will reflect that it was
conceived by men who have constantly denounced and maligned the Administration,
and have always extenuated the rebels and, the rebellion. They will remember
that these men went to Chicago and sat in convention with the chief conspirator;
that together they set forth their principles and nominated their candidates ;
and that at this moment they are straining every nerve to secure the election of
those candidates, McCLELLAN and PENDLETON.
These conspirators are the men
who talk loudest of "Conservatism" and "Peace" The people will teach them in
November that "Conservatism" is the unconditional maintenance of the Government,
and " Peace" is the armed overthrow of rebellion and the unqualified assent of
rebels to the Constitution and the laws.
REBEL TREATMENT OF UNION
ON the 14th of June, 1864, the
rebel Congress issued a manifesto concluding as follows " We commit our cause to
the enlightened judgment of the world, to the sober reflections of our
adversaries themselves, and to the solemn and righteous arbitrament of Heaven."
The people, in whose name this was said, profess to be peculiarly "chivalric"
and " high-toned." Their leader, who said that he would rather associate with
hyenas than Yankees, was declared by Mr. GLADSTONE to have " created a nation,"
He and his confederates claim to be especially generous, gentlemanly, and
humane. Yet in all the annals of war, conduct so base, cruel, and loathsome as
theirs is without parallel, The more the secret rebel history of this struggle
is exposed the more inhuman and barbarous it appears ; and if any justification
were yet wanting of the truth of all that has ever been said of the imbruting
influence of slavery upon the master class, it is found in the story of their
treatment of their prisoners of war.
The Sanitary Commission of the
United States appointed in May, 1864, a sub-commission of inquiry, consisting of
Dr. VALENTINE MOTT, Chairman, Doctors EDWARD DELAFIELD and ELLERSLIE WALLACE,,
Hon. J. I. CLARK HARE, GOUVERNEUR MORRIS WILKINS, Esquire, and Rev. TREADWELL
WALDEN, the four last of Philadelphia, to ascertain the real condition of the
Union prisoners while in rebel hands. The commission has just made a copious,
scientific, and descriptive Report, which is certainly one of the most
astounding chapters of modern history.
It exposes the treatment of all
Union prisoners from the moment of their capture to their exchange, especially
in the Libey prison and on
Belle Isle at
Richmond. The narrative is derived from
the testimony of the prisoners themselves, substantiated by the medical
investigations of scientific experts ; and such a hideous and revolting tale was
never told. Its value is completed by an equally careful report of the condition
and treatment of
rebel prisoners in Union hands at Fort Delaware, Point Lookout,
and elsewhere. The verbal testimony of the Union sufferers is appended to the
The harrowing and sickening
details we can not reproduce. They are sad beyond belief, and they are
incontestably established. Nor ought any man who would truly understand the
scope of this war, and the spirit from which it springs and in which it is
conducted upon the rebel side, fail to ponder this terrible revelation. The
narrative of the Report, simply and cogently prepared by the Rev. Mr WALDEN,
presents the case, of which the Appendix furnishes the testimony ; and the whole
is neatly printed and issued by the Sanitary Commission.
We are glad to know that a large
number of copies have been sent to England. They will furnish some authentic
refutation of the foul slanders upon the Union cause and conduct which are
statedly prepared for the London Times by CHARLES MACKAY, and devoured with
delight' by the British party which exults over the Chicago nominations. They
will reveal to our friends in England the spirit of the social system against
whose armed assault upon the Government the American people are contending. Our
friends abroad will wince and shudder as they read. Yet the painful revelation
will but nerve them to a more persistent support of out cause, if possible, than
ever, while they will agree with the Commission that, " until an excuse or an
explanation comes, the Government by which such things are authorized, and the
people by whose public sentiment such things are encouraged, will stand
arraigned for immeasurable inhumanity and criminality before the civilized
WRECK OF SECESSION.
UPON page 697 of this paper is a
vivid picture of the wreck of the great pirate ship Secession, She is dashed
upon the rocks, and is rapidly going to pieces in the terrible storm of
Patriotism which beats upon her. Smitten by the fatal thunder-bolts of LINCOLN,
SHERIDAN, she lies a helpless bulk amidst the
waves. One ray of hope STEPHENS'S " Hail, holy light !"—shines to cheer her from
the Chicago Light house, on whose summit blows the
national flag, union down.
But the foundation of the Light-house itself is fast crumbling away, dashed to
pieces by the irresistible waves of popular indignation.
Meanwhile the copper-bound boat,
Peace-at-any- Price, is launched by the famous Chicago wreckers, SEYMOUR,
BELMONT, VALLANDIGHAM, WOOD, COX, and VOORHEES, while PENDLETON strains at the
stern to shove her off, and p gentleman in a Major-General's uniform, upon a
prancing war horse that seems to recoil in disgust--cheers them and waves them
on. Among the crowd the most conspicuous wrecker carries under his arm a huge
plank--Immediate Cessation of Hostilities over which they hope the pirate crew
may safely escape, to ship for another voyage. But the storm is overwhelming.
Escape is impossible ; and the ship Secession, " built in the eclipse, and
rigged with curses dark," is going down forever.
LOYAL PUBLICATION SOCIETY.
WE have too long omitted to speak
of the valuable series of pamphlets, large and small, issued by the Loyal
Publication Society of this city at 380 Broadway. They are generally brief and
trenchant treatises upon every point of the great question, prepared by the most
accomplished hands, furnished at the most reasonable rates, and they form an
invaluable collection of authentic references and impregnable arguments. Whoever
wishes to aid the noble enterprise may be very sure that it is under the best
management, a fact which the issues prove, and may confidently send his
contributions to MORRIS KETCHUM, Treasurer, 40 Exchange Place.
THE, Peninsular Campaign and its
Antecedents, as developed by the Report of General McCLELLAN and other published
Documents," by J. G. BARNARD, Lieutenant-Colonel of Engineers and Major-General
of Volunteers. (D. VAN NOSTRAND, New York.) General BARNARD was Chief Engineer
of the Army of the Potomac from its organization under McCLELLAN to the end of
the disastrous Peninsular campaign. He knew every plan; he saw every detail ;
and his review of the incompetency of the commanding General is crushing.
General BARNARD'S contemptuous impatience of a policy
which almost ruined one of the
noblest armies in the world is not concealed; and in this small volume,
originally prepared as an article for a review, the reasons of that impatience
are plainly stated. The great victory seems to have been almost want only thrown
away, and the timid sluggishness of the Commanding General, however pure his
intentions may have been, did the work of treason. He was eternally preparing to
make the final preparations to prepare for a forward movement ; and in the midst
of the preliminaries for his preparations
STONEWALL JACKSON stormed in
upon him and drove him away. GRANT'S terrible grip upon LEE, which nothing can
shake off, and McCLELLAN'S fears and doubts, and " mud," and " roads," and
"immense forces of the enemy," and " at least die with my men," and foolish
"push them to the wall" show the difference between the operations of a soldier
whose whole heart and soul are vowed to victory and a General who has no
conception of the earnestness and vitality of the struggle, and thinks first of
his own reputation. It is the difference between SHERMAN and
DON CARLOS BUELL,
between PATTERSON and
HANCOCK. It is not necessary to suppose the hero of the
Chickahominy a traitor to understand why he is favorite with the rebels. Any
reader who will carefully consider this little volume of General BARNARD'S will
see why the advantage won by
SUMNER, and HEINTZELMAN at Fairoaks was not
followed up, and why LEE was allowed a day to retire unmolested from
It is not McCLELLAN'S fault that he is not a great General; but it will
certainly be the fault of the American people if they ever make him
" Down in Tennessee," by EDMUND
KIRK (G, W. CARLETON, New York), is a work which is full of the most timely and
melancholy revelations of the war upon the border. The sufferings of Union men
at the South and long the line, of which Parson BROWNLOW has told us some
harrowing passages, are here related with a graphic detail and dramatic power
which burn them into the memory. Mr. GILMORE'S experience of life and character
in the Southern States gives a peculiar value to his observations, and his
shrewd and humorous eye permits nothing characteristic to escape him. The book
has the full flavor of the Southwest, and its portraits of famous Union soldiers
are full of interest. Mr. GILMORE argues strongly that the hope of the future
Union lies in the middle Mass of the slave States, who are very ignorant, but
are sprung of what he thinks the best stock, the Scotch-Irish, that of JACKSON
and CALHOUN. The great slave holding class, which has rebelled for its own
advantage, must, in Mr. GILMORE's opinion, be entirely overcome. The work ends
with the story of his visit to Richmond with Colonel JAQUESS, and the expression
of his conviction that the people of the rebel States are weary of the war, but
that the leaders, who have staked every thing upon the rebellion, know that
nothing remains for them but tc push on to the inevitable end.
Slam our record of last week
closed there have been no military movements of consequence. Hood, at last
advises, appears to be retreating toward the southwest, without having
accomplished his object. On the 12th two divisions of the Tenth Army Corps and a
portion of Kautz's cavalry made a reconnoissance on the Darbytown Road. There
was some skirmishing; our loss was 350. It was found that the enemy had improved
his opportunities for fortification. In the Shenandoah Valley the rebels
recently made their appearance in the vicinity of Strasburg, where they were
attacked on the 15th by Sheridan and put to rout.
GENERAL SHERMAN'S REPORT.
We are able this week to give a
resume of General Sherman's report of his Georgia campaign.
On the 14th of March, 1864,
Sherman was notified of General Grant's commission as Lieutenant-General, and of
his own succession to the command of the Division of the Mississippi. Having
consulted with Grant and given instructions to his subordinates, General Logan
at Huntsville, Thomas at Chattanooga, and
Schofield at Knoxville, it was
determined that the active campaign should begin on the 1st of May. In the mean
time, according to his custom, Sherman gave his personal attention to the
question of supplies. At Nashville he found the depots well filled, and well
ordered preparations for the future. At Knoxville, however, there was this
difficulty, namely, that the impoverished loyalists of East Tennessee were too
great a drain upon his supplies. He wisely determined to make these people
support themselves, which they did without great difficulty.
The campaigns in Virginia and
Georgia commenced simultaneously, viz., on the 5th of May. At that time General
Sherman had an army of 100,000 men, of which 6000 were
cavalry, the horses for
which were yet collecting. More than one haft of this force belonged to the Army
of the Cumberland under General Thomas, which numbered 60,773 men. The Army of
the Tennessee, under McPherson, numbered nearly 25,000; and the Army of the
Ohio, under Schofield, nearly 14,000. This force was kept at about the same
strength during the entire campaign. It was concentrated in the vicinity of
Chattanooga at the close of April.
General Johnston's army lay at
Dalton, 26 miles south-east of Chattanooga, and in numbers was not much more
than half as strong as the Federal army; although superior in cavalry. The three
corps of his army were commanded by Hardee, Hood, and Polk. The cavalry, under
Wheeler's command numbered about 10,000.
On the morning of May 6 Sherman's
army had approached Dalton. The centre, under Thomas, was at Ringgold, on the
railroad from Chattanooga, and about 12 miles from Dalton. McPherson's army lay
on the right, west of Dalton, at Gordon's Mill, and that of the Ohio on the
left, and some distance northeast of Ringgold. Between Sherman's and Johnston's
lines stretched the Chattanooga or Rocky Face ridge, running almost directly
north and south, and covering all the approaches to Dalton. The railroad passed
through the ridge at Tunnel Hill:, but the pass, known as Buzzard's Roost, was
too strongly defended to admit of assault. Skirting the railroad on the left
this ridge runs six or eight miles south of Dalton, where it abruptly abuts on
the valley of the Oostenaula River, which runs southwestwardly to Rome.
On the 7th Thomas moved close up
to Buzzard's Roost, while McPherson completely turned the ridge and moved on
Resaca, a dozen miles south of Dalton. McPherson, finding Resaca strongly
defended, was reinforced by Schofield's army and the greater portion of
Thomas's. Thus the whole army, excepting Howard's Corps, was on the 11th moving
against the enemy's rear. The movement was much impeded by the impracticable
nature of the country, and Johnston was enabled to reach Resaca, so that on the
14th Sherman was confronted by the whole rebel army. Cavalry detachments were
sent southward across the river to destroy the road in the enemy's rear, but the
main body of the army attacked Resaca, bring-
ing on a battle, May 15th, the
result of which was the evacuation of Resaca by Johnston that night. Sherman's
army pursued by every available route. Rome was occupied in the mean while by
Jeff C. Davis's division.
Johnston made a feeble stand at Adairsville, fifteen
miles south of Resaca ; but he crossed the Etowah without giving battle. This
river runs westwardly to Rome, where it joins the Oostenaula, forming the Coosa.
It was now evident that Johnston
would next dispute Sherman at Allatoona Pass, just south of the Etowah. Sherman
determined to turn this position, and on the 23d moved on Dallas, fifteen miles
west of Marietta and off the railroad. Johnston was aware of Sherman's design,
and took measures to dispute the approach to Marietta, by interposing his army
between that place and Dallas. The country was favorable for defense. Sherman
was just about to change his tactics and approach the railroad on the left, when
Johnston made a severe attack on his right at Dallas, which was held by
McPherson. The rebels were repulsed. The movement toward the left was carried
out June 1, and all the roads by which Johnston could return to Allatoona were
held. This movement secured Sherman against a counter attack on his rear, as it
planted him safely on the railroad at Ackworth, which was occupied June 6. Big
Shanty Station, still further south, was occupied June 9, and Sherman then
confronted the Twin Mountain, Kenesaw. On the right was Pine, and more to the
westward Lost Mountain. The rebel army occupied this line of mountain defenses.
The approach to Marietta by way
of Dallas had failed, but must now be accomplished by a new flank movement. The
rebel line, however, was of considerable length, and it was determined, before
making another movement, if possible, to break this line. From the 11th of June
to the 15th there was sharp skirmishing and a heavy cannonade. On the 14th
General Polk was killed ; and the next day Pine Mountain was given up. On the
17th Lost Mountain was abandoned, and the enemy's line contracted, but covering
the approach to Marietta and to the rail-road in his rear.
The roads now began to be what
Sherman calls "villainously bad," and this caused some delay. On the 22d Hood's
Hooker's at Kulp House, and were repulsed. Then General Sherman
determined to make an assault on Kenesaw on the enemy's left, which was made Jun
23rd. It resulted unsuccessfully. Generals Harker and M'Cook were killed. The
Federal loss was 3000.
Four days afterward, July 1,
orders were given for an advance to Nickajack Creek and Turner's Ferry, several
miles south of Marietta. McPherson commenced this movement July 2, and Kenesaw
was immediately abandoned by the enemy. General Sherman occupied Marietta July
3, and McPherson and Schofield were instructed to cross the Nickajack and attack
Johnston while crossing the Chattahoochee. But the latter had prudently guarded
the crossing by a vite du pont. On the 5th the Federal army moved to the
Before the enemy had time to make
extensive preparations to oppose his advance, Sherman threw Schofield's Corps
across the river at the north of Soap's Creek on the 7th. Garrard at the same
time destroyed the factories at Roswell, and held the ford at that point. Here
McPherson was to cross. Another crossing was established at Powers's Ferry.
Atlanta lay only eight miles distant, but a short rest was afforded the troops.
On the 10th Rousseau's cavalry expedition, consisting of 2000 men, broke up the
West Point Road, rendering it useless to the enemy.
Until the 16th stores were being
collected at Allatoona and Marietta. On the 17th the army advanced. Schofield
was already across the river. Now the rest of the army followed, the Army of the
Tennessee moving around to Decatur on the Augusta railroad east of Atlanta.
Thomas at the same time crossed Peach Tree Creek north of the city. Schofield
held the centre; but with a gap between him and Thomas near the Buckhead Road.
On the 20th the enemy came out in
the afternoon and attacked Sherman's right centre at its weakest point. He was
repulsed; and Sherman estimates his loss to have been 5000, while his own was
only 1500, most of which was in Hooker's Corps, General Johnston had been
relieved of command and superseded by Hood, The enemy then withdrew to his inner
intrenchments. About noon on the 22d the rebel General attacked again, this time
on the left, where M'Pherson had obtained a commanding position. Early in the
fight McPherson was killed, and Logan took command during the battle. The attack
was made by Hardee's Corps in flank and Stewart's in front. The enemy gained
considerable success in the early part of the engagement, capturing several
guns, but was afterward defeated and driven from the field, having lost, Sherman
thinks, 8000 men, while our loss was 3722.
Then followed the unsuccessful
raids of Stoneman and McCook. On the 26th Sherman began to move his army from
the east to the west side of Atlanta. It was while this movement was being
executed that the battle of the 28th occurred, In which, as in the previous
assaults, the enemy was repulsed and severely punished. In this battle our loss
was less than 600, while that of the enemy was 5000. Sherman then extended his
lines so that they reached from the Chattanooga Road, just north of Atlanta,
nearly to East Point, the junction of the West Point and Macon railroads. But it
was impossible in this way to break the enemy's communications. Therefore
Sherman, August 16, issued his orders for the entire army to cut loose from the
Chattanooga Road and to raise the siege of Atlanta, the Twentieth Corps alone
being left to guard the fords of the Chattahoochee. Wheeler's cavalry being
north very much facilitated this movement. The entire army was by the 30th on
the Macon Road, between Jonesborough, where Lee and Hardee were, and the rest of
the rebel army at Atlanta.
On the 31st the rebels came out
from Jonesborough and made an attack, which resulted in their defeat. The next
day, September 1, Jonesborough was attacked and taken by General Davis. That
same night Hood evacuated Atlanta, which General Sherman immediately occupied,
making it a grand military post.
Maryland has adopted the new
Constitution, abolishing slavery in the State, by a majority of about 1500.
THERE has been in London great
alarm in prospect of a serious money panic. The Spectator says: "The country,
despite its prosperity, has been doing a great deal of unsound business, a great
deal of paper discounted represents nothing at all but speculators' hopes, the
reserve in the Bank seems likely to diminish rapidly, the Continent is unwilling
to send over money in the face of a crisis, and should the new banks begin to go
we may look out for a crash. Failures are becoming frequent, and the explosion
of the Banking Company of Leeds, which will involve an ultimate loss of nearly a
million to its shareholders, has not tended to improve matters,"
The London Times regards the
victories of Sheridan as certain to insure Lincoln's re-election.
The French-Italian Convention has
decided that the capital of Italy shall be transferred from Turin to Florence.
This takes away half the income of every citizen of Turin, and on the 22d of
September the dissatisfaction caused by the measure broke out in open violence.
The troops in San Carlo Square were attacked by the mob and fired upon. Without
orders they returned the fire. Several persons were killed.
In regard to the Danish Question
the Spectator says: All communication between Jutland and Copenhagen has been
forbidden, exports have been prohibited, and fifty thousand men quartered upon
the wretched peninsula for the winter. In fact the country is to be gutted in
order that the sufferers may by their cries create consternation at Copenhagen.
The robber orders his victim's wife to be whipped in order that he may pay up
quickly. Nothing so atrocious has been done in Europe since 1815, and the
example will exaggerate the obstinacy of every future defense. Had Jutland one
range of mountains the Prussians would even now have to face a peasant war.
The Greek Government has decided
to abolish its Upper Chamber, which corresponds to our Senate. The Upper House,
however, in Greece has not the same necessity or use as in this country; and it
has an injurious influence on the Lower Chamber, depriving that body of a great
amount of conservative ability.