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Robert E. Lee Portrait
Page) "Let foreign writers say that
Italy is the land of the dead. Yes ; but the dead have at last risen from their
tombs in the shape of 350,000 armed men, and of 200 battalions of mobolized
national guards. The dead have strong and well manned fortresses to defend their
father land ; they have a fine fleet to assert their rights over the waters of
their national seas. Those very Italians of whom it was said, 'They do not
fight,' have already won many battles, and whether under the gray coats of the
regular soldiers, or under the red shirt of the volunteer, have taught the
illustrious General, who in a moment of bad humor uttered those words, that they
know how to fight and conquer."
When it is remembered that this
dead Italy has produced the most sagacious statesman and the most successful
popular leader of our times, and has shown, despite its overwhelming
disadvantages, that it can wisely unite for a common national purpose and
existence, the hope that CAVOUR cherished seems only reasonable. A people with
MAZZINI to awaken, CAVOUR and CIALDINI to organize, and GARIBALDI to lead, can
not be called a dead nation. The human heart every where cries Amen to
CIALDINI'S noble concluding words : " The school of sacrifice makes the soul of
a people stronger. PROMETHEUS had the power of making a man out of clay ;
sacrifice alone has the power of turning men into heroes."
That is the lesson we are
learning ; and it is not the least inspiring consolation in our struggle to know
that, as the true cause of this country has the sympathy of the wiser England,
so it is cheered and supported by the faith of the better Italy. CAVOUR, who
died in the dark day of our war, always understood it: and it is not to the
living hope of Italy, to the new nation, to VICTOR EMANUEL, CIALDINI, and
GARIBALDI that the rebel emissaries address themselves; it is naturally and
instinctively to the dark and dead Italy, whose shaking seat is at Rome.
DOCTORS AND THE
IT is the duty of the examining
physician to declare recruits sound or unsound. If the ranks are swelled with
idiots, blind men, paralytics, and other diseased persons, the fault is prima
facie that of the physician, and it is for him to show that his decision against
them has been overruled. Collusion between the physician and the broker, or the
marshal, or the Board, is so easy, and may often be so profitable, that it is
obvious the extremest care should be taken to select the most worthy and
responsible medical men.
In one case known to us the
physician was at heart a rebel. Of course the unsounder the soldier the more the
doctor was pleased. Upon representation of the facts he was removed ; but it
shows how essential it is that the character and sentiments of this important
officer shall be fully understood. It is idle to accuse the Government of the
results of our own carelessness; the surgeons can not be personally known to the
authorities. They must be appointed upon the representation of the residents of
the district. If they do their duty, the Government will do its duty. If they
fail, the Government is not responsible.
"Moods," by Louisa M. ALCOTT (LORING,
Boston). This is a short story of great power and absorbing interest by a new
writer, whose "Hospital Sketches" were remarkable for a humor and insight which
ought to have made them much more widely known. In the present tale the conflict
of passion in noble characters is drawn with great delicacy and skill, and with
a freedom and firmness which promise remarkable works hereafter. " Moods" is
neither sentimental nor morbid nor extravagant. It has freshness and self
reliance. Greater experience and resolute study will correct the imperfect
literary art; nor is it a disheartening failure not to have succeeded in a
satisfactory discrimination between the two heroes of the tale. Such likeness in
unlikeness demands a Shakespearian subtlety of skill fully to delineate. It is
something to have suggested it. After Hawthorne we recall no American love story
of equal power.
AGAIN there is a lull. Federal
armies are resting, in the mean while making preparations to strike. Rebel
armies are retreating upon more interior lines, and preparing to ward off the
threatened blows. Our campaigns are getting to be more decisive than they ever
have been. They are also getting shorter. The short space of sixty days gave us
Atlanta, and witnessed the progress and victorious conclusion of
the Tennessee campaign. The country is now asking two questions--which the
rebels are also asking at
General Lee is asking with anxious
solicitude: What will
Thomas now do with his army of over forty thousand men?
and what will
Sherman next accomplish with his army of sixty thousand an army
not rivaled in efficiency by any in the world?
And first for General Thomas.
That officer stands relatively to the resistance now offered to his advance in a
position far more advantageous than that occupied by General Sherman last May.
In the first place, because of what Sherman's Atlanta campaign has already
accomplished in his behalf. There is a popular impression that because Atlanta
has been left behind, the value of that summer campaign has been canceled. Not
so. Atlanta was important to the Confederacy as a great arsenal, and as the
centre of the great railroad system connecting the Atlantic with the Gulf
States. As an arsenal its value has been destroyed. As a railroad centre its
value has been canceled by the actual destruction of the railroads
emerging from it eastward and
northward. As soon as Sherman had taken Savannah he sent Kilpatrick to destroy
the railroad running southwestwardly from that city toward Florida. This
expedition having accomplished its object, an equally destructive raid will
Charleston from its connection with Augusta, and then the entire Atlanta
system of railroads will be annihilated. The military scheme of General Thomas's
next campaign is therefore very greatly limited by Sherman's success, being
confined to the Mobile system, with its two central ganglia at Meridian and
Jackson. But even here a great part of his work has already been done for him by Ostrend, Davidson, and Dana. In the second place, Thomas has an incomparably
greater advantage than Sherman had in respect of comparative strength. The rebel
General Johnston, besides being himself a skillful soldier, bad under him a well
appointed army. General Hood has an army of not more than twenty thousand men,
who have been demoralized by defeat, and who have just escaped annihilation.
This army has no more guns than can be counted on a man's fingers. Such a force
is not likely to offer any very formidable resistance, and its reorganization
must take time. But Hood will either have to get out of Thomas's way or else
stand boldly up and face the music. Thomas will not wait long before compelling
an issue. If Hood gets out of the way far enough, of course he will not be worth
minding, and Mississippi will be as open to Thomas as Georgia was to Sherman. If
the rebel General, on the other hand, intends to cover Jackson, Meridian, and
finally Mobile, then there will be fighting and flanking again as from the
beginning. Thomas, in the third place, it must be considered, will have less
difficulties to contend with than Sherman had in establishing bases and
preserving his lines of communications. In the immediate vicinity of Corinth he
can have a water base on the Tennessee River, and if, as he advances southward,
Forrest's cavalry should prove too troublesome, he will yet be not too far from
the Mississippi to get supplies from
As to Sherman's next campaign, we
are left to conjecture in respect to details. But it is certain that his general
object is the destruction of the remaining system of railway communications upon
which General Lee depends. In the most important sense General Sherman's
subsequent movements will be co-operative with General Grant. It has become very
doubtful whether Lee will await in Richmond the progress of these movements.
Sherman moving northward from Savannah threatens Richmond more seriously than
Grant at City Point. The investment of the rebel capital has been begun
from a vast distance, but the rebel commander-in-chief sees every step of the
way to the end. He must attend to Sherman, or Sherman will attend to him.
Sherman, too, has a great army. If it is to be met at all, and with any hope of
checking its progress, it must be met with an adequate force. This necessity
will in a few days transform every feature of the Confederate scheme of defense
in the east. If Richmond is not given up entirely, yet its defense must be so
modified as to require but a small force behind its fortifications. The greater
portion of Lee's army is needed further south. We shall witness during the next
three months military developments, shiftings of positions, and strategic
combinations more startling than those which have already inaugurated the winter
In the Senate, a communication
was received from the Secretary of War, stating that General Herron's report on
the condition of military affairs in Arkansas was not yet ready. A communication
Secretary Fessenden announced the readiness of the Coast Survey Report for
1864, and 4200 copies were ordered to be printed, 3000 to be distributed. A
resolution was adopted directing the Secretary of War to give information as to
the number of naval enlistments that had been credited to the respective States,
and the principle upon which these credits had been made. Also a resolution of
inquiry into expediency of distributing the cotton captured at Savannah among
the soldiers and sailors engaged in the capture, upon the principle regulating
the distribution of naval prizes. The Pension Appropriation Bill was passed. Mr.
Wilson's joint resolution for freeing the families of colored soldiers was
debated. Mr. Wilson urged immediate action. Mr. Doolittle was for referring the
resolution, on the ground that an amendment to the Constitution, covering the
ground of the resolution and much more, was now under consideration in the
House. He hoped that the proposition for this amendment would pass in the House.
Mr. Wilson replied that he had no such hope, and even if it did pass it would he
a long time before the people could act upon it. The soldiers themselves had
been freed why not free their families ? Mr. Saulsbury then raised the question
of the power of Congress, under the Constitution, to act in the matter: "Has the
doctrine of military necessity gone so far that when we are in a state of war
whatever the Congress of he United States shall decree is constitutionally
decreed?" He took the ground that Congress had no power to free the negro
volunteer himself if he were a slave. It was a principle of international law
that if a slave be captured from his lawful owner by one belligerent, and he
afterward comes back into the possession of the other belligerent, he reverts to
his original owner. Mr. Sumner said that a call had just been made for 300,000
more troops. Encouragement of every kind ought to be offered to secure
volunteers. It was, he said, a sufficient reason to enfranchise the negro
volunteer that the Government stood in need of his service, and of his best
service, which latter could not be secured so long as he remained e slave. Every
argument in favor of his enfranchisement also favored the enfranchisement of his
family. "There is the same practical necessity for doing it, and the same
unutterable shabbiness in not doing it." In his opinion Congress was at this
moment complete master of the whole question of slavery every where in the
United States. "Future generations will read with amazement that a great people,
when their national life was assailed, hesitated to exercise a power so simple
and beneficent; and this amazement will know no bounds as they learn that
Congress higgled for months on the question whether the wife and children of the
colored soldier should be admitted to freedom." The question of reference was
decided in the negative 19 to 15; but at Mr. Saulsbury's request further
consideration of the subject was postponed.
In the House, a resolution was
adopted calling upon the Secretary of the Navy to communicate the number of guns
burst in the recent bombardment of Fort Fisher ; on what ships, and for what
cause; also the number of killed and wounded. A joint resolution was referred,
providing that all vacancies in the clerical force in the several departments
shall be filled by such disabled soldiers and sailors as shall be deemed
competent. A resolution of inquiry as to the apportionment of naval credits was
In the Senate, the House
resolution dropping from the Army List all unemployed officers was, after
considerable debate, indefinitely postponed. A resolution of thanks to Sherman
and his army was passed. The same resolution was the same day passed in the
In the House, there was a long
debate on the proposed amendment of the Constitution.
The Senate was not in session.
In the House, nearly the entire
session was consumed in the debate on the proposed amendment to the
In the Senate, after an animated
debate, the resolution to free the families of colored soldiers was passed. In
the House, the debate on the proposed amendment of the Constitution was
continued. Mr. Yeaman, of Kentucky. and Mr. Odell, of New York, both Democrats,
took strong grounds in favor of the proposition.
GENERAL HOOD'S RETREAT.
General Hood has Forrest to thank for the escape of his
defeated army to the south side of the Tennessee River.
When Sherman divided his grand army, he not only left
to Thomas an inferior infantry force as compared to his
own, but he also took the best part of the
Hood, it is true, had to detach a large cavalry force under
Wheeler to interrupt Sherman's march, but still he had
left for Forrest a command which we may assume, counting in the mounted
infantry-men, to have numbered from
eight to ten thousand. Our cavalry, though inferior in
numbers, were much superior in discipline. Forrest is an
able leader, but mounted infantry do not answer well the
purposes either of infantry or of
cavalry in actual engagement. Still it was tills force which saved Hood's army
from complete destruction, by covering its retreat from Puck River.
battle of Nashville was
fought on the 15th and 16th of December. The next day Forrest made a stand at
Spring Hill, to cover the passage of the rebel wagon train across Duck River.
That was the last serious fight of the campaign. After once crossing that
stream, Hood's army gained on Thomas's in point of time. Thomas had two other
disadvantages. He had to build roads as he went along for his heavy trains, and
he had to follow over a tract of country difficult enough of passage for the
rebel army, but still more difficult to an army coming after. Steedman was sent
to Decatur to cut off Hood's retreat. He was too late for this, though,
according to the latest reports, his cavalry had captured and burned Hood's
pontoon train, taking at the same time 600 mules, 100 wagons, and 200 hogs. Hood
crossed the Tennessee on the 23d at Bainbridge, eight miles' above Florence,
with about 18,000 men.
Thomas's first campaign is now at
an end. The Federal loss during the campaign has been seven thousand. The rebels
have lost in killed and wounded 10,700, and in prisoners 9384 total, 20,084.
Sixty-eight cannon have been captured from Hood, and nineteen rebel generals
placed hors du combat.
THE EXPEDITION UP THE ROANOKE.
We reproduce on page 44 a sketch
showing the wreck of the Otsego and the explosion of the Bazley.
The expedition left Plymouth
December 9. The following vessels were comprised in the naval division: the
Wyalusing, Chicopee, Valley City, Belle, Picket Launch No. 5, the Otsego, the
Bazley, and the Shamrock. A land force under Colonel Frankle started the same
The squadron reached Jamesville
that night. It was just above this point that the Otsego was blown up, having
struck two torpedoes. The next morning the Bazley was blown up very near the
wreck of the Otsego. A number of torpedoes were found in this neighborhood, a
representation of one of which adjoins the sketch already alluded to. In the
mean while the land division had pushed on beyond Jamesville to Foster's Mills,
where a body of the enemy was met and repulsed. The mills were burned.
On the 20th the fleet passed
Poplar Point, where it encountered rebel batteries, and found the torpedoes
thicker than ever. The land-force appeared to be unable to afford any
substantial aid, and the fleet withdrew down the river to Jamesville.
GENERAL GRIERSON'S RAID.
General Dana, on December 21,
sent out a cavalry force which struck the Mobile and Ohio Railroad five miles
below Corinth, in Hood's rear. The next day this force had succeeded in
destroying the road to a point south of Okolona. Twenty-nine bridges, a great
deal of trestle work, thirty-two railroad cars, three hundred army wagons, and
four thousand carbines were destroyed. Forrest's camp of dismounted men at
Everona was dispersed, and six officers with twenty men were captured. Grierson
had orders to destroy the road to Meridian, and, if possible, to release our
prisoners at Catowader.
MORE ABOUT STONEMAN'S RAID.
Every subsequent report of the
raid undertaken in Southwestern Virginia by
Gillen adds to the total estimate of its value. To General Gillem was allotted a
very prominent part in the expedition. It was Gillem's force which turned the
tide in our favor at
Saltville. Stoneman had avoided Saltville, sending a part
of his command to the right and a part to the left. Breckinridge, learning that Burbridge had a force inferior to his own between Saltville and Glade Spring,
attacked him with some success. At this juncture Gillen came tip with his three
regiments the Eighth, Ninth, and Thirteenth Tennessee charged the forts
protecting the works, capturing 11 guns, 200 prisoners, 93 wagons, and
Breckinridge's head quarters. Burbridge pursued the rebels into North Carolina,
and returned just in time to take part in the destruction of the salt-works. The
importance of these works may be inferred from the fact that 6000 bushels of the
article were turned out from them daily.
The expedition captured and
brought away 900 prisoner, 8000 hogs, 200 mules, 200 negroes ; destroyed 11
foundries, 90 flouring and saw mills, 30 bridges, 13 locomotives, and 100 cars;
and captured 20 guns, 19 of which were taken by Gillem. The rebel loss in stores
alone amounts to two millions of dollars.
MAYOR GUNTHER'S MESSAGE.
The Mayor complains that the
heads of the Departments of the City Government are almost entirely independent
of the control of the Mayor. He says that the changes made in the charter
depriving the Mayor of this control have not benefited the city. " The Common
Council and the Mayor, as the direct representatives of the people of the city,
should be the source of all authority and control over its municipal affairs,
and it is an evident anomaly to find as many officers whose election is beyond
the popular will, and who are irresponsible to the magistrates of its choice."
The total amount of the different descriptions of our City debt proper is
$21,722,175; the County debt $10,804,900, making altogether about thirty-two and
at half million dollars. Against this the Mayor reckons that the City, exclusive
of all County property, can show an estate, in lauds, buildings, wharves, etc.,
of between for and fifty million dollars in value.
The Mayor cordially approves of
the appropriations made in behalf of soldiers' families. He also advocates
retrenchment in the expenses of the current year. The Mayor urges the occupation
of Hamilton Square, east of Central Park, as a military parade ground, and again
repeats his former recommendation that the harbor piers should be built of
stone. He urges that the example of Loudon should be followed, in diverting the
sewers from the river. This, the Mayor forgets, was a necessity in London, while
in New York the rivers are the most convenient avenues of drainage.
THE METROPOLITAN POLICE REPORT.
If our city is badly governed no
portion of the responsibility rests upon the Police. Mr. Acton, in his report,
complains and his complaint is worthy of consideration that while the Police
have it in their power to make arrests for offenses already committed, they have
not sufficient power in the premises to insure the prevention of crime. This lie
especially claims in regard to licensed occupations. The hotels, restaurants,
dram shops, the theatres and places of amusement, pawnbrokers, vendors,
auctioneers, hackmen, cartman and omnibus drivers should, he thinks, receive
their licenses from the Board of Felice. The suggestion made in the previous
report, that a morgue should be established, is renewed.
Robberies and larcenies are
chiefly successful on account of the facilities which they have for disposing of
stolen goods. The pawnbrokers receive these goods without question, and their
profits are even greater than those accruing to the plunderers themselves. A
pawnbroker in good standing recently received from a negro girl a diamond pin
worth $700 in pledge for a loan of $2 50. Hundreds of instances of this
character have been detected, and still the municipal license to these
pawnbrokers is continued.
During the war there has been a
great increase of crime, and especially of those crimes which involve personal
violence. "Probably," says Mr. Acton, "in no city in the civilized world, not
the theatre of actual war, is human life so lightly prized, and subjected to so
great hazard from violeuce, as in New York and Brooklyn." There were arrested by
the Metropolitan Police, for crimes of violence of a serious character, in 1863
and 1864 respectively, as follows :
For felonious assault
For assaults on policemen
For attempt at rape 23 29
For insulting females in the
street 33 88
For murder 79 48
For maiming 6 6
For manslaughter 1 10
For rape 21 14
For threatening life 12 30
Total 537 742
A small portion of this mass of
high crime has received the punishment provided by the laws. The fault, if any
exist, is somewhere beyond the power of the police.
During the year five policemen
have been murdered, and thirteen have been seriously injured. As one of the
means to prevent crime, Mr. Acton suggests the offer of rewards from a fund
established for that purpose.
The number of truant children
reported by teachers to the police during the year was 4633. Most of these were
visited, and nearly 2000 reformed so as to attend school regularly. "The Act of
April 12, 1853, 'to provide for the care and instruction of idle and truant
children,' authorizes the creation of such an institution by municipal
authority, but it has not been carried into effect. An amendment to render it
practically effective would be the means of conferring great benefits upon these
unfortunates of the rising generation, and upon society. The streets of our city
are filled with truant and vagrant children, offspring of misery and misfortune
; they are in training to recruit the fearful armies of vice and crime, which
are already so numerous as to threaten the welfare of society and the very
existence of Government."
The organized asylums are nearly
all full; at least this is true of the Catholic ones, and yet the streets are
full of children uncared for.
Mr. Acton also makes a useful
suggestion to prevent violent outbreaks in the city, viz : the organization of a
Police Brigade, to number 500.
The present Fire Department of
the City consists of 3960 members, having in charge and operating 29 steam and
18 hand fire engines. Mr. Acton thinks the present force inefficient, not
because it is lacking in strength, but because it is a volunteer force. In
Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Cincinnati the volunteer system has been
dispensed with with good results. Mr. Acton urges the substitution of steam for
Mr. Acton thinks that it would
conduce to the good order of society if a law were passed rendering it a crime
to carry concealed deadly weapons.
OUR CITY FINANCES.
The total amount of moneys
disbursed on city, county, and State accounts for the year 1864 amounted to
somewhat over fifteen millions of dollars. Of this sum four millions alone have
been expended by the city authorities the remaining eleven millions having been
disbursed through agencies over which the city authorities have no control.
THE COMMERCIAL RECORD FOR 1864.
During the year just passed there have been, in the loyal States, 510 failures,
with liabilities amounting in the aggregate to eight millions and a half. The
number of failures in the same States in 1857 was over four thou-sand, with
liabilities of $266,000,000; in 1861 there were nearly six thousand failures,
though the liabilities were less in amount than in 1857. Since the war began the
number of failures has steadily diminished. The Business Houses in the loyal
States are estimated as being 168,925 in number, representing nearly five
thousand millions of dollars.
The President has removed
B. F. Butler from command, ordering him to report at Lowell, Massachusetts. On
December 31, the rebels made an attack on the picket line of the Ninth Corps,
killing two, wounding three, and capturing thirty-five.
The verdict of the Committee on
the Conduct of the War, relative to the Petersburg mine affair, throws a divided
Generals Burnside and
Meade, and the General who led the
battle of Franklin the
Missouri Brigade went into the fight 688 strong, and had 109 killed, 242
wounded, and 96 captured, making a loss of 447. General Cockerell was wounded
three times, but not seriously. Colonel Gates was also wounded. Colonel Garland
and Major Parker, with a long list of Captains and Lieutenants, were among the
The exchange of prisoners between
our own and the rebel authorities has been resumed on James River. Colonel
Mulford, Union Exchange Commissioner, went up the river from Fortress Monroe,
January 5, with a consignment of rebel officers.
It was decided on the 7th that
the Montreal court has jurisdiction in the case of the rearrested St. Albans
raiders, and their examination will therefore be proceeded with very soon.
General Thomas has been appointed
Major-General in the regular Array, in place of John C. Fremont, resigned, to
date from December 15.
The Times correspondent, under
date of January 5, writes: "Deserters are still coming over to us in abundance
from the enemy. Thirty took the oath of allegiance two days ago, and the average
number of them amounts to three hundred weekly. They all bring the same stories,
so often repeated, of thorough lassitude in the rebel army, disgust at the war
and all belonging to it, and a readiness to come back to the Union, or any thing
to escape the grinding despotism of Davis and his satellites."
A telegram sent by General Grant
from City Point announces the death of the rebel
General Price from paralysis.
The statement was taken from the Richmond papers.
Brevet-Major-General Crook, of
the Army of West Vieginia, has been made a full Major-General of volunteers. The
Senate has confirmed the nomination of James L. Hood, of Illinois, to be Consul
at Bangkok, Siam. The steamer Potomac from New York to Portland took fire at
4.10 A.M., January 6, off Cape Elizabeth. Four lives were lost out of eighteen.
The Richmond Sentinel of January
4 has an article favoring a modification of the railroad system in South
Carolina and Georgia. This has been made necessary by the occupation of
On January 3, the United States
steamer Saginaw arrived at San Francisco with the seven rebel pirates of Hogan's
party, who were arrested on the steamer Salvador, off Panama, in November, and
whose transmission across the Isthmus was prevented by the authorities of New
During the past year there have
arrived at the port of New York 182,766 immigrants, an increase of 25,000 over
the preceding year.
The total expenses of the State
prisons for 1864 have been $371,909. These prisons contain 1802 convicts, of
whom 158 are females.
Since the beginning of the war
the State of New York has given 437,701 men to the Government.
General Bragg has issued a
congratulatory Order to his troops on their successful defense of Fort Fisher.
The bombardment on December 24 lasted five hours, on the 25th seven hours,
expending, according to Bragg's account, over twenty thousand shots, from fifty
kinds of vessels. The rebels responded with 1262 shots, counting both days. He
estimates his loss as three killed and fifty-five wounded. "The ground," he
says, in the front and rear of the fort is covered with shells, and is torn in
deep pits." Two guns in the fort burst, two were dismounted by the garrison, and
two by the fire from the fleet. The fort is uninjured.
WE have advices from France which
confirm the report that Juarez had issued letters-of-marque to Americans against
The Pope has replied to the late
rebel manifesto, and expressed himself in favor of peace.
The coiling of the new Atlantic
cable on board the Amethyst has commenced.
Charles Conti, a Corsican, has
been appointed to succeed M. Mocquard as private secretary to Louis Napoleon.
The Pope has issued a bull condemning all modern religious and political errors
having a tendency hostile to the Catholic Church, and exhorting his Bishop to
Victor Emanuel decrees the
occupation of convents in Florence for the service of the State.
December 22 Queen Isabella opened
the session of the Spanish Cortes. There has been a serious ministerial crisis,
arising out of the policy of the Spanish Government toward San Domingo and
perhaps Peru. Senor Navarez resigned, but it was found difficult to establish a
new ministry. He was recalled, and it is probable that San Domingo will be
abandoned, and a less extreme policy adopted toward Peru.