Civil War Overview
Civil War 1861
Civil War 1862
Civil War 1863
Civil War 1864
Civil War 1865
Civil War Battles
Robert E. Lee
Civil War Medicine
Civil War Links
Civil War Art
Republic of Texas
Civil War Gifts
Robert E. Lee Portrait
Page) can make it the interest of four millions of persons among ten
million enemies to be your friends rather than indifferent to you, you have
taken a very short road to defeating them. It is not the actual military aid of
the freedmen themselves, but the inevitable effect upon the mind and the army of
the rebellion, and the effect upon the great body of loyal men, the immense
majority, who wish to feel that they are not only saving their country but
slaying its enemy, which is the conclusive argument for the liberating policy.
We have not all of us always been
of this opinion. So long as it seemed to be quite certain that the insurrection
would be suppressed by the army in the field the question was inevitably
postponed. But now that the exigency demands the most stringent measures, it
We debate it and insist upon
debating it, because in this country public opinion governs, and when you have
persuaded that, you have inaugurated a policy. To refrain from the attempt to
influence public opinion for the reason that you differ from it is only to say
that you mustn't try to change it because it is not changed—which is not a wise
thing to say. Nobody wishes to go faster than the general public sentiment
approves, because in this country, where public opinion is educated and
intelligent, whoever outruns it overshoots the mark of useful action. But
meanwhile there is no duty so solemn as the enlightenment and elevation of
public opinion; and to that end a frank and full discussion is always essential.
To suppose that such questions
can be left to the "course of events," as if there were any course of events
independent of human agency, is futile. What is the course of events but a
series of actions inspired and controlled by the wishes and the will of men?
When the people of this country heartily desire a certain result the course of
events will secure that result. Your duty, meanwhile, is to try to make them
desire what you believe to be essential to their security. And you don't try so
long as you hold your tongue.
IT can not be denied that the
nation is disposed to give a fair trial to every chief military adviser whom the
President summons. When
General Scott retired and
General McClellan was called to succeed him,
there was a universal expression of confidence and satisfaction. We instantly
extolled the untried chief—untried as the leader of hundreds of thousands of
men—as if we knew him to be what Napoleon was after his long experience. It was
in vain that he modestly held his tongue, or modestly said, when a sword was
given him in Philadelphia, "I have done nothing to deserve it." Pooh, pooh! we
replied; it is useless to deny that Julius Caesar and Hannibal were charlatans
compared with you.
A year has passed, and
General Halleck is called to the chief command.
He too is received with willing confidence. There are many who think that his
order No. 3 cut him off from the surest sources of information. There are many
who wonder about
Beauregard's retreat from
Corinth. There are some who ask whether the
plan of the Western campaign must not be abandoned, and the troops which have
been so scattered concentrated at a few commanding points. But whatever the
questions and criticisms, there are probably very few persons in the country who
do not concede to him great military knowledge and a general sagacity, which is
the ablest ally of special science.
He finds a willing people, who
believe in their cause and are fully capable of maintaining it, and who ask only
that they may be led with vigor and comprehensive intelligence. No man had ever
a finer chance. The nation waits for its victory and for its regeneration. It
asks that no blood shall be considered too precious to be shed for it, that no
means shall be spared to secure it. If it feels and sees that General Halleck's
policy is of this kind, that it is neither timid nor vacillating, it will
believe that he fully understands the crisis, and will give him all the hands
and hearts he wants.
WORD WITH WORKING MEN.
THERE was recently an
extraordinary statement, that the President of the United States had sent in a
Message recommending his subordinates to employ persons of African descent as
That the President wishes, with
every honorable man in the country, that every honest, capable, industrious,
loyal person shall have plenty of work, and plenty of pay for it, we have no
doubt. But the President is eminently a man of good practical sense, and that he
has especially recommended the employment of some loyal men to the exclusion of
others, as this story implies, we have very serious doubts.
The whole weight of practical
difficulty in dealing with the slavery question as connected with the war is the
Irish jealousy of colored men. Mr. Fernando Wood and the sympathizers with
secession are constantly pulling this wire. "Yes," they say, "that's it. The
negro is to be exalted at the expense of the
Irishman"—or white man, as they more broadly put it. This is the steady talk of
some papers, while others are established for the very purpose of cherishing
But the very cardinal principle
of the Government is its impartiality. It recognizes men as men, and proposes
ultimately to treat them as such without favor to any class. No man more truly
comprehends the essential character and intent of that Government than the
President, and there must be some mistake in the report, which we hope may be
corrected before these lines are read.
Now will any reasonable man,
whether he be an Irishman or not, just consider this: that the
slaves are born in the South, and have a very
strong attachment to their native region; that there is much more room there
than here; that the climate suits them exactly; that they understand the work of
the South; that they are not in the least a migratory people; and that the only
reason why they
come North at all is that they
are kept as slaves instead of being hired as laborers at home. When they are
free there will not be a single reason why they should wish to leave the South.
While they are slaves, of course they will run away whenever they can, and will
become the direct rival of Northern laborers. When they are free they will stay
where they were born, and where they prefer to live.
A very little common sense goes a
great way in considering this question.
THE war ought to teach us all one
lesson, and that is, forbearance in criticism of leaders. We really know so very
little. Yet we all talk vehemently of plans and purposes, of successes and
failures which we do not fully understand, because we have no means of knowing
the truth. Common sense, we say, and we say truly, is as good in war as it is in
every thing else. But the remark may remain true, and yet not very closely
affect the particular point we are discussing.
Take our peninsular campaign as
an illustration. All we know is, says some zealous patriot, that a splendid army
went there superbly equipped, and that it is half gone and in deadly peril.
Common sense settles that easily enough.
Yes, so it does if it knows the
facts. If it knows whether the peninsular campaign was carried out as it was
conceived; if it knows why it was undertaken; if it knows the difficulties and
dangers of other plans, then common sense may settle it. But common sense will
certainly agree that Phocion was no fool when he advised against the battle
which was fought and won. When they reproached him he answered, "Yes, but my
counsel was correct."
Every story comes to us so
beclouded with rumors, so broadly and extravagantly stated, that it is only
common charity to wait a while until the fog lifts. A general may not be so
great as Marshal Turenne, but it does not follow, therefore, that he is an
idiot, a traitor, or a charlatan.
Our natural disappointment at
results delayed, or at positive defeat, makes us very savage upon somebody. "Off
with his head; so much for Buckingham!" is vigorous, but wonderfully unjust when
Buckingham is a faithful, skillful servant who has done his best.
HUMORS OF THE DAY.
BACHELOR'S HALL.—An architect
proposes to build a Bachelors' hall, which will differ from most houses, in
having no Eves.
The following advertisement
appeared lately in an Irish paper: "To Let—the upper part of a cellar—to a small
family, rent low. P.S. Privilege on the pavement for a pig."
A lady who had a silk gown
spoiled in being re-colored, brought an action against the establishment, and
summoned several of the workmen to give their dying testimony.
If a man bumped his head against
the top of a room, what article of stationery would he be supplied with?—Ceiling
"I can not bear children," said
Miss Prim, disdainfully. Mrs. Partington looked at her over her spectacles,
mildly, before she replied—"Perhaps if you could you would like them better."
IMPORTANT INQUIRY.—Are all the
victuals mixed together when the soldiers have a mess?
A public speaker should never
lose sight of the thread of his discourse: like a busy needle, he should always
have the thread in his eye.
The last case of indolence is
that of a man named John Hole, who was so lazy that, in signing his name, he
simply used the letter J, and then punched a hole in the paper.
HOOPS.—Woman has found her true
"sphere" at last; it is about twenty-seven feet round, made of hoops.
The man whom you saved from
drowning, and the man who never pays what he owes, you may consider as alike
indebted to you for life.
A woman may be indifferent to
courts, courtiers, and courtesy, but not to courtship.
Why are military officers the
most unlucky of men?—Because they are always in some mess or another.
Generally speaking, the beggars
most ashamed of begging are those that have to beg pardon.
A pretty female artist can draw
the men equally with a brush and a blush.
A sham-fight, like certain high
tones in vocal music, is a false-set-to.
Rob a man of his life, and you'll
be hung; rob him of his living, and you may be applauded.
Peace can do a good deal toward
making a gentleman, but war is more likely to finish him.
What fruit does a newly-married
couple mostly resemble?—A green pear.
A quaint quibbler says that the
world was first governed by canons, and then by cannons—by mitre and then by
nitre—by Saint Peter, and then by Salt Petre.
A NATURAL CONSEQUENCE.—The young
lady who took the gentleman's fancy has returned it with thanks.
The importance of spelling
correctly is seen by the following, especially the necessity of spelling lager
beer as it should be. Mr. Todd, wishing a supply of Fourth-of-July beverage,
wrote as follows:
"Messrs. Blotch & Drinker sen me
up as soon as posibal a cask of Brandy and one Large Bear for forth of juli sen
the Bear by express, in Haist.
The answer comes as follows:
"MR. TODD—Dear Sir: We send you
to-day one cask of brandy and the bear, by express, as requested. You must feed
him on raw meat, and be very careful that he does not escape, as he is very
savage. He cost $400, and we let you have him for the same. Please forward
Yours, respectfully, BLOTCH &
The consternation of Reuben Todd
was complete when the furious animal was landed at his shop door, with a
half-scared curious crowd around it, and it was only by a sacrifice of the cask
of brandy for a keeper, and a couple of trips to New York, that he got rid of
his ugly property and learned how to spell lager beer.
"Mamma, may I go a-fishing?"
"Yes, sonny, but don't go near the water. And recollect, if you're drowned I
shall skin you as sure as you are alive."
Don't confide your secrets to an
inordinate laugher—he might "split."
It is easy to live well among
good people; but show us the man who can preserve his virtues in spite of strong
temptation and universal example.
If a young woman's disposition is
gunpowder, the sparks should be kept away from her.
A young lady who was accused of
breaking a young man's heart has been bound over in the bonds of matrimony to
keep the pieces.
He who makes an idol of his
interests makes a martyr of his integrity.
INQUISITIVE QUESTIONS BY
LANDSMAN.—"Is sailors' grog kept in the port-holes?—When a ship answers her helm
what does she say ?—And does a ship's captain drive his lady round the deck in
A poor seamstress finds it hard
work to thread her way through life's wilderness.
Who is the laziest man? The
furniture dealer; because he keeps chairs and lounges about the place.
HOW TO CURE THE TOOTHACHE.—It is
said that toothache may always be cured by holding in the hand a certain
root—that of the tooth.
Why is a person who never lays a
wager as bad as a regular gambler?—Because he is no better.
An inventive Yankee has produced
an apparatus which, he says, is a cure for snoring. He fastens upon the mouth a
gutta-percha tube, leading to the tympanum of the ear. Whenever the person
snores he himself receives the first impression, finds how disagreeable it is,
and of course reforms.
James Ferguson and his wife led a
cat-and-dog life, and she is not once alluded to in the philosopher's
autobiography. About the year 1750, one evening, while he was delivering to a
London audience a lecture on astronomy, his wife entered the room in a passion,
and maliciously overturned several pieces of the apparatus, when all the notice
Ferguson took of the matter was the observation to the audience, "Ladies and
gentlemen, I have the misfortune to be married to this woman."
A person boasting of being able
to sing alto, tenor, or bass—Tom turned on his heel and said, "Yes, I know you
can sing very high, very low, and very middling."
DO YOU GIVE IT UP?
Which is the most extravagant of
all coats? A waste coat (waistcoat).
Why is a blind man like a
water-pipe? Because he is generally led (lead).
Why did the accession of Victoria
throw a greater damp over England than the death of King William? Because the
King was only mist (missed), but the Queen was raining (reigning).
My first is of illustrious line,
Of beauteous form and face
Which when my second does assail,
Both form and beauty then do
My whole's an arduous task to do,
With wives who naughty ways
Who is the greatest dandy of the
ocean? The swell of the sea.
Why does a sculptor die a
horrible death? Because he makes faces and busts (bursts).
THE NEW LEVIES OF 600,000 MEN.
THE following order, calling for
militia from the several States, has just been issued:
WASHINGTON, August 4, 1862.
Ordered, First—That a draft of
three hundred thousand militia be immediately called into the service of the
United States, to serve for nine months, unless sooner discharged. The Secretary
of War will assign the quotas to the States, and establish regulations for the
Second—That if any State shall
not by the 15th of August furnish its quota of the additional three hundred
thousand volunteers authorized by law, the deficiency of volunteers in that
State will also be made up by a special draft from the militia. The Secretary of
War will establish regulations for this purpose.
Third—Regulations will be
prepared by the War Department, and presented to the President, with the object
of securing the promotion of officers of the army and volunteers for meritorious
and distinguished services, and of preventing the nomination and appointment in
the military service of incompetent or unworthy officers. The regulations will
also provide for ridding the service of such incompetent persons as now hold
By order of THE PRESIDENT.
EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
ARMY OF THE POTOMAC.
The rebel batteries on the south
side of the
James River opened fire at midnight on 31st ult.,
upon the mail-boat landing at the head-quarters of Colonel Ingalls, at Westover,
killing four of our men and wounding five. Colonel Ingalls returned the fire
with 32-pounders, and soon silenced the enemy's guns. A few of our vessels were
struck by stray shots, but were not injured.
On 1st August General McClellan
threw 600 men across the river, who destroyed woods, houses, and every thing
which could afford shelter to the enemy. The expedition sent across the river
accomplished its purpose without the loss of a man. At last accounts our
gun-boats were shelling the houses and the entire shore, within range, down the
The army is in fine spirits.
General McClellan is busy reviewing the different corps every day. A
reconnoissance of a body of cavalry and infantry was made on 1st, down the
Chickahominy as far as
Williamsburg, when they met our pickets. None
of the enemy were seen in the course of their advance.
RECONNOISSANCE TOWARD PETERSBURG.
Our troops occupying the south
shore of the James River made a reconnoissance to within fourteen miles of
Petersburg on Sunday. At Cox's Mills, five miles back, they met the Thirteenth
Virginia Cavalry in line. Our men charged on them, when they broke and ran. They
drove them to their encampment at Sycamore church, two and a half miles further,
where they again formed, but were put to flight, leaving behind all their tents,
camp equipage, and commissary stores, which our troops gathered together and
burned. The rebels had two horses killed, six men wounded, and two taken
prisoners. Our loss was one horse killed. After scouring the country a short
distance further they returned to the river.
WHAT McCLELLAN WANTS.
General McClellan, in a letter to
Governor Washburne of Maine, dated July 15, says: "New enlistments should be
made to fill up old regiments, rather than to raise new ones. I would prefer
fifty thousand recruits for my old regiments to one hundred thousand men
organized in new regiments."
POLICY OF THE NEW COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF.
General Halleck, according to the
Washington correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette, has recently defined his
position with regard to certain matters of importance.
He stated to certain prominent
citizens of Ohio, and authorized them to make use of the statement as they
chose, that be was and had been in favor of a thorough confiscation of all the
property of rebels, slaves, etc., included. He explained that order No. 3 was
intended, in spirit, to apply to any body, blacks or whites; that his theory was
that no men not having military business with the army should be allowed to be
about it, and that it was with the sole purpose of keeping military operations
as secret as possible that the order was issued. He stated that he had issued
orders to McClellan to impress and use all the negroes he could get in any way
in which he can make them useful, and that he was to pay no attention as to
whether they were slaves or free, or whether the slaves of Union or rebel
masters. These questions belong to the civil law; but as the rebels had brought
on the war, military men had no business with and would not consider them.
ARMY OF VIRGINIA.
General Pope took the command of his army on
29th ult. Intelligence from his advance states that no enemy in force has been
discovered between Culpepper and Gordonsville; but it is supposed that strong
intrenchments are being constructed at the latter place by the rebels. Our
troops are represented to be in the highest spirits, and confident of complete
success when they shall meet the foe. The secessionists appeared to be
considerably exercised upon his arrival, but it is said are not disposed to take
the oath of allegiance. Several of them are being escorted outside our lines.
CAPTURE OF ORANGE COURT HOUSE.
Major-General Pope has pushed a
reconnoitring column as far as Orange Court House and defeated two cavalry
regiments of the enemy, under General Robertson. In his official dispatch he
describes the affair in these words: "The reconnoitring column, under General
Crawford, crossed the Rapidan and pushed forward to Orange Court House yesterday
and took possession of the town, which was occupied by two regiments of the
enemy's cavalry, under General Robertson. Eleven of the enemy were killed and
fifty-two taken prisoners; among the latter are one major, two captains, and two
lieutenants. Our loss was two killed and three wounded. The enemy retired in
such haste as to leave their wounded in our hands. The railroad and telegraph
line between Orange Court House and Gordonsville were destroyed."
THE REBELS EVACUATING RICHMOND?
Intelligence from General Pope's
head-quarters, partially confirmed by reports prevalent and believed in
Washington, states that the rebels are really
evacuating Richmond and taking up their position on the south bank of the James
River. The cause of the movement is said to be the appearance of a pestilence at
UNSUCCESSFUL ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE THE "ARKANSAS."
A special dispatch from
Vicksburg, on the 23d, recounts the gallant but
unsuccessful attempt to capture the rebel ram Arkansas. It appears that,
according to agreement between Commodores Davis and
Farragut, the fleet from below was to engage
the lower batteries, and the fleet above would engage the upper ones, while the
gun-boats Essex and Queen were in the mean time to attack the Arkansas and tow
her out. In consequence of a misunderstanding only a few shells were fired from
the mortars below, and had no other effect than to divert the fire from the
Essex, which attempted to run into the Arkansas and jam her against the levee,
but the latter swung round and the Essex grazed her side. As she passed she gave
the rebel craft three eleven-inch shot from her bow guns. Upon finding herself
unsupported she dropped down the river. The Queen, coming to her aid, ran into
the Arkansas, making her tremble from stem to stern. Recovering herself, the
Queen ran on her again, but so forcibly as to strain her own works badly. Both
boats then returned up the river.
REBEL CRAFT ON THE YAZOO.
From Vicksburg it is reported
that the steamer Star of the West, captured some time ago off
Galveston by the
rebels, is up the Yazoo River, and armed with twenty-two guns. She is
iron-plated to a considerable extent. The W. H. Webb, a powerful ocean tow-boat,
is also up that river, and has been plated something in the style of the Sumter.
She is constructed as a ram. In addition to these the Mobile and thirty other
steamers are said to be up there. The
Star of the West and the Webb came up from New
Orleans when that city was captured, bringing, among other rebel plunder, 108
guns. At Liverpool, sixty-five miles up the river, the rebels have an
ingeniously contrived raft, which is a perfect lock against ascending boats.
They have also a powerful battery on shore at that point.
CAPTURE OF A VALUABLE PRIZE.
On the 31st the United State,
gun-boat Magnolia made the British steamship Memphis, Captain Cruikshank, from
Charleston, South Carolina, bound to Europe
with a cargo of cotton, she having run the blockade on the evening of July 27,
and put a prize crew on board, and accompanied her to this port. The Memphis is
a fine propeller of about 800 tons burden. Her cargo consists of 1575 bales of
Sea-Island cotton, worth half a million dollars.
REBEL VIEW OF THE BATTLES BEFORE RICHMOND.
A refugee from
Richmond states that it was asserted in the
Richmond Examiner office in his presence that "General
Lee had 220,000 men in the late battles, and 40,000 in Richmond as a
reserve. Even the rebels accorded to McClellan the greatest praise for his
masterly retreat. On the 2d of July the Examiner announced that that he was
surrounded, driven into a swamp, and his stores, ammunition, artillery, and
wagons captured. Jackson, it was said, was in his rear, Huger on his left, Hill
and Longstreet on his front, and Magruder on his right, and the next day it was
confidently expected he would be escorted through the streets in a cage. Next
day, however, the tune had changed, and the Examiner began its display head to
the news with this line—"The bird has flown." The rebels were out-generaled, and
McClellan all right.
OF REBEL BELLS IN BOSTON.
Four hundred and eighteen rebel
church bells, which had been sent to
New Orleans in response to the call of General
Beauregard, and captured in that city, were gold in Boston on the 30th ult. They
weighed together upward of one hundred thousand pounds, and brought about
twenty-four thousand dollars.
REBEL PRISONERS TAKING THE OATH.
It is stated that between four
and five hundred of the rebel prisoners confined in Fort Delaware have
voluntarily taken the oath of allegiance. The
Louisiana Tigers were the most anxious to
return to their loyalty.
THE MOTION FOR RECOGNITION.
AN important debate in the
British House of Commons took place on the 18th, on the question of mediation in
America. Mr. Lindsay made the motion for mediation, but after a very full
discussion, in which Gregory and Whiteside took part on behalf of the rebels,
and Mr. Forster and others on the part of the North, Lord Palmerston overwhelmed
him in a very thorough and statesmanlike speech, and he withdrew his motion.
A canard, purporting to have come
by the Glasgow, announcing the utter defeat of General M'Clellan, and the
probable capitulation of his army, had been circulated in London on the day of
the debate, and was generally credited.
THE BRITISH PROVINCES.
A NEWSPAPER-OFFICE MOBBED.
The office of the St. Croix
Herald, published at St. Stephens, New Brunswick, was mobbed on Monday night,
and the materials in it almost entirely destroyed, because the paper has
advocated the Union cause.