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Robert E. Lee Portrait
Page) It occupies the rooms which were the committee-rooms of
Congress in the days when there was republican simplicity in
the Capitol, and before we had borrowed, for
the decoration of our public halls and passages, the gay arabesques of the
Golden House of Nero, and the light dancers of Pompeii. Down the chief staircase
which our historic men descended, there were planks laid, and barrels of flour
were rolling from the storehouse above. Turning off into a side-passage, full of
the delicious odor of newly-baked bread, we entered a small vaulted room. There
were two huge ovens in it, each baking two hundred loaves. The door was opened,
and we looked in upon the murky, hot, fragrant spectacle. Opposite the ovens,
against the wall, were the huge troughs full of "sponge," or flour ready for
baking, looking already good enough to eat. The bakers, in their paper caps,
were busily at work, looking up at us as we moved about. This was the room in
which John Quincy Adams lay in state after his death.
The next was like it. There were
the ovens, and the troughs, and the busy bakers, and every where the sweet smell
and the high piles of bread. There are fourteen ovens, that bake two hundred
loaves apiece. Six or seven ovens, that bake eight hundred apiece. They use two
hundred and fifty barrels of flour daily ; nineteen hundred gallons of yeast ;
and fifty thousand loaves of bread are daily baked. They are turned out usually
in sheets of fifteen loaves, and each loaf is a ration of bread, weighing, I
think, twelve ounces. In one of the delivery rooms we saw three thousand loaves,
rations for three regiments. An army wagon was before the window, and the agent
was passing out the supply. In another room half a dozen men were making the
yeast, mashing and mixing in smoking barrels. Here, as every where, there was
the utmost cleanliness, activity, and quiet. And the bread, the result of all
this labor, is so good and palatable that you can not help wishing that the work
and the results, in every Department of the Government, might be modeled upon
those of the Capitol Bakery.
The ovens that bake the eight
hundred loaves at once are upon the outside of the building, under the great
steps. To look in upon them, and see the rounded tops of the loaves, is like
looking at a Hottentot kraal or village with its mounded huts. And all the
persons connected with the Bakery whom we saw were so willing and intelligent,
that again we said, as we turned out from the Capitol to the wide panorama
before it, and all the public buildings: "Why, too, might not all the officers
and agents of each department, as well as the work and the results, be modeled
upon those of the Capitol Bakery?"
A WORD FOR JUSTICE.
EVEN those who believe
General Fremont to be incompetent do not think
that he has been fairly treated. A case of asphyxia was intended. He was to be
smothered. He had been recalled from Missouri, and came to New Yolk. There he
remained until the Committee upon the Conduct of the War summoned him to
Washington. He went and gave his testimony. It
was not published, and the Committee were understood to think it inexpedient to
report. Meanwhile a Major-General of the United States Army, recalled under a
cloud of injurious rumors, holding his tongue with a resolution that no American
citizen has even emulated, remains without orders, the object of obloquy, until
at length the impression is forced upon the public mind that he is so utterly
incapable that the authorities, from regard to him and to his previous position,
are unwilling to expose him, and so suffer him to disappear from our history in
When the late Secretary Cameron
and Adjutant-General Thomas returned from the West, the latter published the
indictment against General Fremont, while that officer was still in command of
his department. The then Secretary of War assumed the responsibility of the
publication. The removal of General Fremont followed. He has now made his
defense, and the Committee are believed to think it inexpedient to publish it.
There are, therefore, but three courses for the General to pursue: He may remain
absolutely silent, leaving a blasted name to his country and his children, he
may publish his statement; or he may call a Court of Inquiry.
The first course no honorable man
could demand of him. The third is attended with serious inconveniences and
delays at a moment when time is invaluable. The second is the course which he
owes to his friends and to himself. It makes the people his jury. He throws
himself literally upon his country. And the statement may, it must, be made
calmly. It must be made, not as the manifest of any discontented faction, but
simply as his own justification. There he may leave it. Then, if he receives no
orders, he may retire quietly to Mariposa, conscious that his duty is done ;
that his country may now see whether or not he served her wisely so long as he
served at all ; and resolved that no wrong of his own, if wrong there be, shall
result in injury to his country.
Every fair, frank man will see
the justice of this course. If, indeed, a trial could be had at once, it would
be better, as seeming to be more impartial, that his defense should be submitted
to a Court. But the most important witnesses could not leave their duty to
appear, and his case might not come to trial until the war were well over.
General Thomas, with the consent of Secretary Cameron, accused General Fremont
before the country. Why should he not reply to the country?
THE youth of this nation shows
itself in nothing more than in its ready faith. And it is a most cheering and
hopeful sign , for a cold, critical, skeptical people is always in danger.
The latest illustration of our
ready faith is our enthusiastic adhesion to the new
Secretary of War.
Suddenly Secretary Cameron was
Mr. Edwin M. Stanton was called to his place. "Mr. Stanton! Mr.
Stanton!" exclaims the public, "who on earth is Mr. Stanton? What is he? What is
he likely to do?" The reply came that he had been Mr. Buchanan's last
Attorney-General, and that he was a good Union man, and that "things would now
go ahead!" "Things will go ahead, will they?" cried the dear old public; "hurrah
for Stanton!" And there is the profoundest popular conviction that we have at
last the right man in the right place.
There is the same unquestioning
General McClellan. He modestly says that he has yet to win his laurels,
but we insist upon piling whole forests upon his head. Comparatively unknown
until the war began, there was a sudden series of rushing victories in Western
Virginia—skirmishes, indeed, but successful ; and when
General McDowell, in whom
we had the fullest faith, was unfortunate at
Bull Run, who but General McClellan
could fill his place? Then when
General Scott, who doubtless saved us last
March, and in whom we had the fullest faith, retired, who but General McClellan
could be commander-in-chief?
It is a hopeful, happy sign, for
it shows the elasticity of the popular mind. How curious the experience at Bull
Run was! Up to that day it was the universal conviction that General Scott knew
every thing the enemy did or meant to do; that he would not move until he was
ready, and would then move to overwhelming victory. That was the explanation of
the general confidence and exultation when the "grande armee" advanced toward
Manassas. It was "a sure thing," as the news-boys say. For that reason also the
revulsion consequent upon the defeat was so terrible. General Scott was
practically deserted as a leader; but the popular faith remained, if only an
object could be found, and it poured itself as lavishly upon his successor as it
had upon himself.
That faith is the spring of hope
for the future. If this man does not answer, why, that man is the very one. If
he fails, why, this other is the man we have been looking for. It shows an
indomitable spirit. It shows that every man will have the fairest trial before
the people. Even General Fremont, who seems the victim of unfair treatment,
could not charge it upon the people of the country. They are ready to do him the
justice that they mete to all others. And even if their judgment is adverse, the
past shows that we are not Carthaginians. We do not slay our generals because
they are unfortunate.
HUMORS OF THE DAY.
SAWNEY AND HIS LAWYER.- In a
Scotch town lately, a man from the country applied to a respectable lawyer for
advice. After detailing the circumstances of the case, he was asked if he had
stated the facts exactly as they occurred. ''Ou ay, Sir," rejoined the
applicant; "I thocht it best to tell you the plain truth; you can pit the lies
A gentleman passing by country
church while under repair, observed to one of the workmen that he thought it
would be an expensive job. "Yes, Sir," he replied; "and I think we shall
accomplish what our worthy minister has so long vainly tried ; that is, to bring
the whole parish to repentance."
" My brudders," said a waggish
darkey to a crowd, "in all affliction, in all ob your trubbles, der is one place
you can always find sympathy." "Whar? Whar?" shouted several of his auditors.
"In de dictionary !" he replied, rolling his eyes skyward.
A TOAST.—At an agricultural
dinner the following toast was given: " The game of fortune—shuffle the cards as
you will, spades will always win."
"My dear boy," said a country
schoolmaster to a promising scholar, whose quarter was up, "does your father
design that you should tread the intricate and thorny path of a profession, the
strait and narrow way of the ministry, or revel amidst the flowery fields of
literature?" "No, Zur," replied the prodigy; "dad says he's going to set me to
work in the tatur patch."
A squad of Indiana volunteers out
scouting came across a female in a log-cabin in the mountains. After the usual
salutations one of them asked her : "Well, old lady, are you a secessionist?"
"No," was her answer. "Are you Unionist?" "No." "What are you, then?" " A
Baptist, and always have been."
The following is a copy of the
list of questions proposed for discussion in a debating club out West : "Subjecks
of diskusion. Is dansin' moralle rong ? Is the reedin' of fictishus wurks
commendible? Is it necessary that femails shud receive a thurry literary
educashun? Ort femails to taik parts in polytix ? Duz dress constitute the moril
parts of wimin?"
Mr. Rock, the comedian, once
advised a scene-shifter to get a subscription on receiving an accident. A few
days after he desired the man to show him the list of names, which he read and
returned to the poor fellow, who, with some surprise, said, "Why, Mr. Rock,
won't you give me something?" "Is it me you mean?" said Rock; "why, zounds, man,
didn't I give you the hint?"
There is a self-will that would
break a world to pieces to make a stool to sit on.
Those only are fit for solitude
who like nobody, are like nobody, and are liked by nobody.
A lunatic in an asylum was
informed by his brother that considerable property had fallen to the family, and
asked what disposition should be made of his portion. "You let me out, and I'll
take care of it," was the reply.
LITTLE Boy. "What's the use of an
eclipse?" ASTRONOMER. "Oh, it gives the sun time for reflection."
ON Tuesday, January 28, in the
Senate, a petition in favor of the restoration of the warehousing system was
presented by Senator Harris. A petition from citizens of Illinois, asking
Congress not to
abolish Slavery in the District of Columbia, and asking for the
expulsion of members who advocate it, was presented by Senator Saulsbury. The
petition also asks that the title of General be taken from General Fremont, and
that his frauds in the Western Department be exposed. A resolution was offered
by Senator Foster, of Connecticut, and adopted, asking the Secretary of the
Treasury whether any further legislation is necessary in order to take charge of
the cotton and other lands of South Carolina, now in possession of the
Government, and to place them under cultivation, and also in relation to the
blacks in these localities. A bill to define the pay and emoluments of certain
officers of the army was introduced
by Senator Wilson, and referred.
A bill to provide for the revision and consolidation of the statutes of the
United States, was introduced by Senator Sumner, and referred. The bill to
authorize the President to take possession of certain railroads and telegraph
lines, was taken up and debated at considerable length.– In the House,
consideration of the Executive, Judicial, and Legislative Appropriation bill was
resumed in Committee of the Whole, but after some debate was laid aside for the
special order —the bill to authorize the issue of United States Treasury Notes,
and for the redemption and funding thereof, and for the funding of the floating
debt of the United States. Mr. Spaulding, of New York, addressed the House in
explanation of the provisions and objects of the bill. A bill to establish a
uniform system of bankruptcy throughout the United States was introduced by
Roscoe Conkling, of New York, and referred to the Special Committee on that
On Wednesday, 29th, in the
Senate, Mr. John B. Henderson, appointed Senator from Missouri, in place of the
rebel Trusten Polk, was qualified and took his seat. The resolution relative to
breaking up the line-of-battle
ships Alabama and Virginia was referred. The
joint resolution amending the rules so as to allow secret sessions of either
House on subjects pertaining to the suppression of the rebellion was passed. The
consideration of the resolution regarding the expulsion of Senator Bright, of
Indiana, was then resumed, and a lively debate ensued, which continued until the
Senate went into executive session.—In the House, the bill making the usual
appropriations for the executive, legislative, and judicial expenses of the
Government was passed, with an amendment that nothing in the act shall prevent
hereafter a reduction of salaries, and that mileage shall be allowed to
Congressmen for each regular session only. The Senate bill authorizing the
President to take possession of railroads and telegraph lines in certain cases
was passed by a vote of 113 against 28. In Committee of the Whole the Demand
Treasury Note bill was called up, and Mr. Pendleton, of Ohio, made a speech on
the subject. At the conclusion of his remarks the Army bill was taken up, and
Mr. Gurley, of Ohio, delivered a speech, urging a forward movement of the Union
On Thursday, 30th, in the Senate,
petitions in favor of a general bankrupt law, and in relation to
were presented and referred. Resolutions were adopted directing inquiry as to
the expediency of requiring shipmasters sailing to foreign ports to take the
oath of allegiance. The Military Committee were directed to inquire into the
management of the army hospitals, and report what legislation is necessary to
correct any abuses existing therein. A bill providing for the construction of a
military railroad from Kentucky to Tennessee was reported. The consideration of
the resolution regarding the expulsion of Senator Bright was renewed, and
Senators Howe and Wilmot spoke on the subject.—In the House, the bill to pay the
expenses incurred by States in enrolling, fitting out, and transporting troops
was laid on the table by a vote of 83 to 42. The consideration of the Treasury
Note bill was postponed. In Committee of the Whole, Mr. Cox, of Ohio, replied to
the remarks of Mr. Gurley upon the conduct of the war, answering the general
charges of the latter against General M'Clellan. The House then passed the Army
Appropriation bill, as originally reported, and adjourned.
On Friday, 31st, in the Senate,
the bill striking the names of rebels from the pension roll was passed. The bill
prohibiting American citizens from engaging in the Coolie traffic was passed.
The report of the Conference Committee on the Consular and Diplomatic
Appropriation bill was accepted, and the bill passed. The joint resolution
appropriating thirty-five thousand dollars for the conveyance of articles for
exhibition at the London World's Fair was discussed, and rejected by a vote of
17 yeas against 22 nays. The consideration of the resolution relative to the
expulsion of Senator Bright was then resumed, and Senators Johnson, Foster, and
Kennedy made speeches on the subject.-In the House, the consideration of the
Treasury Note bill was postponed. The Indian and Post-office Appropriation bills
were reported and referred, and the Consular and Diplomatic Appropriation bill
passed. The Committee on Commerce were directed to inquire as to the expediency
of prohibiting the exportation of oak timber. The Committee on Military Affairs
were instructed to inquire into the expediency of placing contracts for army and
navy supplies, including arms, under the rule and government of military law, or
the rules and articles for the government of the navy, with power to punish for
fraud and infidelity. In Committee of the Whole, Mr. Kelly, of Pennsylvania,
delivered a speech complaining of the tardy manner in which the war is
On Monday, February 3, in the
Senate, a petition was presented from citizens of New York asking that Congress
take speedy measures to repeal the so-called Reciprocity Treaty between Canada
and the United States; and Senator Chandler offered a resolution, which was laid
over under the rules, that the Committee on Commerce inquire into the expediency
of immediately notifying Great Britain that the Reciprocity Treaty is not
reciprocal, and that it be terminated at the earliest possible moment. Senator
Chandler presented resolutions from the Legislature of Michigan reaffirming
loyalty to the Government and hatred of traitors, and asking the Government to
speedily put down the insurrection; also favoring the confiscation of the
property of the rebels; and asking that, as slavery is the cause of the war, it
be swept from the land. Senator Harris presented resolutions from the
Legislature of New York asking a modification of the law for raising revenue, so
that any amount may be raised by any State by any mode of taxation except duties
on imports; that each State be allowed to assume the amount of tax, and assess
for the payment and collect the same according to its own laws and by its own
officers. Referred. The Senate held an executive session, and afterward
adjourned.—In the House, Mr. Lovejoy offered a resolution directing the
Committee on the Conduct of the War to inquire and report concerning the
statement that five Illinois regiments laid down their arms in token of their
refusal to assist in carrying on the war on the platform of the abolitionists.
The bill making an appropriation for completing the defenses of Washington was
then taken up, and the Senate's amendment thereto, providing for the disbandment
of volunteer corps termed Home Guards, gave rise to a warm discussion relative
to the border States, and finally the amendment was rejected by a vote of 55
against 86. The consideration of the Treasury Note bill was then resumed, and
Mr. Vallandigham, of Ohio, and Mr. Hooper, of Massachusetts, made speeches on
THE LATEST FROM HATTERAS.
Ericsson, on her way
from Key West, arrived at
Fortress Monroe on Friday evening, bringing in tow the
John Trucks with the d'Epineuil Zouaves (Fifty-third New York) on board. She
found the Trucks at sea disabled, and the men suffering from a short allowance
of biscuits and water, and, at their request, helped them along to Fortress
Monroe. The report from the Burnside expedition, at Hatteras, is, that the fleet
was about to start for its destination. Most of the vessels had gone in the
direction of Roanoke Island. A great panic is said to exist in
Richmond in regard to the expedition.
BURNSIDE AT WORK.
By the arrival of the United
States bark Gemsbok, at Fortress Monroe, from the Southern coast on Sunday, we
learn that heavy cannonading was heard in the direction of Beaufort or Newbern,
North Caroline, on the 28th ult.. and that at nine o'clock on the morning of the
30th firing was heard in the vicinity of Roanoke Island. The inference among the
officers at Fortress Monroe was that the Burnside fleet was making an attack at
two points, the vessels probably having divided into two parties—one proceeding
up to Core Sound to attack Fort Macon, at Beaufort, and the other up the Neuse
River to make a landing of our troops there. It this theory be correct the
Burnside expedition has begun its work in earnest.
It appears by dispatches received by the Richmond papers from Savannah, that
the naval expedition from
Port Royal, under
Commodore Dupont and General
Sherman, has succeeded in getting to the rear of Fort Pulaski by going round
Tybee Island, and has thus cut off all connection between the fort and
the city of Savannah. In some of their dispatches thirteen of our vessels are
reported to have got behind Fort Pulaski, while others state that six of our
vessels have got to the north end of Wilmington Island, which they shelled in
passing. Commodore Tatnall's rebel fleet was said to be at Thunderbolt when the
Union vessels made their
appearance, but they immediately pushed on to Savannah.
By later dispatches from Savannah
it appears that a fleet of small vessels laden with provisions, and commanded by
the rebel Commodore Tatnall, was on its way to supply Fort Pulaski when our
fleet opened fire on them, and after an engagement of only forty minutes the
rebel vessels were beaten and returned toward Savannah.
MOVEMENTS IN MISSOURI.
Notwithstanding the inclemency of
the weather, the swollen streams and bad condition of the roads, our troops in
Missouri are making some progress in their advance movements. General Davis is
moving toward Lebanon to join
General Curtis, having arrived as far as
Versailles, Morgan County; General Siegel has left Rolla for the same point,
General Prentiss is also en route for that place. The rebel
remains still at Springfield, where another terrible battle is expected to take
place, unless Price withdraws before the combined divisions of the
Generals reach there,
AFTER THE "SUMTER."
The Government is actively
engaged in forwarding projects for the capture of the rebel privateer Sumter,
which has just been compelled by the Spanish Government to leave Cadiz, and has
gone for protection to Gibraltar. Four steamers and three sailing vessels are
now put on her track, and the Constellation is fitting out at Portsmouth, New
Hampshire, for the same duty. The career of this mischievous pirate will,
therefore, probably be very soon brought to a close.
PRISONERS OF WAR.
In pursuance of the orders of the
State Department respecting the privateersmen, the United States Marshal has
removed Captain Baker and nineteen of the crew of the
privateer Savannah from
the City Prison to Fort Lafayette. Under the same order ten of the crews of the
privateers Sumter, Florida, and Dixie, were sent to the same destination, all,
under the recent instructions of the Government, being treated as prisoners of
The Day Book of the 30th ult. has
a long editorial appeal in behalf of the people of
Hampton. It says: We are
pained to learn that the Hampton soldiers are still suffering for want of many
essential articles of comfort, and they not only suffer in body but in mind, and
their families suffering privations which none of them had ever seen endured by
their slaves. The Day Book appeals to Virginians to come forward in this time of
need, and supply the suffering rebels with those articles they now as
The quartette of traitors, the
Toombs, and Crawford, have recently published an address to the
people of Georgia, in which they enumerate the progress of the rebellion, and
the share which they have contributed to the iniquitous work. They say: "Our
enemy has exhibited an energy, a perseverance, and an amount of resources which
we had hardly expected for our destruction, and raised an army which is being
disciplined to the unthinking stolidity of regulars. The attempt will be made in
early spring to crush us with a giant's grasp by is simultaneous movement along
our borders." They think, "with whatever alacrity our people may rush to arms,
and with whatever energy our Government may use its resources, we can not expect
to cope with our enemy either in numbers, equipments, or munitions of war. To
provide against these odds we must look to desperate courage, unflinching
daring, and universal self-sacrifice." They recommend "rapid aggressive action,
and make our enemies feel, at their own firesides, the horrors of a war brought
on by themselves." They close their address by calling upon Providence to help
along their evil work. They admit, at the same time, that the prospect of
foreign recognition of the Southern Confederacy is a remote one.
General Halleck has seized
Ex-Governor Claiborne F. Jackson's hemp plantation in Saline County, Missouri,
Ex-Senator Fish and Bishop Ames,
the Commissioners appointed by
Mr. Stanton to visit our prisoners at the South,
have completed their arrangements and have started their mission.
THE REPLY TO THE SURRENDER.
LORD RUSSEL has sent a dispatch
to Lord Lyons on the
Trent affair, in which he says:
"Her Majesty's Government having
carefully taken into their consideration the liberation of the prisoners, the
delivery of them into your hands, and the explanations to which I have just
referred, have arrived at the conclusion that they constitute the reparation
which her Majesty and the British nation had a right to expect.
"It gives her Majesty's
Government great satisfaction to be enabled to arrive at a conclusion favorable
to the maintenance of the most friendly relations between the two nations. I
need not discuss the modifications in my statement of facts which
says he has derived from the reports of officers of his Government.
"I can not conclude, however,
without adverting shortly to the discussions which Mr. Seward has raised upon
points not prominently brought into question in my dispatch of the 30th of
November. I there objected, on the part of her Majesty's Government, to that
Captain Wilkes had done. Mr. Seward, in his answer, points out what he
conceives Captain Wilkes might have done without violating the law of nations.
"It is not necessary that I
should here discuss in detail the five questions ably argued by the Secretary of
State, but it is necessary that I should say that her Majesty's Government
differ from Mr. Seward in some of the conclusions at which he has arrived. And
it may lead to a better understanding between the two nations on several points
of international law which may during the present contest or at some future time
be brought into question, that I should state to you, for communication to the
Secretary of State, wherein those differences consist. I hope to do so in a few
"In the mean time it will be
desirable that the commanders of the United States cruisers should be instructed
not to repeat acts for which the British Government will have to ask for
redress, and which the United States Government can not undertake to justify."
A SPEECH BY MR. GLADSTONE.
Mr. Gladstone, the Chancellor of
the Exchequer, has made a speech on American affairs, in which he seems very
anxious to allay the war fever which had been so industriously propagated over
the country just immediately before. The Chancellor denies that England was ever
jealous of our commercial progress, and alludes in terms of thanks to the
splendid reception accorded to the Prince of Wales when in this country. He also
hinted very plainly at the immense expenditure which had been incurred; by
England's war movement toward North America.
MORE MILITARY PREPARATIONS.
England is progressing with her
preparations for an immense naval and military display in North America. Twelve
hundred tons of shell and shot were shipped at Woolwich, on the 17th ult., for
Canada, and a number of transports were lying off in order to take a like
freight on board. Orders had been given for the manufacture of two millions of
Minie bullets weekly at Woolwich, to go on until countermanded. Admiral Sir R.
Dacres, in the frigate Edgar, is to join Admiral Milne at Hailfax.
RECEPTION OF MASON AND SLIDELL.
Liverpool is placarded with
papers calling on the people not to accord any public reception to
Slidell. The presence of Slidell was anxiously looked for in Paris, while the
London Herald, the organ of the Opposition, attempts a defense of the public
character and conduct of both the envoys, in order to render them acceptable to
the people of the two countries.